Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 66
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Buffarini, Romina Muniz, Ludmila C Barros, Aluísio JD Araújo, Cora L Gonçalves, Helen Menezes, Ana MB and Assunção, Maria CF 2016. Stability and change in fruit and vegetable intake of Brazilian adolescents over a 3-year period: 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort. Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 19, Issue. 03, p. 386.

    Cullen, Karen W. Liu, Yan and Thompson, Debbe I. 2016. Meal-Specific Dietary Changes From Squires Quest! II: A Serious Video Game Intervention. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, Vol. 48, Issue. 5, p. 326.

    Ladapo, Joseph A. Bogart, Laura M. Klein, David J. Cowgill, Burton O. Uyeda, Kimberly Binkle, David G. Stevens, Elizabeth R. and Schuster, Mark A. 2016. Cost and Cost-Effectiveness of Students for Nutrition and eXercise (SNaX). Academic Pediatrics, Vol. 16, Issue. 3, p. 247.

    Murer, Stefanie B. Saarsalu, Siret Zimmermann, Jasmin and Herter-Aeberli, Isabelle 2016. Risk factors for overweight and obesity in Swiss primary school children: results from a representative national survey. European Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 55, Issue. 2, p. 621.

    Nour, Monica Chen, Juliana and Allman-Farinelli, Margaret 2016. Efficacy and External Validity of Electronic and Mobile Phone-Based Interventions Promoting Vegetable Intake in Young Adults: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of Medical Internet Research, Vol. 18, Issue. 4, p. e58.

    Ong, Jia Xin Ullah, Shahid Magarey, Anthea and Leslie, Eva 2016. Positive influences of home food environment on primary-school children’s diet and weight status: a structural equation model approach. Public Health Nutrition, p. 1.

    Appannah, G. Pot, G.K. Huang, R.C. Oddy, W.H. Beilin, L.J. Mori, T.A. Jebb, S.A. and Ambrosini, G.L. 2015. Identification of a dietary pattern associated with greater cardiometabolic risk in adolescence. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Vol. 25, Issue. 7, p. 643.

    de Souza, M C Eisenmann, J C e Santos, D V de Chaves, R N de Moraes Forjaz, C L and Maia, J A R 2015. Modeling the dynamics of BMI changes during adolescence. The Oporto Growth, Health and Performance Study. International Journal of Obesity, Vol. 39, Issue. 7, p. 1063.

    Deforche, Benedicte Van Dyck, Delfien Deliens, Tom and De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse 2015. Changes in weight, physical activity, sedentary behaviour and dietary intake during the transition to higher education: a prospective study. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, Vol. 12, Issue. 1, p. 16.

    Fenton, Keenan Rosen, Nila J. Wakimoto, Patricia Patterson, Tracey Goldstein, Lauren H. and Ritchie, Lorrene D. 2015. Eat Lunch First or Play First? Inconsistent Associations with Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in Elementary School. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Vol. 115, Issue. 4, p. 585.

    Johnston Molloy, Charlotte Kearney, John Hayes, Nóirín Glennon Slattery, Corina and Corish, Clare 2015. Pre-school manager training: a cost-effective tool to promote nutrition- and health-related practice improvements in the Irish full-day-care pre-school setting. Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 18, Issue. 09, p. 1554.

    Kamiya, Saori Kakutani, Yuya and Omi, Naomi 2015. Relationship between subjective evaluation of acquiring information on own dietary habits and the food group intakes. Journal for the Integrated Study of Dietary Habits, Vol. 25, Issue. 4, p. 241.

    Lehto, Elviira Ray, Carola te Velde, Saskia Petrova, Stefka Duleva, Vesselka Krawinkel, Michael Behrendt, Isabel Papadaki, Angeliki Kristjansdottir, Asa Thorsdottir, Inga Yngve, Agneta Lien, Nanna Lynch, Christel Ehrenblad, Bettina Vaz de Almeida, Maria Daniel Ribic, Cirila Hlastan Simčic, Irena and Roos, Eva 2015. Mediation of parental educational level on fruit and vegetable intake among schoolchildren in ten European countries. Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 18, Issue. 01, p. 89.

    Leske, Stuart Strodl, Esben Harper, Catherine Clemens, Susan and Hou, Xiang-Yu 2015. Psychological distress may affect nutrition indicators in Australian adults. Appetite, Vol. 90, p. 144.

    Lipsky, Leah M. Haynie, Denise L. Liu, Danping Chaurasia, Ashok Gee, Benjamin Li, Kaigang Iannotti, Ronald J. and Simons-Morton, Bruce 2015. Trajectories of eating behaviors in a nationally representative cohort of U.S. adolescents during the transition to young adulthood. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, Vol. 12, Issue. 1,

    Manios, Yannis Moschonis, George Androutsos, Odysseas Filippou, Christina Van Lippevelde, Wendy Vik, Froydis N te Velde, Saskia J Jan, Natasha Dössegger, Alain Bere, Elling Molnar, Denes Moreno, Luis A Chinapaw, Mai JM De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse and Brug, Johannes 2015. Family sociodemographic characteristics as correlates of children’s breakfast habits and weight status in eight European countries. The ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project. Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 18, Issue. 05, p. 774.

    Monjardino, Teresa Lucas, Raquel Ramos, Elisabete Lopes, Carla Gaio, Rita and Barros, Henrique 2015. Associations between a posteriori defined dietary patterns and bone mineral density in adolescents. European Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 54, Issue. 2, p. 273.

    Tăut, Diana Băban, Adriana Giese, Helge de Matos, Margarida Gaspar Schupp, Harald and Renner, Britta 2015. Developmental Trends in Eating Self-Regulation and Dietary Intake in Adolescents. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, Vol. 7, Issue. 1, p. 4.

    Thompson, Debbe Bhatt, Riddhi Vazquez, Isabel Cullen, Karen W Baranowski, Janice Baranowski, Tom and Liu, Yan 2015. Creating action plans in a serious video game increases and maintains child fruit-vegetable intake: a randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, Vol. 12, Issue. 1,

    Allman-Farinelli, Margaret Byron, Annette Collins, Clare Gifford, Janelle and Williams, Peter 2014. Challenges and lessons from systematic literature reviews for the Australian dietary guidelines. Australian Journal of Primary Health, Vol. 20, Issue. 3, p. 236.


Tracking of fruit and vegetable consumption from adolescence into adulthood and its longitudinal association with overweight

  • Saskia J. te Velde (a1), Jos W. R. Twisk (a2) (a3) and Johannes Brug (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 August 2007

The objective of the present study was to assess to what extent fruit and vegetable intakes track over a 24-year time period and to assess longitudinal associations between fruit and vegetable intakes and (change in) BMI and sum of skinfolds. Dietary intake and anthropometrics were repeatedly assessed for 168 men and women between the ages of 12 and 36 years. Linear general estimating equations analyses were applied (1) to estimate tracking coefficients, (2) to estimate predictability for meeting the national recommendation for fruit and vegetable intake and for being in the highest quartile for fruit and vegetable intake, and (3) to estimate the association between fruit and vegetable intake and BMI and sum of skinfolds. We found that tracking coefficients were 0·33 (P < 0·001) for fruit intake and 0·27 (P < 0·001) for vegetable intake. Mean fruit intake decreased over a 24-year period. For fruit intake, predictability was higher in men than in women (OR 6·02 (P < 0·001) and 2·33 (P = 0·001) for meeting the recommendation for men and women respectively). After adjustment, fruit intake was not associated with BMI, but being in the lowest quartile of fruit intake was significantly associated with a lower sum of skinfolds. Women in the lowest quartiles of vegetable intake had significantly higher BMI and sum of skinfolds and also greater positive changes in these parameters. In conclusion, tracking and predictability for fruit and vegetable intake appear to be low to moderate, which might indicate that fruit and vegetable promotion should be started at an early age and continued into adulthood. Despite the fact that we only observed beneficial weight-maintaining effects of vegetable intake in women, promoting vegetables is important for both sexes because of other positive properties of vegetables. No evidence was found for promoting fruit intake as a means of weight maintenance.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Tracking of fruit and vegetable consumption from adolescence into adulthood and its longitudinal association with overweight
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Tracking of fruit and vegetable consumption from adolescence into adulthood and its longitudinal association with overweight
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Tracking of fruit and vegetable consumption from adolescence into adulthood and its longitudinal association with overweight
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr Saskia te Velde, fax +31 10 4638474, email
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

MS Van Duyn & E Pivonka (2000) Overview of the health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption for the dietetics professional: selected literature. J Am Diet Assoc 100, 15111521.

BJ Rolls , JA Ello-Martin & BC Tohill (2004) What can intervention studies tell us about the relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and weight management? Nutr Rev 62, 117.

M Bes-Rastrollo , MA Martinez-Gonzalez , A Sanchez-Villegas , C de la Fuente Arrillaga & JA Martinez (2006) Association of fiber intake and fruit/vegetable consumption with weight gain in a Mediterranean population. Nutrition 22, 5045011.

A Wolf , A Yngve , I Elmadfa , (2005) Fruit and vegetable intake of mothers of 11-year-old children in nine European Countries: the Pro Children Cross-Sectional Survey. Ann Nutr Metab 49, 246254.

A Yngve , A Wolf , E Poortvliet , (2005) Fruit and vegetable intake in a sample of 11-year-old children in 9 European countries: The Pro Children Cross-Sectional Survey. Ann Nutr Metab 49, 236245.

K-I Klepp , C Pérez-Rodrigo , I De Bourdeaudhuij , (2005) Promoting fruit and vegetable consumption among European schoolchildren: rationale, conceptualization and design of the Pro Children Project. Ann Nutr Metab 49, 212220.

E Bere , MB Veierod , M Bjelland & KI Klepp (2006) Outcome and process evaluation of a Norwegian school-randomized fruit and vegetable intervention: Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM). Health Educ Res 21, 258267.

T Baranowski , KW Cullen , K Basen-Engquist , DW Wetter , S Cummings , DS Martineau , AV Prokhorov , J Chorley , B Beech & AC Hergenroeder (1997) Transitions out of high school: time of increased cancer risk? Prev Med 26, 694703.

N Lien , LA Lytle & K-I Klepp (2001) Stability in consumption of fruit, vegetables, and sugary foods in a cohort from age 14 to age 21. Prev Med 33, 217226.

SH Kelder , CL Perry , KI Klepp & LL Lytle (1994) Longitudinal tracking of adolescent smoking, physical activity, and food choice behaviors. Am J Public Health 84, 11211126.

TA Nicklas , CC Johnson , R Farris , R Rice , L Lyon & R Shi (1997) Development of a school-based nutrition intervention for high school students: Gimme 5. Am J Health Promot 11, 315322.

V Mikkila , L Rasanen , OT Raitakari , P Pietinen & J Viikari (2004) Longitudinal changes in diet from childhood into adulthood with respect to risk of cardiovascular diseases: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 10381045.

S Talvia , L Rasanen , H Lagstrom , K Pahkala , J Viikari , T Ronnemaa , M Arffman & O Simell (2006) Longitudinal trends in consumption of vegetables and fruit in Finnish children in an atherosclerosis prevention study (STRIP). Eur J Clin Nutr 60, 172180.

JWR Twisk (2003) Commentary: The problem of evaluating the magnitude of tracking coefficients. Eur J Epidemiol 18, 10251026.

JW Twisk , HC Kemper , GJ Mellenbergh & W van Mechelen (1997) A new approach to tracking of subjects at risk for hypercholesteremia over a period of 15 years: The Amsterdam Growth and Health Study. Eur J Epidemiol 13, 293300.

JW Twisk , HC Kemper , W van Mechelen & GB Post (1997) Tracking of risk factors for coronary heart disease over a 14-year period: a comparison between lifestyle and biologic risk factors with data from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Study. Am J Epidemiol 145, 888898.

GB Post , W de Vente , HC Kemper & JW Twisk (2001) Longitudinal trends in and tracking of energy and nutrient intake over 20 years in a Dutch cohort of men and women between 13 and 33 years of age: the Amsterdam growth and health longitudinal study. Br J Nutr 85, 375385.

HCG Kemper & MA van't Hof (1978) Design of a multiple longitudinal study of growth and health in teenagers. Eur J Pediatr 129, 147155.

HCG Kemper , W van Mechelen , GB Post , J Snel , JWR Twisk , FJ van Lenthe & DC Welten (1997) The Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study. The past (1976–1996) and the future (1997-?). Int J Sports Med 18, Suppl. 3, S140S150.

JW Marr (1971) Individual dietary surveys: purposes and methods. World Rev Nutr Diet 13, 105164.

I Bakker , JWR Twisk , W van Mechelen , GBM Mensink & HCG Kemper (2003) Computerization of a dietary history interview in a running cohort. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, 394404.

CM Bernaards , JW Twisk , J Snel , W Van Mechelen & HC Kemper (2001) Is calculating pack-years retrospectively a valid method to estimate life-time tobacco smoking? A comparison between prospectively calculated pack-years and retrospectively calculated pack-years. Addiction 96, 16531661.

JWR Twisk , HCG Kemper & W van Mechelen (2000) Tracking of activity and fitness and the relationship with cardiovascular disease risk factors. Med Sci Sports Exerc 32, 14551461.

AA Lake , AJ Rugg-Gunn , RM Hyland , CE Wood , JC Mathers & AJ Adamson (2004) Longitudinal dietary change from adolescence to adulthood: perceptions, attributions and evidence. Appetite 42, 255263.

K He , FB Hu , GA Colditz , JE Manson , WC Willett & S Liu (2004) Changes in intake of fruits and vegetables in relation to risk of obesity and weight gain among middle-aged women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 28, 15691574.

MA Pereira & DS Ludwig (2001) Dietary fiber and body-weight regulation. Observations and mechanisms. Pediatr Clin North Am 48, 969980.

M Maynard , D Gunnell , P Emmett , S Frankel & G Davey Smith (2003) Fruit, vegetables, and antioxidants in childhood and risk of adult cancer: the Boyd Orr cohort. J Epidemiol Community Health 57, 218225.

SA French & G Stables (2003) Environmental interventions to promote vegetable and fruit consumption among youth in school settings. Prev Med 37, 593610.

C Knai , J Pomerleau , K Lock & M McKee (2006) Getting children to eat more fruit and vegetables: a systematic review. Prev Med 42, 8595.

SPJ Kremers , TLS Visscher , J Brug , (2005) Netherlands research programme weight gain prevention (NHF-NRG): rationale, objectives and strategies. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 498507.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *