1 Backhed, F, Manchester, JK, Semenkovich, CF, et al. (2007) Mechanisms underlying the resistance to diet-induced obesity in germ-free mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104, 979–984.
2 Rabot, S, Membrez, M, Bruneau, A, et al. (2010) Germ-free C57BL/6J mice are resistant to high-fat-diet-induced insulin resistance and have altered cholesterol metabolism. FASEB J 24, 4948–4959.
3 Bogunovic, M, Dave, SH, Tilstra, JS, et al. (2007) Enteroendocrine cells express functional Toll-like receptors. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 292, G1770–G1783.
4 Cario, E, Rosenberg, IM, Brandwein, SL, et al. (2000) Lipopolysaccharide activates distinct signaling pathways in intestinal epithelial cell lines expressing Toll-like receptors. J Immunol 164, 966–972.
5 Samuel, BS, Shaito, A, Motoike, T, et al. (2008) Effects of the gut microbiota on host adiposity are modulated by the short-chain fatty-acid binding G protein-coupled receptor. Gpr41. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105, 16767–16772.
6 Arantes, RM & Nogueira, AM (2001) Increased intracellular content of enteroglucagon in proximal colon is related to intestinal adaptation to germ-free status. Cell Tissue Res 303, 447–450.
7 Arantes, RM & Nogueira, AM (1997) Distribution of enteroglucagon- and peptide YY-immunoreactive cells in the intestinal mucosa of germ-free and conventional mice. Cell Tissue Res 290, 61–69.
8 Goodlad, RA, Ratcliffe, B, Fordham, JP, et al. (1989) Plasma enteroglucagon, gastrin and peptide YY in conventional and germ-free rats refed with a fibre-free or fibre-supplemented diet. Q J Exp Physiol 74, 437–442.
9 Reddy, BS, Pleasants, JR & Wostmann, BS (1968) Effect of dietary carbohydrates on intestinal disaccharidases in germfree and conventional rats. J Nutr 95, 413–419.
10 Siddons, RC & Coates, ME (1972) The influence of the intestinal microflora on disaccharidase activities in the chick. Br J Nutr 27, 101–112.
11 Dyer, J, Salmon, KS, Zibrik, L, et al. (2005) Expression of sweet taste receptors of the T1R family in the intestinal tract and enteroendocrine cells. Biochem Soc Trans 33, 302–305.
12 Max, M, Shanker, YG, Huang, L, et al. (2001) Tas1r3, encoding a new candidate taste receptor, is allelic to the sweet responsiveness locus Sac. Nat Genet 28, 58–63.
13 Sainz, E, Korley, JN, Battey, JF, et al. (2001) Identification of a novel member of the T1R family of putative taste receptors. J Neurochem 77, 896–903.
14 McLaughlin, SK, McKinnon, PJ, Robichon, A, et al. (1993) Gustducin and transducin: a tale of two G proteins. Ciba Found Symp 179, 186–196 .
15 Margolskee, RF (1993) The molecular biology of taste transduction. Bioessays 15, 645–650.
16 Zukerman, S, Glendinning, JI, Margolskee, RF, et al. (2009) T1R3 taste receptor is critical for sucrose but not Polycose taste. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 296, R866–R876.
17 Zhao, GQ, Zhang, Y, Hoon, MA, et al. (2003) The receptors for mammalian sweet and umami taste. Cell 115, 255–266.
18 Jang, HJ, Kokrashvili, Z, Theodorakis, MJ, et al. (2007) Gut-expressed gustducin and taste receptors regulate secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104, 15069–15074.
19 Kokrashvili, Z, Mosinger, B & Margolskee, RF (2009) T1r3 and alpha-gustducin in gut regulate secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1170, 91–94.
20 Margolskee, RF, Dyer, J, Kokrashvili, Z, et al. (2007) T1R3 and gustducin in gut sense sugars to regulate expression of Na+-glucose cotransporter 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104, 15075–15080.
21 Shirazi-Beechey, SP, Gribble, SM, Wood, IS, et al. (1994) Dietary regulation of the intestinal sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter (SGLT1). Biochem Soc Trans 22, 655–658.
22 Sclafani, A (2006) Oral, post-oral and genetic interactions in sweet appetite. Physiol Behav 89, 525–530.
23 De Jonghe, BC, Hajnal, A & Covasa, M (2005) Increased oral and decreased intestinal sensitivity to sucrose in obese, prediabetic CCK-A receptor-deficient OLETF rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 288, R292–R300.
24 Hajnal, A, Covasa, M & Bello, NT (2005) Altered taste sensitivity in obese, prediabetic OLETF rats lacking CCK-1 receptors. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 289, R1675–R1686.
25 Sclafani, A & Nissenbaum, JW (1985) On the role of the mouth and gut in the control of saccharin and sugar intake: a reexamination of the sham-feeding preparation. Brain Res Bull 14, 569–576.
26 Drucker, DB, Ackroff, K & Sclafani, A (1994) Nutrient-conditioned flavor preference and acceptance in rats: effects of deprivation state and nonreinforcement. Physiol Behav 56, 701–707.
27 Elizalde, G & Sclafani, A (1990) Flavor preferences conditioned by intragastric polycose infusions: a detailed analysis using an electronic esophagus preparation. Physiol Behav 47, 63–77.
28 Backhed, F, Ding, H, Wang, T, et al. (2004) The gut microbiota as an environmental factor that regulates fat storage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101, 15718–15723.
29 Chomczynski, P & Sacchi, N (2006) The single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate–phenol–chloroform extraction: twenty-something years on. Nat Protoc 1, 581–585.
30 Chomczynski, P & Sacchi, N (1987) Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate–phenol–chloroform extraction. Anal Biochem 162, 156–159.
31 Sclafani, A & Glendinning, JI (2003) Flavor preferences conditioned in C57BL/6 mice by intragastric carbohydrate self-infusion. Physiol Behav 79, 783–788.
32 Sclafani, A & Glendinning, JI (2005) Sugar and fat conditioned flavor preferences in C57BL/6J and 129 mice: oral and postoral interactions. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 289, R712–R720.
33 Glendinning, JI, Beltran, F, Benton, L, et al. (2010) Taste does not determine daily intake of dilute sugar solutions in mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 299, R1333–R1441.
34 Stearns, AT, Balakrishnan, A, Rhoads, DB, et al. (2010) Rapid upregulation of sodium-glucose transporter SGLT1 in response to intestinal sweet taste stimulation. Ann Surg 251, 865–871.
35 Ferraris, RP, Villenas, SA & Diamond, J (1992) Regulation of brush-border enzyme activities and enterocyte migration rates in mouse small intestine. Am J Physiol 262, G1047–G1059.
36 Stearns, AT, Balakrishnan, A, Rhoads, DB, et al. (2009) Diurnal expression of the rat intestinal sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) is independent of local luminal factors. Surgery 145, 294–302.
37 Sclafani, A, Glass, DS, Margolskee, RF, et al. (2010) Gut T1R3 sweet taste receptors do not mediate sucrose-conditioned flavor preferences in mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 299, R1643–R1650.
38 Ferraris, RP, Casirola, DM & Vinnakota, RR (1993) Dietary carbohydrate enhances intestinal sugar transport in diabetic mice. Diabetes 42, 1579–1587.
39 Burant, CF, Flink, S, DePaoli, AM, et al. (1994) Small intestine hexose transport in experimental diabetes. Increased transporter mRNA and protein expression in enterocytes. J Clin Invest 93, 578–585.
40 Cresci, GA, Thangaraju, M, Mellinger, JD, et al. (2010) Colonic gene expression in conventional and germ-free mice with a focus on the butyrate receptor GPR109A and the butyrate transporter SLC5A8. J Gastrointest Surg 14, 449–461.
41 Wostmann, BS, Larkin, C, Moriarty, A, et al. (1983) Dietary intake, energy metabolism, and excretory losses of adult male germfree Wistar rats. Lab Anim Sci 33, 46–50.
42 Yoshikawa, T, Inoue, R, Matsumoto, M, et al. (2011) Comparative expression of hexose transporters (SGLT1, GLUT1, GLUT2 and GLUT5) throughout the mouse gastrointestinal tract. Histochem Cell Biol 135, 183–194.
43 Kawai, Y & Morotomi, M (1978) Intestinal enzyme activities in germfree, conventional, and gnotobiotic rats associated with indigenous microorganisms. Infect Immun 19, 771–778.
44 Kozakova, H, Stepankova, R, Rehakova, Z, et al. (1998) Differences in enterocyte brush border enzyme activities in ageing rats reared in germ-free and conventional conditions. Physiol Res 47, 253–258.
45 Olsen, WA & Korsmo, HA (1982) Sucrase metabolism in germfree rats. Am J Physiol 242, G650–G653.
46 Meyer, JH, Hlinka, M, Tabrizi, Y, et al. (1998) Chemical specificities and intestinal distributions of nutrient-driven satiety. Am J Physiol 275, R1293–R1307.
47 Sternini, C, Anselmi, L & Rozengurt, E (2008) Enteroendocrine cells: a site of ‘taste’ in gastrointestinal chemosensing. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 15, 73–78.
48 Cani, PD, Possemiers, S, Van de Wiele, T, et al. (2009) Changes in gut microbiota control inflammation in obese mice through a mechanism involving GLP-2-driven improvement of gut permeability. Gut 58, 1091–1103.
49 Pen, J & Welling, GW (1983) Influence of the microbial flora on the amount of CCK8- and secretin21-27-like immunoreactivity in the intestinal tract of mice. Comp Biochem Physiol B 76, 585–589.
50 Cani, PD, Dewever, C & Delzenne, NM (2004) Inulin-type fructans modulate gastrointestinal peptides involved in appetite regulation (glucagon-like peptide-1 and ghrelin) in rats. Br J Nutr 92, 521–526.
51 Cani, PD, Lecourt, E, Dewulf, EM, et al. (2009) Gut microbiota fermentation of prebiotics increases satietogenic and incretin gut peptide production with consequences for appetite sensation and glucose response after a meal. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 1236–1243.
52 Fukumoto, S, Tatewaki, M, Yamada, T, et al. (2003) Short-chain fatty acids stimulate colonic transit via intraluminal 5-HT release in rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 284, R1269–R1276.
53 Cherbut, C, Ferrier, L, Roze, C, et al. (1998) Short-chain fatty acids modify colonic motility through nerves and polypeptide YY release in the rat. Am J Physiol 275, G1415–G1422.
54 Piche, T, Zerbib, F, Varannes, SB, et al. (2000) Modulation by colonic fermentation of LES function in humans. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 278, G578–G584.
55 Kirchner, H, Tong, J, Tschop, MH, et al. (2010) Ghrelin and PYY in the regulation of energy balance and metabolism: lessons from mouse mutants. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 298, E909–E919.
56 Ghatei, MA, Ratcliffe, B, Bloom, SR, et al. (1997) Fermentable dietary fibre, intestinal microflora and plasma hormones in the rat. Clin Sci (Lond) 93, 109–112.
57 Mojsov, S, Weir, GC & Habener, JF (1987) Insulinotropin: glucagon-like peptide I (7-37) co-encoded in the glucagon gene is a potent stimulator of insulin release in the perfused rat pancreas. J Clin Invest 79, 616–619.
58 Dube, PE & Brubaker, PL (2007) Frontiers in glucagon-like peptide-2: multiple actions, multiple mediators. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 293, E460–E465.
59 Nakamura, Y, Sanematsu, K, Ohta, R, et al. (2008) Diurnal variation of human sweet taste recognition thresholds is correlated with plasma leptin levels. Diabetes 57, 2661–2665.
60 Chen, K, Yan, J, Suo, Y, et al. (2010) Nutritional status alters saccharin intake and sweet receptor mRNA expression in rat taste buds. Brain Res 1325, 53–62.
61 Shigemura, N, Ohta, R, Kusakabe, Y, et al. (2004) Leptin modulates behavioral responses to sweet substances by influencing peripheral taste structures. Endocrinology 145, 839–847.
62 Kawai, K, Sugimoto, K, Nakashima, K, et al. (2000) Leptin as a modulator of sweet taste sensitivities in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97, 11044–11049.
63 Herness, S, Zhao, FL, Lu, SG, et al. (2002) Expression and physiological actions of cholecystokinin in rat taste receptor cells. J Neurosci 22, 10018–10029.
64 Shen, T, Kaya, N, Zhao, FL, et al. (2005) Co-expression patterns of the neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide and cholecystokinin with the transduction molecules alpha-gustducin and T1R2 in rat taste receptor cells. Neuroscience 130, 229–238.
65 Zhao, FL, Shen, T, Kaya, N, et al. (2005) Expression, physiological action, and coexpression patterns of neuropeptide Y in rat taste-bud cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102, 11100–11105.
66 Clapp, TR, Stone, LM, Margolskee, RF, et al. (2001) Immunocytochemical evidence for co-expression of Type III IP3 receptor with signaling components of bitter taste transduction. BMC Neurosci 2, 6.
67 Glendinning, JI, Bloom, LD, Onishi, M, et al. (2005) Contribution of alpha-gustducin to taste-guided licking responses of mice. Chem Senses 30, 299–316.
68 He, W, Yasumatsu, K, Varadarajan, V, et al. (2004) Umami taste responses are mediated by alpha-transducin and alpha-gustducin. J Neurosci 24, 7674–7680.
69 Ruiz, CJ, Wray, K, Delay, E, et al. (2003) Behavioral evidence for a role of alpha-gustducin in glutamate taste. Chem Senses 28, 573–579.
70 Caicedo, A & Roper, SD (2001) Taste receptor cells that discriminate between bitter stimuli. Science 291, 1557–1560.
71 Tomchik, SM, Berg, S, Kim, JW, et al. (2007) Breadth of tuning and taste coding in mammalian taste buds. J Neurosci 27, 10840–10848.