Skip to main content
×
Home

The use of energy drinks in sport: perceived ergogenicity and side effects in male and female athletes

  • Juan J. Salinero (a1), Beatriz Lara (a1), Javier Abian-Vicen (a1), Cristina Gonzalez-Millán (a1), Francisco Areces (a1), César Gallo-Salazar (a1), Diana Ruiz-Vicente (a1) and Juan Del Coso (a1)...
Abstract

The use of caffeine containing energy drinks has dramatically increased in the last few years, especially in the sport context because of its reported ergogenic effect. The ingestion of low to moderate doses of caffeinated energy drinks has been associated with adverse side effects such as insomnia or increased nervousness. The aim of the present study was to assess psycho-physiological changes and the prevalence of side effects resulting from the ingestion of 3 mg caffeine/kg body mass in the form of an energy drink. In a double-blind and placebo controlled experimental design, ninety experienced and low-caffeine-consuming athletes (fifty-three male and thirty-seven female) in two different sessions were provided with an energy drink that contained 3 mg/kg of caffeine or the same decaffeinated energy drink (placebo; 0 mg/kg). At 60 min after the ingestion of the energy drink, participants completed a training session. The effects of ingestion of these beverages on psycho-physiological variables during exercise and the rate of adverse side effects were measured using questionnaires. The caffeinated energy drink increased self-perceived muscle power during exercise compared with the placebo beverage (6·41 (sd 1·7) v. 5·66 (sd 1·51); P= 0·001). Moreover, the energy drink produced a higher prevalence of side effects such as insomnia (31·2 v. 10·4 %; P< 0·001), nervousness (13·2 v. 0 %; P= 0·002) and activeness (16·9 v. 3·9 %; P= 0·007) than the placebo energy drink. There were no sex differences in the incidence of side effects (P>0·05). The ingestion of an energy drink with 3 mg/kg of caffeine increased the prevalence of side effects. The presence of these side effects was similar between male and female participants.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The use of energy drinks in sport: perceived ergogenicity and side effects in male and female athletes
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The use of energy drinks in sport: perceived ergogenicity and side effects in male and female athletes
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The use of energy drinks in sport: perceived ergogenicity and side effects in male and female athletes
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: J. Del Coso, fax +34 918 153 131, email jdelcoso@ucjc.edu
References
Hide All
1 Magkos F & Kavouras SA (2005) Caffeine use in sports, pharmacokinetics in man, and cellular mechanisms of action. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 45, 535562.
2 Heckman MA, Weil J & Gonzalez de Mejia E (2010) Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine) in foods: a comprehensive review on consumption, functionality, safety, and regulatory matters. J Food Sci 75, R77R87.
3 Del Coso J, Muñoz G & Muñoz-Guerra J (2011) Prevalence of caffeine use in elite athletes following its removal from the World Anti-Doping Agency list of banned substances. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 36, 555561.
4 Burke LM (2008) Caffeine and sports performance. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 33, 13191334.
5 Brice CF & Smith AP (2002) Factors associated with caffeine consumption. Int J Food Sci Nutr 53, 5564.
6 Van Soeren MH, Sathasivam P, Spriet LL, et al. (1993) Caffeine metabolism and epinephrine responses during exercise in users and nonusers. J Appl Physiol (1985) 75, 805812.
7 Attwood AS, Higgs S & Terry P (2007) Differential responsiveness to caffeine and perceived effects of caffeine in moderate and high regular caffeine consumers. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 190, 469477.
8 Bell DG & McLellan TM (2002) Exercise endurance 1, 3, and 6 h after caffeine ingestion in caffeine users and nonusers. J Appl Physiol (1985) 93, 12271234.
9 Yang A, Palmer AA & de Wit H (2010) Genetics of caffeine consumption and responses to caffeine. Psychopharmacology 211, 245257.
10 Hoffman JR (2010) Caffeine and energy drinks. Strength Cond J 32, 1520.
11 Froiland K, Koszewski W, Hingst J, et al. (2004) Nutritional supplement use among college athletes and their sources of information. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 14, 104120.
12 Kristiansen M, Levy-Milne R, Barr S, et al. (2005) Dietary supplement use by varsity athletes at a Canadian university. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 15, 195210.
13 Campbell B, Wilborn C, La Bounty P, et al. (2013) International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: energy drinks. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 10, 1.
14 Higdon JV & Frei B (2006) Coffee and health: a review of recent human research. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 46, 101123.
15 Nawrot P, Jordan S, Eastwood J, et al. (2003) Effects of caffeine on human health. Food Addit Contam 20, 130.
16 Clauson KA, Shields KM, McQueen CE, et al. (2008) Safety issues associated with commercially available energy drinks. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) 48, e55e63, quiz e4–e7.
17 Malinauskas BM, Aeby VG, Overton RF, et al. (2007) A survey of energy drink consumption patterns among college students. Nutr J 6, 35.
18 Seifert SM, Schaechter JL, Hershorin ER, et al. (2011) Health effects of energy drinks on children, adolescents, and young adults. Pediatrics 127, 511528.
19 Pallares JG, Fernandez-Elias VE, Ortega JF, et al. (2013) Neuromuscular responses to incremental caffeine doses: performance and side effects. Med Sci Sports Exerc 45, 21842192.
20 Del Coso J, Salinero JJ, Gonzalez-Millan C, et al. (2012) Dose response effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on muscle performance: a repeated measures design. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 9, 21.
21 Duncan MJ, Smith M, Cook K, et al. (2012) The acute effect of a caffeine-containing energy drink on mood state, readiness to invest effort, and resistance exercise to failure. J Strength Cond Res 26, 28582865.
22 Duncan MJ & Oxford SW (2011) The effect of caffeine ingestion on mood state and bench press performance to failure. J Strength Cond Res 25, 178185.
23 Giles GE, Mahoney CR, Brunye TT, et al. (2012) Differential cognitive effects of energy drink ingredients: caffeine, taurine, and glucose. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 102, 569577.
24 Duncan MJ & Oxford SW (2012) Acute caffeine ingestion enhances performance and dampens muscle pain following resistance exercise to failure. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 52, 280285.
25 Doherty M & Smith PM (2005) Effects of caffeine ingestion on rating of perceived exertion during and after exercise: a meta-analysis. Scand J Med Sci Sports 15, 6978.
26 Duncan MJ, Stanley M, Parkhouse N, et al. (2013) Acute caffeine ingestion enhances strength performance and reduces perceived exertion and muscle pain perception during resistance exercise. Eur J Sport Sci 13, 392399.
27 Duncan MJ & Hankey J (2013) The effect of a caffeinated energy drink on various psychological measures during submaximal cycling. Physiol Behav 116-117, 6065.
28 Haskell CF, Kennedy DO, Wesnes KA, et al. (2005) Cognitive and mood improvements of caffeine in habitual consumers and habitual non-consumers of caffeine. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 179, 813825.
29 Adan A, Prat G, Fabbri M, et al. (2008) Early effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on subjective state and gender differences. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 32, 16981703.
30 Temple JL, Bulkley AM, Briatico L, et al. (2009) Sex differences in reinforcing value of caffeinated beverages in adolescents. Behav Pharmacol 20, 731741.
31 Mora-Rodriguez R, Garcia Pallares J, Lopez-Samanes A, et al. (2012) Caffeine ingestion reverses the circadian rhythm effects on neuromuscular performance in highly resistance-trained men. PLOS ONE 7, e33807.
32 Armstrong LE (2002) Caffeine, body fluid-electrolyte balance, and exercise performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 189206.
33 Davis JK & Green JM (2009) Caffeine and anaerobic performance: ergogenic value and mechanisms of action. Sports Med 39, 813832.
34 Collomp K, Ahmaidi S, Audran M, et al. (1991) Effects of caffeine ingestion on performance and anaerobic metabolism during the Wingate Test. Int J Sports Med 12, 439443.
35 Forbes SC, Candow DG, Little JP, et al. (2007) Effect of Red Bull energy drink on repeated Wingate cycle performance and bench-press muscle endurance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 17, 433444.
36 Hoffman JR, Kang J, Ratamess NA, et al. (2009) Examination of a pre-exercise, high energy supplement on exercise performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 6, 2.
37 Lane SC, Areta JL, Bird SR, et al. (2013) Caffeine ingestion and cycling power output in a low or normal muscle glycogen state. Med Sci Sports Exerc 45, 15771584.
38 Ganio MS, Klau JF, Casa DJ, et al. (2009) Effect of caffeine on sport-specific endurance performance: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 23, 315324.
39 Hodgson AB, Randell RK & Jeukendrup AE (2013) The metabolic and performance effects of caffeine compared to coffee during endurance exercise. PLOS ONE 8, e59561.
40 Carr AJ, Gore CJ & Dawson B (2011) Induced alkalosis and caffeine supplementation: effects on 2,000-m rowing performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 21, 357364.
41 Goldstein ER, Ziegenfuss T, Kalman D, et al. (2010) International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: caffeine and performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 7, 5.
42 Drake C, Roehrs T, Shambroom J, et al. (2013) Caffeine effects on sleep taken 0, 3, or 6 hours before going to bed. J Clin Sleep Med 9, 11951200.
43 Reilly T & Edwards B (2007) Altered sleep-wake cycles and physical performance in athletes. Physiol Behav 90, 274284.
44 Gliottoni RC, Meyers JR, Arngrimsson SA, et al. (2009) Effect of caffeine on quadriceps muscle pain during acute cycling exercise in low versus high caffeine consumers. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 19, 150161.
45 Astorino TA, Terzi MN, Roberson DW, et al. (2011) Effect of caffeine intake on pain perception during high-intensity exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 21, 2732.
46 Astorino TA, Cottrell T, Talhami Lozano A, et al. (2012) Effect of caffeine on RPE and perceptions of pain, arousal, and pleasure/displeasure during a cycling time trial in endurance trained and active men. Physiol Behav 106, 211217.
47 Hull JT, Wright KP Jr & Czeisler CA (2003) The influence of subjective alertness and motivation on human performance independent of circadian and homeostatic regulation. J Biol Rhythms 18, 329338.
48 Alford C, Cox H & Wescott R (2001) The effects of red bull energy drink on human performance and mood. Amino Acids 21, 139150.
49 Seidl R, Peyrl A, Nicham R, et al. (2000) A taurine and caffeine-containing drink stimulates cognitive performance and well-being. Amino Acids 19, 635642.
50 McCarthy PJ, Allen MS & Jones MV (2013) Emotions, cognitive interference, and concentration disruption in youth sport. J Sports Sci 31, 505515.
51 Rathschlag M & Memmert D (2013) The influence of self-generated emotions on physical performance: an investigation of happiness, anger, anxiety, and sadness. J Sport Exerc Psychol 35, 197210.
52 Landi MT, Sinha R, Lang NP, et al. (1999) Human cytochrome P4501A2. IARC Sci Publ 173195.
53 Bebia Z, Buch SC, Wilson JW, et al. (2004) Bioequivalence revisited: influence of age and sex on CYP enzymes. Clin Pharmacol Therap 76, 618627.
54 Graham TE (2001) Caffeine and exercise: metabolism, endurance and performance. Sports Med 31, 785807.
55 Duncan MJ, Lyons M & Hankey J (2009) Placebo effects of caffeine on short-term resistance exercise to failure. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 4, 244253.
56 Beedie CJ & Foad AJ (2009) The placebo effect in sports performance: a brief review. Sports Med 39, 313329.
57 Beedie CJ, Stuart EM, Coleman DA, et al. (2006) Placebo effects of caffeine on cycling performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 38, 21592164.
58 McLellan TM & Lieberman HR (2012) Do energy drinks contain active components other than caffeine? Nutr Rev 70, 730744.
59 Tallis J, Higgins MF, Cox VM, et al. (2014) Does a physiological concentration of taurine increase acute muscle power output, time to fatigue, and recovery in isolated mouse soleus (slow) muscle with or without the presence of caffeine? Can J Physiol Pharmacol 92, 4249.
60 van den Eynde F, van Baelen PC, Portzky M, et al. (2008) De effecten van energiedranken op de cognitieve prestaties (The effects of energy drinks on cognitive performance). Tijdschr Psychiatr 50, 273281.
61 Rivers WH & Webber HN (1907) The action of caffeine on the capacity for muscular work. J Physiol 36, 3347.
62 Kurtz AM, Leong J, Anand M, et al. (2013) Effects of caffeinated versus decaffeinated energy shots on blood pressure and heart rate in healthy young volunteers. Pharmacotherapy 33, 779786.
63 Lockwood CM, Moon JR, Smith AE, et al. (2010) Low-calorie energy drink improves physiological response to exercise in previously sedentary men: a placebo-controlled efficacy and safety study. J Strength Cond Res 24, 22272238.
64 Burrows T, Pursey K, Neve M, et al. (2013) What are the health implications associated with the consumption of energy drinks? A systematic review. Nutr Rev 71, 135148.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 175
Total number of PDF views: 871 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1661 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.