1Madden JP & Yoder MD (1972) Program evaluation: food stamps and commodity distribution in rural areas of central Pennsylvania. PA Agric Exp Stn Bull 78, 1–119.
2Kant A (1996) Indexes of overall diet quality: a review. J Am Diet Assoc 96, 785–791.
3Kant AK (2004) Dietary patterns and health outcomes. J Am Diet Assoc 104, 615–635.
4Waijers PM, Feskens EJ & Ocké MC (2007) A critical review of predefined diet quality scores. Br J Nutr 97, 219–231.
5Moeller SM, Reedy J, Millen AE, et al. (2007) Dietary patterns: challenges and opportunities in dietary patterns research an Experimental Biology workshop April 1, 2006. J Am Diet Assoc 107, 1233–1239.
6Arvaniti F & Panagiotakos DB (2008) Healthy indexes in public health practice and research: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 48, 317–327.
7Newby PK & Tucker KL (2004) Empirically derived eating patterns using factor or cluster analysis: a review. Nutr Rev 62, 5, 177–203.
8Hu FB (2002) Dietary pattern analysis: a new direction in nutritional epidemiology. Curr Opin Lipidol 13, 1, 3–9.
9van Dam RM (2005) New approaches to the study of dietary patterns. Br J Nutr 93, 573–574.
10Fu ML, Cheng L, Tu SH, et al. (2007) Association between unhealthful eating patterns and unfavorable overall school performance in children. J Am Diet Assoc 107, 1935–1943.
11Bailey RL, Gutschall MD, Mitchell DC, et al. (2006) Comparative strategies for using cluster analysis to assess dietary patterns. J Am Diet Assoc 106, 1194–1200.
12Newby PK, Hu FB, Rimm EB, et al. (2003) Reproducibility and validity of the Diet Quality Index Revised as assessed by use of a food-frequency questionnaire. Am J Clin Nutr 78, 941–949.
13Torheim LE, Barikmo I, Parr CL, et al. (2003) Validation of food variety as an indicator of diet quality assessed with a food frequency questionnaire for Western Mali. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, 1283–1291.
14Hann CS, Rock CL, King I, et al. (2001) Validation of the Healthy Eating Index with use of plasma biomarkers in a clinical sample of women. Am J Clin Nutr 74, 479–486.
15Weinstein SJ, Vogt TM & Gerrior SA (2004) Healthy Eating Index scores are associated with blood nutrient concentrations in the third National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey. J Am Diet Assoc 104, 576–584.
16Gerber MJ, Scali JD, Michaud A, et al. (2000) Profiles of a healthful diet and its relationship to biomarkers in a population sample from Mediterranean southern France. J Am Diet Assoc 100, 1164–1171.
17Kennedy GL, Pedro MR, Seghieri C, et al. (2007) Dietary diversity score is a useful indicator of micronutrient intake in non-breast-feeding Filipino children. J Nutr 137, 472–477.
18Mirmiran P, Azadbakht L & Azizi F (2006) Dietary diversity within food groups: an indicator of specific nutrient adequacy in Tehranian women. J Am Coll Nutr 25, 354–361.
19Steyn NP, Nel JH, Nantel G, et al. (2006) Food variety and dietary diversity scores in children: are they good indicators of dietary adequacy? Public Health Nutr 9, 644–650.
20Mirmiran P, Azadbakht L, Esmaillzadeh A, et al. (2004) Dietary diversity score in adolescents – a good indicator of the nutritional adequacy of diets: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 13, 56–60.
21Foote JA, Murphy SP, Wilkens LR, et al. (2004) Dietary variety increases the probability of nutrient adequacy among adults. J Nutr 134, 1779–1785.
22Serra-Majem L, Ribas L, García A, et al. (2003) Nutrient adequacy and Mediterranean Diet in Spanish school children and adolescents. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, Suppl. 1, S35–S39.
23Dubois L, Girard M & Bergeron N (2000) The choice of a diet quality indicator to evaluate the nutritional health of populations. Public Health Nutr 3, 357–365.
24Hatløy A, Torheim LE & Oshaug A (1998) Food variety – a good indicator of nutritional adequacy of the diet? A case study from an urban area in Mali, West Africa. Eur J Clin Nutr 52, 891–898.
25Hu FB, Rimm E, Smith-Warner SA, et al. (1999) Reproducibility and validity of dietary patterns assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. Am J Clin Nutr 69, 243–249.
26Khani BR, Ye W, Terry P, et al. (2004) Reproducibility and validity of major dietary patterns among Swedish women assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. J Nutr 134, 1541–1545.
27Beaudry M, Galibois I & Chaumette P (1998) Dietary patterns of adults in Québec and their nutritional adequacy. Can J Public Health 89, 347–351.
28Beaudry M, Galibois I & Chaumette P (1996) Assessing the quality of food intake with the 1990 nutrition recommendations: four indicators proposed. J Can Diet Assoc 57, 7–11.
29Newby PK, Weismayer C, Akesson A, et al. (2006) Long-term stability of food patterns identified by use of factor analysis among Swedish women. J Nutr 136, 626–633.
30Borland SE, Robinson SM, Crozier SR, et al. (2008) Stability of dietary patterns in young women over a 2-year period. Eur J Clin Nutr 62, 119–126.
31Millen BE, Quatromoni PA, Copenhafer DL, et al. (2001) Validation of a dietary pattern approach for evaluating nutritional risk: The Framingham Nutrition Studies. J Am Diet Assoc 101, 187–194.
32Quatromoni PA, Copenhafer DL, Demissie S, et al. (2002) The internal validity of a dietary pattern analysis. The Framingham Nutrition Studies. J Epidemiol Community Health 56, 381–388.
33Ruel MT (2003) Operationalizing dietary diversity: a review of measurement issues and research priorities. J Nutr 133, 3911S–3926S.
34Martínez ME, Marshall JR & Sechrest L (1998) Invited Commentary: factor analysis and the search for objectivity. Am J Epidemiol 148, 17–19.
35Schulze MB, Hoffmann K, Kroke A, et al. (2003) An approach to construct simplified measures of dietary patterns from exploratory factor analysis. Br J Nutr 89, 409–419.
36Hoffman K, Schulze MB, Boeing H, et al. (2002) Dietary patterns: report of an international workshop. Public Health Nutr 5, 89–90.
37van Dam RM (2005) New approaches to the study of dietary patterns. Br J Nutr 93, 573–574.
38Willett W (editors) (2003) Nutritional Epidemiology. London: Oxford University Press.