Skip to main content
×
Home

The validity of self-reported energy intake as determined using the doubly labelled water technique

  • R. J. Hill (a1) and P. S. W. Davies (a1)
Abstract

In the 1980s the development of the doubly labelled water (DLW) technique made it possible to determine the validity of dietary assessment methods using external, independent markers of intake in free-living populations. Since then, the accuracy of self-reported energy intake (EI) has been questioned on a number of occasions as under-reporting has been found to be prevalent in many different populations. This paper is a review of investigations using the DLW technique in conjunction with self-reported EI measures in groups including adults, children and adolescents, obese persons, athletes, military personnel and trekking explorers. In studies where a person other than the subject is responsible for recording dietary intake, such as parents of young children, EI generally corresponds to DLW determined energy expenditure. However, in instances where the subjects themselves report their intake, EI is generally under-reported when compared with energy expenditure. It was originally believed that this phenomenon of under-reporting was linked to increased adiposity and body size, however, it is now apparent that other factors, such as dietary restraint and socio-economic status, are also involved. This paper therefore aims to present a more comprehensive picture of under-reporting by tying in the findings of many DLW studies with other studies focusing particularly on the characteristics and mechanisms for under-reporting. Awareness of these characteristics and mechanisms will enable researchers to obtain more accurate self-reports of EI using all dietary recording techniques.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The validity of self-reported energy intake as determined using the doubly labelled water technique
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The validity of self-reported energy intake as determined using the doubly labelled water technique
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The validity of self-reported energy intake as determined using the doubly labelled water technique
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
Corresponding author: Dr P. S. W. Davies, fax +61 7 3636 1981, email ps.davies@mailbox.uq.edu.au
References
Hide All
Aaron JI, Mela DJ & Evans RE (1994) The influences of attitudes, beliefs, and label information on perceptions of reduced-fat spread. Appetite 22, 2537.
Ambler C, Eliakim A, Brasel JA, Lee W-NP, Burke G & Cooper DM (1998) Fitness and the effect of exercise training on the dietary intake of healthy adolescents. International Journal of Obesity 22, 354362.
Anthony H, Bines J, Phelan P & Paxton S (1998) Relation between dietary intake and nutritional status in cystic fibrosis. Archives of Disease in Childhood 78, 443447.
Baecke JAH, Van Staveren WA & Burema J (1983) Food consumption, habitual physical activity, and body fatness in young Dutch adults. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 37, 278286.
Bandini LG, Cyr H, Must A & Dietz WH (1997) Validity of reported energy intake in preadolescent girls. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65 (Suppl)., 1138S1141S.
Bandini LG, Schoeller DA, Cyr HN & Dietz WH (1990) Validity of reported energy intake in obese and non-obese adolescents. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52, 421425.
Bandini LG, Vu D, Must A, Cyr H, Goldberg A & Dietz WH (1999) Comparison of high-calorie, low-nutrient-dense food consumption among obese and non-obese adolescents. Obesity Research 7, 438443.
Barden EM, Zemel BS, Kawchak DA, Goran MI, Ohene-Frempong K & Stallings VA (2000) Total and resting energy expenditure in children with sickle cell disease. Journal of Pediatrics 136, 7379.
Barrett-Connor E (1991) Nutrition epidemiology: how do we know what they ate?. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54, 182S187S.
Basiotis PP, Welsh SO, Cronin RJ, Kelsey JL & Mertz W (1987) Number of days of food intake records required to estimate individual and group nutrient intakes with defined confidence. Journal of Nutrition 117, 16381641.
Bathalon GP, Tucker KL, Hays NP, Vinken AG, Greenberg AS, McCrory MA & Roberts SB (2000) Psychological measures of eating behavior and the accuracy of 3 common dietary assessment methods in healthy postmenopausal women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71, 739745.
Becker W, Foley S, Shelly E & Gibney M (1999) Energy under-reporting in Swedish and Irish dietary surveys: implications for food-based dietary guidelines. British Journal of Nutrition Suppl. 2, 81, S127S131.
Beerman KA & Dittus K (1993) Sources of error associated with self-reports of food intake. Nutrition Research 13, 765770.
Bellisle F, Blundell JE, Dye L, Fantino M, Fern E, Fletchre RJ, Lamber J, Roberfroid M, Specter S, Westenhöfer J & Westerterp-Plantenga MS (1998) Functional food science and behaviour and psychological functions. British Journal of Nutrition Suppl 80, S173S193.
Bingham S, Wiggins HS, Englyst H, Seppanen R, Helms P, Strand R, Burton R, Jorgensen IM, Poulsen L, Paerregaard A, Bjerrum L & James WP (1982) Methods and validity of dietary assessments in four Scandinavian populations. Nutrition & Cancer 4, 2333.
Black AE, Bingham SA, Joansson G & Coward WA (1997) Validation of dietary intakes of protein and energy against 24 hour urinary N and DLW energy expenditure in middle-aged women, retired men and post-obese subjects: comparisons with validation against presumed energy requirements. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51, 405413.
Black AE, Jebb SA, Bingham SA, Runswick SA & Poppitt SD (1995) The validation of energy and protein intakes by doubly labelled water and 24-hour urinary nitrogen excretion in post-obese subjects. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 8, 5164.
Black AE, Prentice AM, Goldberg GR, Jebb SA, Bingham SA, Livingstone MBE & Coward WA (1993) Measurements of total energy expenditure provide insights into the validity of dietary measurements of energy intake. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 93, 572579.
Blair SN, Horton E, Leon AS, Lee I-M, Drinkwater BL, Dishman RK, Mackey M & Kienholz ML (1996) Physical activity, nutrition, and chronic disease. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 28, 335349.
Boyer SJ & Blume FD (1984) Weight loss and changes in body composition at high altitude. Journal of Applied Physiology 57, 15801585.
Braitman LE, Adlin EV & Stanton JL (1985) Obesity and caloric intake: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 1971–1975 (NHANES 1). Journal of Chronic Diseases 38, 727732.
Branth S, Hambraeus L, Westerterp K, Andersson A, Edsgren R, Mustelin M & Nilsson R (1996) Energy turnover in a sailing crew during offshore racing around the world. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 28, 12721276.
Bratteby L-E, Sandhagen B, Fan H, Enghardt H & Samuelson G (1998) Total energy expenditure and physical activity as assessed by the doubly labeled water method in Swedish adolescents in whom energy intake was underestimated by 7-d diet records. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 67, 905911.
Briefel RR, Sempos CT, McDowell MA, Chien S & Alaimo K (1997) Dietary methods research in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: under-reporting of energy intake. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65 (Suppl.), 1203S1209S.
Buhl KM, Gallagher D, Hoy K, Matthews DE & Heymsfield S (1995) Unexplained disturbance in body weight regulation: diagnostic outcome assessed by doubly labeled water and body composition analyses in obese patients reporting low energy intakes. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 95, 13931400.
Burstein R, Coward AW, Askew WE, Carmel K, Irving C, Shpilber O, Moran D, Pikarsky A, Ginot G, Sawyer M, Golan R & Epstein Y (1996) Energy expenditure variations in soldiers performing military activities under cold and hot climate conditions. Military Medicine 161, 750754.
Buttriss J (1999) Nutrition in older people – the findings of a national survey. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 12, 461466.
Champagne C, Baker NB, DeLany JP, Harsha DW & Bray GA (1998) Assessment of energy intake under-reporting by doubly labeled water and observations on reported nutrient intakes in children. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 98, 426430, 433.
Champagne CM, Delany JP, Harsha DW & Bray GA (1996) Under-reporting of energy intake in biracial children is verified by doubly labeled water. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 96, 707709.
Clark D, Tomas F, Withers RT, Brinkman M, Chandler C, Phillips J, Ballard FJ, Berry MN & Nestel P (1992) Differences in energy metabolism between normal weight ‘large-eating’ and ‘small-eating’ women British Journal of Nutrition 68, 3144.
Clark D, Tomas F, Withers RT, Chandler C, Brinkman M, Phillips J, Berry M, Ballard FJ & Nestel P (1994) Energy metabolism in free-living, “large-eating” and “small-eating” women: studies using 2H218O. British Journal of Nutrition 72, 2131.
Clark D, Tomas F, Withers RT, Neville SD, Nolan SR, Brinkman M, Chandler C, Clark C, Ballard FJ, Berry M & Nestel P (1993) No major differences in energy metabolism between matched and unmatched groups of ‘large-eating’ and ‘small-eating’ men. British Journal of Nutrition 70, 393406.
Collins CE, Oloughlin EV & Henry R (1998) Discrepancies between males and females with cystic fibrosis in dietary intake and pancreatic enzyme use. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 26, 258262.
Committee on Dietary Allowances, Food and Nutrition Board (1980) Recommended Dietary Allowances. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences.
Coward WA, Prentice AM, Murgatroyd PR, Davies HL, Cole TJ, Sawyer MB, Goldberg GR, Halliday D, Macnamara JP & AJHvan Es (1985) Measurement of CO2 and water production rates in man using 2H218O labelled H2O: comparison between calorimeter and isotope values. In Human Energy Metabolism: Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure Measurements in Epidemiological Research Based upon Direct and Indirect Calorimetry. Euro-Nut Report no. 5, pp. 126128. [AJH van Es, editor]. Den Haag: CIP-gegevens Koninklijke Bibliotheek.
Crawley H & Summerbell C (1997) Feeding frequency and BMI among teenagers aged 16–17 years. International Journal of Obesity 21, 159161.
Davies PSW, Coward WA, Gregory J, White A & Mills A (1994) Total energy expenditure and energy intake in the pre-school child: a comparison British Journal of Nutrition 72, 1320.
Davies PSW, Feng J-Y, Crisp JA, Day JME, Laidlaw A, Chen J & Liu X-P (1997) Total energy expenditure and physical activity in young Chinese gymnasts. Pediatric Exercise Science 9, 243252.
DeLany JP, Schoeller DA, Hoyt RW, Askew EW & Sharp MA (1989) Field use of D218O to measure energy expenditure of soldiers at different energy intakes. Journal of Applied Physiology 67, 19221929.
Edwards JE, Lindemam AK, Mikesky AE & Stager JM (1993) Energy balance in highly trained female endurance runners. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 25, 13981404.
Fogelholm GM, Kukkonenharjula TK, Sievanen HT, Oja P & Vuori IM (1996) Body composition assessment in lean and normal-weight young women British Journal of Nutrition 75, 793802.
Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University (1985) Energy and Protein Requirements.Technical Report Series no. 724, WHO: Geneva.
Forbes-Ewan CH, Morrissey BLL, Gregg GC & Waters DR (1989) Use of doubly labeled water technique in soldiers training for jungle warfare. Journal of Applied Physiology 67, 1418.
Fulco CS, Hoyt RW, Baker-Fulco CJ, Gonzalez J & Cymerman A (1992) Use of bioelectrical impedance to assess body composition changes at high altitude. Journal of Applied Physiology 72, 21815187.
Gibson RS (1990) Principals of Nutritional Assessment, NewYork, NY: Oxford University Press.
Goran MI & Poehlman ET (1992) Total energy expenditure and energy requirements in healthy elderly persons. Metabolism 41, 744753.
Goris AHC, Westerterp-Plantenga MS & Westerterp KR (2000) Undereating and underrecording of habitual food intake in obese men: selective under-reporting of fat intake. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71, 130134.
Griffiths M, Payne PR, Stunkard JA, Rivers JP & Cox M (1990) Metabolic rate and physical development in children at risk of obesity. Lancet 336, 7678.
Guilland JC & Klepping J (1985) Nutritional alterations at high altitude in man. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology 54, 517523.
Haggarty P, McGaw BA, Maughan RJ & Fenn C (1988) Energy expenditure of elite female athletes measured by the doubly-labeled water method. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 47, 35A.
Hampton MC, Hueneman RL, Shapiro LR & Mitchell BW (1967) Calorie and nutritional intakes of teenagers. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 50, 385394.
Heitmann BL (1993) The influence of fatness, weight change, slimming history and other lifestyle variables on diet reporting in Danish man and women aged 35–65. International Journal of Obesity 17, 329336.
Hildreth HG, Johnson RK, Goran MI & Contompasis SH (1997) Body composition in adults with cerebral palsy by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry , bioelectrical impedance analysis, and skinfold anthropometry compared with the O-18 isotope dilution technique. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 66, 14361442.
Hill RJ & Davies PSW (1999) The validity of a four day weighed food record for measuring energy intake in female classical ballet dancers. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53, 752753.
Howat PM, Mohan R, Champagne C, Monlezun C, Wozniak P & Bray GA (1994) Validity and reliability of reported dietary intake data. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 94, 169173.
Hoyt RW, Jones TE, Baker-Fulco CJ, Schoeller DA, Schoene RB, Schwartz RS, Askew EW & Cymerman A (1994) Doubly labeled water measurement of human energy expenditure during exercise at high altitude. American Journal of Physiology 266, R966R971.
Hoyt RW, Jones TE, Stein TP, McAninch GW, Lieberman HR, Askew EW & Cymerman A (1991) Doubly labeled water measurement of human energy expenditure during strenuous exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 71, 1622.
Jain M, Howe GR, Johnson KC & Miller AB (1980) Evaluation of a diet history questionnaire for epidemiologic studies. American Journal of Epidemiology 111, 212219.
Johnson ML, Burke BS & Mayer J (1956) Relative importance of inactivity and overeating in the energy balance of obese high school girls. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 4, 3744.
Johnson RK, Driscoll P & Goran MI (1996) Comparison of multiple-pass 24-hour recall estimates of energy intake with total energy expenditure determined by the doubly labeled water method in young children. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 96, 11401144.
Johnson RK, Goran MI & Poehlman ET (1994) Correlates of over- and under-reporting of energy intake in healthy older men and women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59, 12861290.
Johnson RK, Soultanakis RP & Matthews DE (1998) Literacy and body fatness are associated with under-reporting of energy intake in US low-income women using the multiple-pass 24-hour recall: a doubly labeled water study. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 98, 11361140.
Jones PJH, Jacobs IRA, Morris A & Ducharme MB (1993) Adequacy of food rations in soldiers during an arctic exercise measured by doubly labeled water. Journal of Applied Physiology 75, 17901797.
Jones PJH, Martin LJ, Su WF & Boyd NF (1997) Canadian recommended nutrient intakes underestimate true energy requirements in middle-aged women. Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Sante Publique 88, 314319.
Kaskoun MC, Johnson RK & Goran MI (1994) Comparison of energy intake by semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire with total energy expenditure by the doubly labeled water method in young children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 60, 4347.
King N, Mutter SH, Roberts DE, Askew EW, Young AJ, Jones TE, Mays MZ, Sutherland MR, DeLany JP, Cheema BE & Tully R (1992) Nutrition and Hydration Status of Soldiers Consuming the 18-Man Arctic Trey Pack Ration Module With Either the Meal, Ready-to-Eat or the Long-Life Ratio Packet During a Cold Weather Field Training Exercise,technical report. T4-92,Natick, MA: US Army Research Institute.
Kretsch MJ, Fong AKH & Green MW (1999) Behavioral and body size correlates of energy intake under-reporting by obese and normal-weight women. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 99, 300306.
Kroke A, Klipstein-Grobusch K, Voss S, Möseneder J, Thielecke F, Noack R & Boeing H (1999) Validation of a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire administered in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study: comparison of energy, protein, and macronutrient intakes estimated with the doubly labeled water, urinary nitrogen, and repeated 24-h dietary recall methods. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 70, 439447.
Kromhout D (1983) Energy and macronutrient intake in lean and obese middle-aged men (the Zutphen study). American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 37, 295299.
Kuczmarski RJ (1996) Bioelectrical impedance analysis measurements as part of a national nutrition survey. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 64 (Suppl.), 453S458S.
Lafay L, Basdevant A, Charles M-A, Vray M, Balkau B, Borys J-M, Eschwège E & Romon M (1997) Determinants and nature of dietary under-reporting in a free-living population: the Feurbaix Laventie Ville Sante (FLVS) study. International Journal of Obesity 21, 567573.
Lichtman SW, Pisarska K, Berman ER, Pestone M, Dowling H, Offenbacher E, Weisel H, Heshka S, Matthews DE & Heymsfield SB (1992) Discrepancy between self-reported and actual caloric intake and exercise in obese subjects. New England Journal of Medicine 327, 18931898.
Livingstone MBE, Prentice AM, Coward WA, Strain JJ, Black AE, Davies PSW, Stewart CM, McKenna PG & Whitehead RG (1992) Validation of estimates of energy intake by weighed dietary record and diet history in children and adolescents. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 56, 2935.
Livingstone MBE, Prentice AM, Strain JJ, Coward WA, Black AE, Barker ME, McKenna PG & Whitehead RG (1990) Accuracy of weighed dietary records in studies of diet and health. British Medical Journal 300, 708712.
McArdle WD, Katch FI & Katch VL (1985) Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, & Human Performance.Philadelphia, PA: Lea & Febiger.
McNeill G, McBridge A, Smith JS & James WPT (1989) Energy expenditure in large and small eaters. Nutrition Research 9, 363372.
Martin LJ, Su W, Jones PJ, Lockwood GA, Tritchler DL & Boyd NF (1996) Comparison of energy intakes determined by food records and doubly labeled water in women participating in a dietary-intervention trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 63, 483490.
Mertz W, Tsui JC, Judd JT, Reiser S, Hallfrisch J, Morris ER, Steele PD & Lashley E (1991) What are people really eating? The relation between energy intake derived from estimated diet records and intake determined to maintain body weight. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54, 291295.
Morgan JB, York DA, Wasilewska A & Portman J (1982) A study of the thermic responses to a meal and to a sympathomimetic drug (ephedrine) in relation to energy balance in man. British Journal of Nutrition 47, 2132.
Morgan RW, Jain M, Miller AB, Choi NW, Matthews V, Munan L, Burch JD, Feather J, Howe GR & Kelly A (1978) A comparison of dietary methods in epidemiologic studies. American Journal of Epidemiology 107, 488498.
Mulligan K & Butterfield GE (1990) Discrepancies between energy intake and expenditure in physically active women. British Journal of Nutrition 64, 2336.
O'Neil CE, Nicklas TA, Myers L, Johnson CC & Berenson GS (1997) Cardiovascular risk factors and behavior lifestyles of young women: implications from findings of the Bogalusa Heart Study. American Journal of the Medical Sciences 314, 385395.
Pannemans LE & Westerterp KR (1993) Estimation of energy intake to feed subjects at energy balance as verified with doubly labelled water: a study in the elderly. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 47, 490496.
Power ML, Heaney RP, Kalkwarf HJ, Pitken RM, Repke JT, Tsang RC & Schulkin J (1999) The role of calcium in health and disease. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 181, 15601569.
Prentice AM (1984) Adaptations to long-term low energy intake Energy In Energy Intake and Activity,pp.331.[E Pollit, editor]. New York, NY: Liss.
Prentice AM, Black AE, Coward WA, Davies HL, Goldberg GR, Murgatroyd PR, Ashford J, Sawyer M & Whitehead RG (1986) High levels of energy expenditure in obese women. British Medical Journal 292, 983987.
Price GM, Paul AA, Cole TJ & Wadsworth MEJ (1997) Characteristics of the low-energy reporters in a longitudinal national dietary survey British Journal of Nutrition 77, 833851.
Ravussin E, Lillioja S, Knowler WC, Christin L, Freymond D, Abbott WG, Boyce V, Howard BV & Bogardus C (1988) Reduced rate of energy expenditure as a risk factor for body-weight gain. New England Journal of Medicine 318, 467472.
Reilly JJ (1998) Assessment of body composition in infants and children. Nutrition 14, 821825.
Reilly JJ, Lord A, Bunker VW, Prentice AM, Coward WA, Thomas AJ & Briggs RS (1993) Energy balance in healthy elderly women British Journal of Nutrition 69, 2127.
Reilly JJ, Ralston JM, Paton JY, Edwards CA, Weaver LT, Wilkinson J & Evans TJ (1999) Energy balance during acute respiratory exacerbations in children with cystic fibrosis. European Respiratory Journal 13, 804809.
Reynolds RD, Lickteig JA, Deuster PA, Howard MP, Conway JM, Pietersma A, deStoppelaar J & Deurenberg P (1999) Energy metabolism increases and regional body fat decreases while regional muscle mass is spared in humans climbing Mt. Everest. Journal of Nutrition 129, 13071314.
Riumallo JA, Schoeller D, Barrera G, Gattas V & Uauy R (1989) Energy expenditure in underweight free-living adults: impact of energy supplementation as determined by doubly labeled water and indirect calorimetry. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49, 239246.
Rose MS, Houston CS, Fulco CS, Coates G, Sutton JR & Cymerman A (1988) Operation Everest II: nutrition and body composition. Journal of Applied Physiology 65, 25452551.
Rothenberg E, Bosaeus I, Lernfelt B, Landahl S & Steen B (1998) Energy intake and expenditure: validation of a diet history by heart rate monitoring, activity diary and doubly labeled water. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52, 832838.
Sawaya AL, Tucker K, Tsay R, Willet W, Saltzman E, Dallal GE & Roberts SB (1996) Evaluation of four methods for determining energy intake in young and older women: comparison with doubly labeled water measurements of total energy expenditure. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 63, 491499.
Schoeller DA (1990) How accurate is self-reported dietary energy intake?. Nutrition Reviews 48, 373379.
Schoeller DA & van Santen E (1982) Measurement of energy expenditure in humans by doubly labelled water. Journal of Applied Physiology 53, 955959.
Schulz LO, Alger S, Harper I, Wilmore JH & Ravussin E (1992) Energy expenditure of elite female runners measured by respiratory chamber and doubly labeled water. Journal of Applied Physiology 72, 2328.
Schulz S, Westerterp KR & Brück K (1989) Comparison of energy expenditure by the doubly labeled water technique with energy intake, heart rate, and activity recording in man. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49, 11461154.
Seale JL & Rumpler WV (1997) Comparison of energy expenditure measurements by diet records, energy intake balance, doubly labeled water and room calorimetry. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51, 856863.
Silman AJ (1980) Assessment of the intake of dietary fibre from cereal foods: an epidemiological approach. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 34, 204207.
Singh J, Coward WA, Prentice AM, Ashford J, Sawyer M, Diaz E & Whitehead RG (1988) Doubly-labelled water measurements of energy expenditure in Gambian women during the agricultural season. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 47, 41A.
Singh J, Prentice AM, Diaz E, Coward WA, Ashford J, Sawyer M & Whitehead RG (1989) Energy expenditure of Gambian women during peak agricultural activity measured by the doubly-labelled water method British Journal of Nutrition 62, 315329.
Sjödin AM, Andersson AB, Högberg JM & Westerterp KR (1994) Energy balance in crosscountry skiers: a study using doubly labeled water. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 26, 720–724.
Stager JM, Lindeman AK & Edwards JE (1992) Energy intake and energy expenditure during a high altitude expedition on Mt. McKinley, Alaska. International Journal of Sports Medicine 13, 89.
Stager JM, Lindeman A & Edwards J (1995) The use of doubly labelled water in quantifying energy expenditure during prolonged activity. Sports Medicine 19, 166172.
Stallings VA, Zemel BS, Davies JC, Cronk CE & Charney EB (1996) Energy expenditure of children and adolescents with severe disabilities: a cerebral palsy model. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 64, 627634.
Stroud MA, Coward WA & Sawyer MB (1993) Measurements of energy expenditure using isotope-labelled water (2H218O) during an Arctic expedition. European Journal of Applied Physiology 67, 375379.
Taren DL, Tobar M, Hill A, Howell W, Shisslak C, Bell I & Ritenbaugh C (1999) The association of energy intake bias with psychological scores of women. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53, 570578.
Tomoyasu NJ, Toth MJ & Poehlman ET (1999) Misreporting of total energy intake in older men and women. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 47, 710715.
Trappe TA, Gastaldelli A, Jozsi AC, Troup JP & Wolfe RR (1997) Energy expenditure of swimmers during high volume training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 29, 950954.
van Etten LMLA, Westerterp KR, Verstappen FTJ, Boon BJB & Saris WHM (1997) Effect of an 18-wk weight-training program on energy expenditure and physical activity. Journal of Applied Physiology 82, 298304.
Velthuis-te Wierik EJM, Westerterp KR & van den Berg H (1995) Impact of a moderately energy-restricted diet on energy metabolism and body composition in non-obese men. International Journal of Obesity 19, 318324.
Westerterp KR, Kayser B, Brouns F, Herry JP & Saris WHM (1992) Energy expenditure climbing Mt. Everest. Journal of Applied Physiology 73, 18151819.
Westerterp KR, Kayser B, Wouters L, Le Trong J-L & Richalet J-P (1994) Energy balance at high altitude of 6542 m. Journal of Applied Physiology 77, 862866.
Westerterp KR, Meijer GAL, Janssen EME, Saris WH & Ten Hoor F (1992) Long-term effect of physical activity on energy balance and body composition. British Journal of Nutrition 68, 2130.
Westerterp KR, Saris WHM, van Es M & ten Hoor F (1986) Use of the doubly labeled water technique in humans during heavy sustained exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 61, 21622167.
Westerterp KR, Verboeket-van de, Venne WPHG, Bouten CVC, de Graaf C, van Het, Hof KH & Weststrate JA (1996) Energy expenditure and physical activity in subjects consuming full- or reduced-fat products as part of their normal diet British Journal of Nutrition 76, 785795.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 545 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 806 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 24th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.