Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Values for digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) for some dairy and plant proteins may better describe protein quality than values calculated using the concept for protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS)

  • John K. Mathai (a1) (a2), Yanhong Liu (a2) and Hans H. Stein (a1) (a2)

An experiment was conducted to compare values for digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) for four animal proteins and four plant proteins with values calculated as recommended for protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS), but determined in pigs instead of in rats. Values for standardised total tract digestibility (STTD) of crude protein (CP) and standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) were calculated for whey protein isolate (WPI), whey protein concentrate (WPC), milk protein concentrate (MPC), skimmed milk powder (SMP), pea protein concentrate (PPC), soya protein isolate (SPI), soya flour and whole-grain wheat. The PDCAAS-like values were calculated using the STTD of CP to estimate AA digestibility and values for DIAAS were calculated from values for SID of AA. Results indicated that values for SID of most indispensable AA in WPI, WPC and MPC were greater (P<0·05) than for SMP, PPC, SPI, soya flour and wheat. With the exception of arginine and tryptophan, the SID of all indispensable AA in SPI was greater (P<0·05) than in soya flour, and with the exception of threonine, the SID of all indispensable AA in wheat was less (P<0·05) than in all other ingredients. If the same scoring pattern for children between 6 and 36 months was used to calculate PDCAAS-like values and DIAAS, PDCAAS-like values were greater (P<0·05) than DIAAS values for SMP, PPC, SPI, soya flour and wheat indicating that PDCAAS-like values estimated in pigs may overestimate the quality of these proteins.

Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: H. H. Stein, fax +1 217 333 7088, email
Hide All

Present address: Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

2. WC Sauer & L Ozimek (1986) Digestibility of amino acids in swine: results and their practical applications. A review. Livest Prod Sci 15, 367388.

3. HH Stein , B Seve , MF Fuller , et al. (2007) Invited review: amino acid bioavailability and digestibility in pig feed ingredients: terminology and application. J Anim Sci 85, 172180.

4. SK Cervantes-Pahm , Y Liu & HH Stein (2014) Digestible indispensable amino acid score and digestible amino acids in eight cereal grains. Br J Nutr 111, 16631672.

5. G Schaafsma (2012) Advantages and limitations of the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) as a method for evaluating protein quality in human diets. Br J Nutr 108, S333S336.

6. GS Gilani (2012) Background on international activities on protein quality assessment of foods. Br J Nutr 108, S168S182.

7. SM Rutherfurd , AC Fanning , BJ Miller , et al. (2015) Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores and digestible indispensable amino acids scores differentially describe protein quality in growing male rats. J Nutr 145, 372379.

9. AM Rowan , PJ Moughan , MN Wilson , et al. (1994) Comparison of the ileal and faecal digestibility of dietary amino acids in adult humans and evaluation of the pig as a model animal for digestion studies in man. Br J Nutr 71, 2942.

10. A Deglaire , C Bos , D Tomé , et al. (2009) Ileal digestibility of dietary protein in the growing pig and adult human. Br J Nutr 102, 17521759.

11. HH Stein , C Pedersen , AR Wirt , et al. (2005) Additivity of values for apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in mixed diets fed to growing pigs. J Anim Sci 83, 23872395.

13. HH Stein , CF Shipley & RA Easter (1998) Technical note: a technique for inserting a T-cannula into the distal ileum of pregnant sows. J Anim Sci 76, 14331436.

15. OJ Rojas & HH Stein (2013) Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and digestibility of amino acids in chicken meal, poultry byproduct meal, hydrolyzed porcine intestines, a spent hen-soybean meal mixture, and conventional soybean meal fed to weanling pigs. J Anim Sci 91, 32203230.

17. HC Schonfeldt & NC Hall (2012) Dietary protein quality and malnutrition in Africa. Br J Nutr 108, S69S76.

18. S Swaminathan , M Vaz & AV Kurpad (2012) Protein intakes in India. Br J Nutr 108, S50S68.

20. LJ James , L Mattin , P Aldiss , et al. (2014) Effect of whey protein isolate on rehydration after exercise. Amino Acids 46, 12171224.

22. J Stanstrup , SS Schou , J Holmer-Jensen , et al. (2014) Whey protein delays gastric emptying and suppresses plasma fatty acids and their metabolites compared to casein, gluten and fish protein. J Proteome Res 13, 23962408.

23. HH Stein , NL Trottier , C Bellaver , et al. (1999) The effect of feeding level and physiological status on total flow and amino acid composition of endogenous protein at the distal ileum in swine. J Anim Sci 77, 11801187.

24. DA Knabe , DC LaRue , EJ Gregg , et al. (1989) Apparent digestibility of nitrogen and amino acids in protein feedstuffs by growing pigs. J Anim Sci 67, 441458.

25. WH Hendriks , J van Baal & G Bosch (2012) Ileal and faecal protein digestibility measurement in humans and other non-ruminants: a comparative species view. Br J Nutr 108, S247S257.

26. J Boye , R Wijesinha-Bettoni & B Burlingame (2012) Protein quality evaluation twenty years after the introduction of the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score method. Br J Nutr 108, S183S211.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Type Description Title
Supplementary Materials

Mathai supplementary material
Tables A-C

 Word (31 KB)
31 KB


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 34
Total number of PDF views: 265 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1782 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 6th April 2017 - 20th September 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.