2 O Gögebakan , A Kohl , MA Osterhoff , et al. (2011) Effects of weight loss and long-term weight maintenance with diets varying in protein and glycemic index on cardiovascular risk factors: the diet, obesity, and genes (DiOGenes) study: a randomized, controlled trial. Circulation 124, 2829–2838.
3 D Ornish (1997) Every Day Cooking With Dean Ornish. New York: Harper Collins.
4 B Sears & W Lawren (1995) Enter the Zone. New York: Harper Collins.
5Weight Watchers Publishing Group (1997) Weight Watchers New Complete Cookbook. New York: Macmill.
6 A Accurso , R Bernstein , A Dahlqvist , et al. (2008) Dietary carbohydrate restriction in type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome: time for a critical appraisal. Nutr Metab (Lond) 5, 9.
7 S Alhassan , S Kim , A Bersamin , et al. (2008) Dietary adherence and weight loss success among overweight women: results from the A to Z weight loss study. Int J Obes (Lond) 32, 985–991.
8 FM Sacks , GA Bray , VJ Carey , et al. (2009) Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates. N Engl J Med 360, 859–873.
9 JW Krieger , HS Sitren , MJ Daniels , et al. (2006) Effects of variation in protein and carbohydrate intake on body mass and composition during energy restriction: a meta-regression. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 260–274.
10 M Hession , C Rolland , U Kulkarni , et al. (2009) Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of low-carbohydrate vs. low-fat/low-calorie diets in the management of obesity and its comorbidities. Obes Rev 10, 36–50.
11 AJ Nordmann , A Nordmann , M Briel , et al. (2006) Effects of low-carbohydrate vs low-fat diets on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med 166, 285–293.
12 FL Santos , SS Esteves , A da Costa Pereira , et al. (2012) Systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials of the effects of low carbohydrate diets on cardiovascular risk factors. Obes Rev 13, 1048–1066.
13 D Moher , A Liberati , J Tetzlaff , et al. (2009) Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Ann Intern Med 151, 264–269.
15 KA Robinson & K Dickersin (2002) Development of a highly sensitive search strategy for the retrieval of reports of controlled trials using PubMed. Int J Epidemiol 31, 150–153.
16World Health Organization Expert Consultation (2004) Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet 363, 157–163.
20 R DerSimonian & N Laird (1986) Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Control Clin Trials 7, 177–188.
22 RM Harbord & JPT Higgins (2008) Meta-regression in stata. Stata J 8, 493–519.
23 JL Peters , AJ Sutton , DR Jones , et al. (2008) Contour-enhanced meta-analysis funnel plots help distinguish publication bias from other causes of asymmetry. J Clin Epidemiol 61, 991–996.
24 M Egger , GD Smith , M Schneider , et al. (1997) Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ 315, 629–634.
25 ML Vetter , N Iqbal , S Volger , et al. (2010) Long-term effects of low-carbohydrate versus low-fat diets in obese persons. Ann Int Med 152, 334–335.
26 L Stern , N Iqbal , P Seshadri , et al. (2004) The effects of low-carbohydrate versus conventional weight loss diets in severely obese adults: one-year follow-up of a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 140, 778–785.
27 GD Foster , HR Wyatt , JO Hill , et al. (2010) Weight and metabolic outcomes after 2 years on a low-carbohydrate versus low-fat diet: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 153, 147–157.
28 GD Brinkworth , M Noakes , JD Buckley , et al. (2009) Long-term effects of a very-low-carbohydrate weight loss diet compared with an isocaloric low-fat diet after 12 mo. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 23–32.
29 N Iqbal , ML Vetter , RH Moore , et al. (2010) Effects of a low-intensity intervention that prescribed a low-carbohydrate vs. a low-fat diet in obese, diabetic participants. Obesity (Silver Spring) 18, 1733–1738.
30 CD Gardner , A Kiazand , S Alhassan , et al. (2007) Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN diets for change in weight and related risk factors among overweight premenopausal women: the A to Z Weight Loss Study: a randomized trial. JAMA 297, 969–977.
31 CB Ebbeling , JF Swain , HA Feldman , et al. (2012) Effects of dietary composition on energy expenditure during weight-loss maintenance. JAMA 307, 2627–2634.
32 EC Westman , RD Feinman , JC Mavropoulos , et al. (2007) Low-carbohydrate nutrition and metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 276–284.
33 JS Volek , MJ Sharman & CE Forsythe (2005) Modification of lipoproteins by very low-carbohydrate diets. J Nutr 135, 1339–1342.
34 RM Krauss , PJ Blanche , RS Rawlings , et al. (2006) Separate effects of reduced carbohydrate intake and weight loss on atherogenic dyslipidemia. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 1025–1031.
35 KK Berneis & RM Krauss (2002) Metabolic origins and clinical significance of LDL heterogeneity. J Lipid Res 43, 1363–1379.
36 LJ Appel , FM Sacks , VJ Carey , et al. (2005) Effects of protein, monounsaturated fat, and carbohydrate intake on blood pressure and serum lipids: results of the omniheart randomized trial. JAMA 294, 2455–2464.
37Anonymous (2001) Primer on statistical significance and P values. Eff Clin Pract 4, 183–184.
38 TA Wadden , S Volger , DB Sarwer , et al. (2011) A two-year randomized trial of obesity treatment in primary care practice. N Engl J Med 365, 1969–1979.
39 KG Alberti , P Zimmet , J Shaw , et al. (2005) The metabolic syndrome – a new worldwide definition. Lancet 366, 1059–1062.
40 L Kass , J Weekes & L Carpenter (2012) Effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr 66, 411–418.
41 K Ried , TR Sullivan , P Fakler , et al. (2012) Effect of cocoa on blood pressure. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, issue 8 CD008893.
42 S Haufe , S Engeli , P Kast , et al. (2011) Randomized comparison of reduced fat and reduced carbohydrate hypocaloric diets on intrahepatic fat in overweight and obese human subjects. Hepatology 53, 1504–1514.
43 SA Phillips , JW Jurva , AQ Syed , et al. (2008) Benefit of low-fat over low-carbohydrate diet on endothelial health in obesity. Hypertension 51, 376–382.
44 P Lagiou , S Sandin , M Lof , et al. (2012) Low carbohydrate-high protein diet and incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Swedish women: prospective cohort study. BMJ 344, e4026–e4037.
45 AN Friedman , LG Ogden , GD Foster , et al. (2012) Comparative effects of low-carbohydrate high-protein versus low-fat diets on the kidney. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 7, 1103–1111.
46 I Greenberg , MJ Stampfer , D Schwarzfuchs , et al. (2009) Adherence and success in long-term weight loss diets: the dietary intervention randomized controlled trial (DIRECT). J Am Coll Nutr 28, 159–168.
47Institute of Medicine (2011) Finding What Works in Health Care: Standards for Systematic Reviews. Washington, DC: The National Academy Press.
48Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (2009) Systematic Reviews: CRD's Guidance for Undertaking Reviews in Health Care. York: York Publishing Services.
49 I Shai , D Schwarzfuchs , Y Henkin , et al. (2008) Weight loss with a low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or low-fat diet. N Engl J Med 359, 229–241.
50 ML Dansinger , JA Gleason , JL Griffith , et al. (2005) Comparison of the atkins, ornish, weight watchers, and zone diets for weight loss and heart disease risk reduction: a randomized trial. JAMA 293, 43–53.
51 NJ Davis , N Tomuta , C Schetcher , et al. (2009) Comparative study of the effects of a 1-year dietary intervention of a low-carbohydrate diet versus a low-fat diet on weight and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 32, 1147–1152.
52 PA Dyson , S Beatty & DR Matthews (2010) An assessment of low-carbohydrate or low-fat diets for weight loss at 2 year's follow-up. Diabet Med 27, 363–368.
53 GD Foster , HR Wyatt , JO Hill , et al. (2003) A randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet for obesity. N Engl J Med 348, 2082–2090.
54 SS Lim , M Noakes , JB Keogh , et al. (2010) Long-term effects of a low carbohydrate, low fat or high unsaturated fat diet compared to a no-intervention control. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 20, 599–607.
55 KA McAuley , KJ Smith , RW Taylor , et al. (2006) Long-term effects of popular dietary approaches on weight loss and features of insulin resistance. Int J Obes (Lond) 30, 342–349.
56 H Truby , S Baic , A deLooy , et al. (2006) Randomised controlled trial of four commercial weight loss programmes in the UK: initial findings from the BBC “diet trials”. BMJ 332, 1309–1314.