This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
2F Stickel , SW Choi , YI Kim , (2000) Effect of chronic alcohol consumption on total plasma homocysteine level in rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 24, 259–264.
3 TH Parker , JP Marshall 2nd, RK Roberts , (1979) Effect of acute alcohol ingestion on plasma pyridoxal 5′-phosphate. Am J Clin Nutr 32, 1246–1252.
5 W Bode , JA Mocking & H van den Berg (1991) Influence of age and sex on vitamin B-6 vitamer distribution and on vitamin B-6 metabolizing enzymes in Wistar rats. J Nutr 121, 318–329.
6 L Lumeng , A Lui & TK Li (1980) Plasma content of B6 vitamers and its relationship to hepatic vitamin B6 metabolism. J Clin Invest 66, 688–695.
7JE Leklem (1990) Vitamin B-6: a status report. J Nutr 120, Suppl. 11, 1503–1507.
8 JB Mason (2003) Biomarkers of nutrient exposure and status in one-carbon (methyl) metabolism. J Nutr 133, Suppl. 3, 941S–947S.
10 V Pasceri & ET Yeh (1999) A tale of two diseases: atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Circulation 100, 2124–2126.
12 KM Fairfield & RH Fletcher (2002) Vitamins for chronic disease prevention in adults: scientific review. JAMA 287, 3116–3126.
13 S Friso , PF Jacques , PW Wilson , (2001) Low circulating vitamin B(6) is associated with elevation of the inflammation marker C-reactive protein independently of plasma homocysteine levels. Circulation 103, 2788–2791.
14 JT Willerson & PM Ridker (2004) Inflammation as a cardiovascular risk factor. Circulation 109, Suppl. 1, II2–II10.
16 S Saibeni , M Cattaneo , M Vecchi , (2003) Low vitamin B(6) plasma levels, a risk factor for thrombosis, in inflammatory bowel disease: role of inflammation and correlation with acute phase reactants. Am J Gastroenterol 98, 112–117.
17 R Roubenoff , RA Roubenoff , J Selhub , (1995) Abnormal vitamin B6 status in rheumatoid cachexia. Association with spontaneous tumor necrosis factor alpha production and markers of inflammation. Arthritis Rheum 38, 105–109.
24 EP Chiang , J Selhub , PJ Bagley , (2005) Pyridoxine supplementation corrects vitamin B6 deficiency but does not improve inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther 7, R1404–R1411.
19EP Chiang , PJ Bagley , J Selhub , (2003) Abnormal vitamin B(6) status is associated with severity of symptoms in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Am J Med 114, 283–287.
20 RR Monson & AP Hall (1976) Mortality among arthritics. J Chronic Dis 29, 459–467.
21TR Mikuls & KG Saag (2001) Comorbidity in rheumatoid arthritis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 27, 283–303.
22ID del Rincon , K Williams , MP Stern , (2001) High incidence of cardiovascular events in a rheumatoid arthritis cohort not explained by traditional cardiac risk factors. Arthritis Rheum 44, 2737–2745.
23 MH Snow & TR Mikuls (2005) Rheumatoid arthritis and cardiovascular disease: the role of systemic inflammation and evolving strategies of prevention. Curr Opin Rheumatol 17, 234–241.
26 P Libby , PM Ridker & GK Hansson (2009) Inflammation in atherosclerosis: from pathophysiology to practice. J Am Coll Cardiol 54, 2129–2138.
27K Robinson , EL Mayer , DP Miller , (1995) Hyperhomocysteinemia and low pyridoxal phosphate. Common and independent reversible risk factors for coronary artery disease. Circulation 92, 2825–2830.
28 J Selhub , PF Jacques , AG Bostom , (1995) Association between plasma homocysteine concentrations and extracranial carotid-artery stenosis. N Engl J Med 332, 286–291.
29PJ Kelly , VE Shih , JP Kistler , (2003) Low vitamin B6 but not homocyst(e)ine is associated with increased risk of stroke and transient ischemic attack in the era of folic acid grain fortification. Stroke 34, e51–e54.
30K Robinson , K Arheart , H Refsum , (1998) Low circulating folate and vitamin B6 concentrations: risk factors for stroke, peripheral vascular disease, and coronary artery disease. European COMAC Group. Circulation 97, 437–443.
31 AR Folsom , FJ Nieto , PG McGovern , (1998) Prospective study of coronary heart disease incidence in relation to fasting total homocysteine, related genetic polymorphisms, and B vitamins: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Circulation 98, 204–210.
32 K Dalery , S Lussier-Cacan , J Selhub , (1995) Homocysteine and coronary artery disease in French Canadian subjects: relation with vitamins B12, B6, pyridoxal phosphate, and folate. Am J Cardiol 75, 1107–1111.
33AR Folsom , LE Chambless , CM Ballantyne , (2006) An assessment of incremental coronary risk prediction using C-reactive protein and other novel risk markers: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Arch Intern Med 166, 1368–1373.
34P Verhoef , FJ Kok , DA Kruyssen , (1997) Plasma total homocysteine, B vitamins, and risk of coronary atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 17, 989–995.
35PW Siri , P Verhoef , FJ Kok , (1998) Vitamins B6, B12, and folate: association with plasma total homocysteine and risk of coronary atherosclerosis. J Am Coll Nutr 17, 435–441.
36 PT Lin , CH Cheng , YP Liaw , (2006) Low pyridoxal 5′-phosphate is associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease. Nutrition 22, 1146–1151.
37 CH Cheng , PT Lin , YP Liaw , (2008) Plasma pyridoxal 5′-phosphate and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein are independently associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease. Nutrition 24, 239–244.
38FJ Kok , J Schrijver , A Hofman , (1989) Low vitamin B6 status in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 63, 513–516.
40 MP Iqbal , M Ishaq , KA Kazmi , (2005) Role of vitamins B6, B12 and folic acid on hyperhomocysteinemia in a Pakistani population of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 15, 100–108.
42L Chasan-Taber , J Selhub , IH Rosenberg , (1996) A prospective study of folate and vitamin B6 and risk of myocardial infarction in US physicians. J Am Coll Nutr 15, 136–143.
43A Tavani , C Pelucchi , M Parpinel , (2004) Folate and vitamin B(6) intake and risk of acute myocardial infarction in Italy. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 1266–1272.
44JH Page , J Ma , SE Chiuve , (2009) Plasma vitamin B(6) and risk of myocardial infarction in women. Circulation 120, 649–655.
45JE Gallant , S Staszewski , AL Pozniak , (2004) Efficacy and safety of tenofovir DF vs stavudine in combination therapy in antiretroviral-naive patients: a 3-year randomized trial. JAMA 292, 191–201.
46P Verhoef , MJ Stampfer , JE Buring , (1996) Homocysteine metabolism and risk of myocardial infarction: relation with vitamins B6, B12, and folate. Am J Epidemiol 143, 845–859.
47 J Dierkes , C Weikert , K Klipstein-Grobusch , (2007) Plasma pyridoxal-5-phosphate and future risk of myocardial infarction in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Potsdam cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 214–220.
48M Nahlawi , N Seshadri , N Boparai , (2002) Usefulness of plasma vitamin B(6), B(12), folate, homocysteine, and creatinine in predicting outcomes in heart transplant recipients. Am J Cardiol 89, 834–837.
49 WJ Vermaak , HC Barnard , EM Van Dalen , (1988) Compartmentalization of pyridoxal-5′-phosphate during the acute phase of myocardial infarction. Klin Wochenschr 66, 428–433.
50PJ Kelly , JP Kistler , VE Shih , (2004) Inflammation, homocysteine, and vitamin B6 status after ischemic stroke. Stroke 35, 12–15.
51 W Willett (1998) Nutritional Epidemiology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
52 K He , A Merchant , EB Rimm , (2004) Folate, vitamin B6, and B12 intakes in relation to risk of stroke among men. Stroke 35, 169–174.
53 MJ Medrano , MJ Sierra , J Almazan , (2000) The association of dietary folate, B6, and B12 with cardiovascular mortality in Spain: an ecological analysis. Am J Public Health 90, 1636–1638.
54 AB Wilmink , AA Welch , CR Quick , (2004) Dietary folate and vitamin B6 are independent predictors of peripheral arterial occlusive disease. J Vasc Surg 39, 513–516.
56 EB Rimm , WC Willett , FB Hu , (1998) Folate and vitamin B6 from diet and supplements in relation to risk of coronary heart disease among women. JAMA 279, 359–364.
57AC Peeters , BE van Aken , HJ Blom , (2007) The effect of homocysteine reduction by B-vitamin supplementation on inflammatory markers. Clin Chem Lab Med 45, 54–58.
58 W Palmas (2006) Effects of short-term supplementation with ascorbate, folate, and vitamins B6 and B12 on inflammatory factors and estrogen levels in obese postmenopausal women. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 76, 34–38.
59 MM Mahfouz & FA Kummerow (2004) Vitamin C or vitamin B6 supplementation prevent the oxidative stress and decrease of prostacyclin generation in homocysteinemic rats. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 36, 1919–1932.
60 JF Toole , DC Sane & K Bettermann (2004) Stroke prevention: optimizing the response to a common threat. JAMA 292, 1885–1887.
61KH Bønaa , I Njolstad , PM Ueland , (2006) Homocysteine lowering and cardiovascular events after acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 354, 1578–1588.
62CM Albert , NR Cook , JM Gaziano , (2008) Effect of folic acid and B vitamins on risk of cardiovascular events and total mortality among women at high risk for cardiovascular disease: a randomized trial. JAMA 299, 2027–2036.
63JF Toole , MR Malinow , LE Chambless , (2004) Lowering homocysteine in patients with ischemic stroke to prevent recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, and death: the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) randomized controlled trial. JAMA 291, 565–575.
64R Marcucci , M Zanazzi , E Bertoni , (2003) Vitamin supplementation reduces the progression of atherosclerosis in hyperhomocysteinemic renal-transplant recipients. Transplantation 75, 1551–1555.
65 U Till , P Rohl , A Jentsch , (2005) Decrease of carotid intima-media thickness in patients at risk to cerebral ischemia after supplementation with folic acid, vitamins B6 and B12. Atherosclerosis 181, 131–135.
66HN Hodis , WJ Mack , L Dustin , (2009) High-dose B vitamin supplementation and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis: a randomized controlled trial. Stroke 40, 730–736.
67G Schnyder , M Roffi , R Pin , (2001) Decreased rate of coronary restenosis after lowering of plasma homocysteine levels. N Engl J Med 345, 1593–1600.
68 H Lange , H Suryapranata , G De Luca , (2004) Folate therapy and in-stent restenosis after coronary stenting. N Engl J Med 350, 2673–2681.
69M Ebbing , O Bleie , PM Ueland , (2008) Mortality and cardiovascular events in patients treated with homocysteine-lowering B vitamins after coronary angiography: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 300, 795–804.
71J Loscalzo (2006) Homocysteine trials – clear outcomes for complex reasons. N Engl J Med 354, 1629–1632.
73 SN Meydani , M Hayek & L Coleman (1992) Influence of vitamins E and B6 on immune response. Ann N Y Acad Sci 669, 125–139, .
74 Anonymous (1981) Is vitamin B6 an antithrombotic agent? Lancet i, 1299–1300.
75 NW Schoene , P Chanmugam & RD Reynolds (1986) Effect of oral vitamin B6 supplementation on in vitro platelet aggregation. Am J Clin Nutr 43, 825–830.
76 S Doke , N Inagaki , T Hayakawa , (1998) Effects of vitamin B6 deficiency on cytokine levels and lymphocytes in mice. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 62, 1008–1010.
79 MS Morris , L Sakakeeny , PF Jacques , (2010) Vitamin B-6 intake is inversely related to, and the requirement is affected by, inflammation status. J Nutr 140, 103–110.
80PM Ridker (2001) Role of inflammatory biomarkers in prediction of coronary heart disease. Lancet 358, 946–948.
81PM Ridker , CH Hennekens , JE Buring , (2000) C-reactive protein and other markers of inflammation in the prediction of cardiovascular disease in women. N Engl J Med 342, 836–843.
82 SM Grundy (1999) Primary prevention of coronary heart disease: integrating risk assessment with intervention. Circulation 100, 988–998.
83 S James , HH Vorster , CS Venter , (2000) Nutritional status influences plasma fibrinogen concentration: evidence from the THUSA survey. Thromb Res 98, 383–394.
84T Heitzer , T Schlinzig , K Krohn , (2001) Endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and risk of cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation 104, 2673–2678.
86 K Matsubara , M Mori , R Akagi , (2004) Anti-angiogenic effect of pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine on embryoid bodies derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. Int J Mol Med 14, 819–823.
87K Woolf & MM Manore (2008) Elevated plasma homocysteine and low vitamin B-6 status in nonsupplementing older women with rheumatoid arthritis. J Am Diet Assoc 108, 443–453, .
88 AR Folsom , M Desvarieux , FJ Nieto , (2003) B Vitamin status and inflammatory markers. Atherosclerosis 169, 169–174.
89VM Camp , J Chipponi & BA Faraj (1983) Radioenzymatic assay for direct measurement of plasma pyridoxal 5′-phosphate. Clin Chem 29, 642–644.
90M Kimura , K Kanehira & K Yokoi (1996) Highly sensitive and simple liquid chromatographic determination in plasma of B6 vitamers, especially pyridoxal 5′-phosphate. J Chromatogr A 722, 296–301.
92 J Shen , CQ Lai , J Mattei , (2010) Association of vitamin B-6 status with inflammation, oxidative stress, and chronic inflammatory conditions: the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 337–342.