Adams, JS, Clemens, TL, Parrish, JA & Holick, MF (1982) Vitamin-D synthesis and metabolism after ultraviolet irradiation of normal and vitamin-D-deficient subjects. New England Journal of Medicine 306 722–725.
Aguado, P, del Campo, MT, Garces, MV, Gonzalez-Casuas, ML, Bernad, M, Gijon-Banos, J, Martin Mola, E, Torrijos, A & Martinez, ME (2000) Low vitamin D levels in outpatient postmenopausal women from a rheumatology clinic in Madrid, Spain: their relationship with bone mineral density. Osteoporosis International 11 739–744.
Alagol, F, Shihadeh, Y, Boztepe, H, Tanakol, R, Yarman, S, Azizlerli, H & Sandalci, O (2000) Sunlight exposure and vitamin D deficiency in Turkish women. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation 23 173–177.
Allegra, V, Luisetto, G, Mengozzi, L, Martimbianco, L & Vasile, A (1994) Glucose-induced insulin secretion in uremia: role of 1α,25(OH)2-Vitamin D3. Nephron 68 41–47.
Andjelkovic, Z, Vojinnovic, J, Pejnovic, N, Popovic, M, Dujicv, A, Mitrovic, D, Pavlica, L & Stefanovic, D (1999) Disease modifying and immunmodulatory effects of high dose 1α(OH) D3 in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 17 453–456.
Andersen, R, Brot, C & Ovesen, L (2001) Towards a strategy for optimal vitamin D fortification (OPTIFORD). Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Disease 11, Suppl. 4, 74–77.
Axelsson, I, Gebre-Medhin, M, Hernell, O, Jakobsson, I, Michaelsen, KF & Samuelson, G (1999) The AD-drops can be replaced by D-drops [in Swedish]. Lakartidningen 96 2200–2204.
Barger-Lux, MJ, Heaney, RP, Lanspa, SJ, Healy, JC & DeLuca, HF (1995) An investigation of sources of variation in calcium absorption efficiency. Journal of Clinical and Endocrinological Metabolism 80 406–411.
Basha, B, Rao, DS, Han, ZH & Parfitt, AM (2000) Osteomalacia due to vitamin D depletion: a neglected consequence of intestinal malabsorption. American Journal of Medicine 108 296–300.
Baynes, KCR, Boucher, BJ, Feskens, EJM & Kromhout, D (1997) Vitamin D, glucose tolerance and insulinaemia in elderly men. Diabetologia 40 344–347.
Bell, NH, Epstein, S, Greene, A, Shary, J, Oexmann, MJ & Shaw, S (1985) Evidence for alteration of the vitamin D-endocrine system in obese subjects. Journal of Clinical Investigation 76 370–373.
Bhalla, AK, Amento, EP, Clemens, TL, Holick, MF & Krane, SM (1983) Specific high-affinity receptors for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: presence in monocytes and induction in T lymphocytes following activation. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 57 1308–1310.
Birge, SJ & Haddad, JG (1975) 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol stimulation of muscle metabolism. Journal of Clinical Investigation 56 1100–1107.
Bischoff, H, Stähelin, HB, Vogt, P, Friderich, P, Vontheim, R, Tyndall, A & Theiler, R (1999 a) Immobility as a major cause of bone remodeling in residents of a long-stay geriatric ward. Calcified Tissue International 64 485–489.
Bischoff, HA, Stahelin, HB, Dick, W, Akos, R, Theiler, R, Pfeiffer, M, Begerow, B & Lew, RA (2001) Fall prevention by vitamin D and calcium supplementation: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 16, Suppl. 1, S163 Abstr.
Bischoff, HA, Stahelin, HB, Urscheler, N, Ehrsam, R, Vonthein, R, Perrig-Chiello, P, Tyndall, A & Theiler, R (1999 b) Muscle strength in the elderly: its relation to vitamin D metabolites. Archives of Physical and Medical Rehabilitation 80 54–58.
Blank, S, Scanlon, KS, Sinks, TH, Lett, S & Falk, H (1995) An outbreak of hypervitaminosis D associated with the overfortification of milk from a home-delivery dairy. American Journal of Public Health 85 656–659.
Boltz-Nitulescu, G, Willheim, M, Spittler, A, Leutmezer, F, Tempfer, C & Winkler, S (1995) Modulation of IgA, IgE, and IgG Fc receptor expression on human mononuclear phagocytes by 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and cytokines. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 58 256–262.
Bostick, RM, Potter, JD, Sellers, TA, McKenzie, DR, Kushi, LH & Folsom, AR (1993) Relation of calcium, vitamin D, and dairy food intake to incidence of colon cancer among older women. The Iowa Women's Health Study. American Journal of Epidemiology 137 1302–1317.
Boucher, BJ (1998) Inadequate vitamin D status: does it contribute to the disorders comprising syndrome ‘X]? British Journal of Nutrition 79 315–327.
Boucher, BJ, Mannan, N, Noonan, K, Hales, CN & Evans, SJ (1995) Glucose intolerance and impairment of insulin secretion in relation to vitamin D deficiency in east London Asians. Diabetologia 38 1239–1245.
Bouillon, R, Carmeliet, G, Daci, E, Segaert, S & Verstuyf, A (1998) Vitamin D Metabolism and Action. Osteoporosis International 8 S13–S19.
Bouillon, R, Xiang, DZ, Convents, R & Van Baelen, H (1992) Polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease the apparent affinity of vitamin D metabolites for human vitamin D-binding protein. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 42 855–861.
Bouillon, RA, Auwerx, JH, Lissens, WD & Pelemans, WK (1987) Vitamin D status in the elderly: seasonal substrate deficiency causes 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol deficiency. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 45 755–763.
Brohult, J & Jonson, B (1973) Effects of large doses of calciferol on patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology 2 173–176.
Brot, C, Vestergaard, P, Kolthoff, N, Gram, J, Hermann, AP & Sörensen, OH (2001) Vitamin D status and its adequacy in healthy Danish perimenopausal women: relationships to dietary intake, sun exposure and serum parathyroid hormone. British Journal of Nutrition 86, Suppl. 1, S97–S103.
Cantorna, MT, Hayes, CE & DeLuca, HF (1996) 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 reversibly blocks the progression of relapsing encephalomyelitis, a model of multiple sclerosis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 93 7861–8764.
Cantorna, MT, Humpal-Winter, J & DeLuca, HF (1999) Dietary calcium is a major factor in 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol suppression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice. Journal of Nutrition 129 1966–1971.
Cantorna, MT, Mahon, BD, Bemiss, CJ, Gordon, SA, Cruz, JD & Cosman, F (2001) Altered cytokine profile in patients with multiple sclerosis following vitamin D supplementation. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 45, Suppl., 290 Abstr
Cantorna, MT, Munsick, C, Bemiss, C & Mahon, BD (2000) 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol prevents and ameliorates symptoms of experimental murine inflammatory bowel disease. Journal of Nutrition 130 2648–2652.
Carroll, KK, Jacobson, EA, Eckel, LA & Newark, HL (1991) Calcium and carcinogenesis of the mammary gland. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54 206S–208S.
Chan, TY, Poon, P, Pang, J, Swaminathan, R, Chan, CH, Nisar, M, Williams, CS & Davies, PD (1994) A study of calcium and vitamin D metabolism in Chinese patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 97 26–30.
Chan, TYK (2000) Vitamin D deficiency and susceptibility to tuberculosis. Calcified Tissue International 66 476–478.
Chang, TJ, Lei, HH, Yeh, JI, Chiu, KC, Lee, KC, Chen, MC, Tai, TY & Chuang, LM (2000) Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms influence susceptibility to type 1 diabetes mellitus in the Taiwanese population. Clinical Endocrinology 52 575–580.
Chapuy, MC, Arlot, ME, Duboeuf, F, Brun, J, Crouzet, B, Arnaud, S, Delmas, PD & Meunier, PJ (1992) Vitamin D3 and calcium to prevent hip fractures in elderly women. New England Journal of Medicine 327 1637–1642.
Chesney, RW (1989) Vitamin D: Can an upper limit be defined? Journal of Nutrition 119 1825–1828.
Cohen, MS, Mesler, DE, Snipes, RG & Gray, TK (1986) 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 activates secretion of hydrogen peroxide by human monocytes. Journal of Immunology 136 1049–1053.
Curry, OB, Bastein, JF, Francis, MJO & Smith, R (1983) Calcium uptake by sarcoplasmatic reticulum of muscle from vitamin D deficient rabbits. Nature 249 83–84.
D'Ambrosio, D, Cippitelli, M, Cocciolo, MG, Mazzeo, D, Di Lucia, P, Lang, R, Sinigaglia, F & Panina-Bordignon, P (1998) Inhibition of IL-12 production by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Involvement of NF-kappa B downregulation in transcriptional repression of the p40 gene. Journal of Clinical Investigation 101 252–262.
Davies, PD (1985) A possible link between vitamin D deficiency and impaired host defence to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tubercle 66 301–306.
Davies, PD, Brown, RC & Woodhead, JS (1985) Serum concentrations of vitamin D metabolites in untreated tuberculosis. Thorax 40 187–190.
Davies, PDO, Church, HA, Bovornkitti, S, Chatumilind, A & Byrachandra, S (1988) Altered vitamin D homeostasis in tuberculosis. Internal Medicine (Thailand) 4 45–47.
Davies, PS, Bates, CJ, Cole, TJ, Prentice, A & Clarke, PC (1999) Vitamin D: seasonal and regional differences in preschool children in Great Britain. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53 195–198.
Dawson-Hughes, B, Dallal, GE, Krall, EA, Harris, S, Sokoll, LJ & Falconer, G (1991) Effect of vitamin D supplementation on wintertime and overall bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women. Annals of Internal Medicine 115 505–512.
Dawson-Hughes, B, Harris, SS, Krall, EA & Dallal, GE (1997) Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older. New England Journal of Medicine 337 670–676.
Dawson-Hughes, B, Harris, SS, Krall, EA, Dallal, GE, Falconer, G & Green, CL (1995) Rates of bone loss in postmenopausal women randomly assigned to one of two dosages of vitamin D. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 61 1140–1145.
DeLuca, HF & Cantorna, MT (2001) Vitamin D: its role and uses in immunology. FASEB Journal 15 2579–2585.
Department of Health (1998) Committee of Medical Aspects of Food Policy: Nutrition and Bone Health – With Particular Reference to Calcium and Vitamin D. report no. 49. London: HM Stationery Office.
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung, Österreichische Gesellschaft für Ernährung, Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Ernährungsforschung & Schweizerische Vereinigung für Ernährung (2000) Referenzwerte für die Nährstoffzufuhr. Frankfurt/M, Germany: Umschau Verlag.
Diamond, T, Smerdely, P, Kormas, N, Sekel, R, Vu, T & Day, P (1998) Hip fracture in elderly men: the importance of subclinical vitamin D deficiency and Hypogonadism. Medical Journal of Australia 169 138–141.
Dichgans, F & Diener, HC (1987) Neurologie. In Lehrbuch der Inneren Medizin, pp. 1065–1067 [Groos, R, Schölmerich, P and Gerok, W, editors]. Stuttgart, Germany: Schattauer.
Docio, S, Riancho, JA, Perez, A, Olmos, JM, Amado, JA & Gonzalez-Macias, J (1998) Seasonal deficiency of vitamin D in children: a potential target for osteoporosis-preventing strategies? Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 13 544–548.
Dottori, L, D'Ottavio, D & Brundisini, B (1982) Calcifediol and calcitonin in the therapy of rheumatoid arthritis. A short-term controlled study [in Italian]. Minerva Medicine 73 3033–3040.
Douglas, AS, Rawles, JM, Alexander, E & Allan, TM (1991) Winter pressure on hospital medical beds. British Medical Journal 303 508–509.
Dustan, HP (1990) Obesity and hypertension in blacks. Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy 4, Suppl. 2, 395–402.
Eastwood, JB, de Wardener, HE, Gray, RW & Lemann, JL (1979) Normal plasma-1,25-(OH)2-vitamin-D concentrations in nutritional osteomalacia. Lancet i 1377–1378.
Fardellone, P, Sebert, JL, Garabedian, M, Bellony, R, Maamer, M, Agbomson, F & Brazier, M (1995) Prevalence and biological consequences of vitamin D deficiency in elderly institutionalized subjects. Review Du Rhumatisme, English edition 62 576–581.
Feldman, D, Skowronski, RJ & Peehl, DM (1995) Vitamin D and prostate cancer. Advances in Experimental and Medical Biology 375 53–63.
Feskens, EJ & Kromhout, D (1993) Epidemiologic studies on Eskimos and fish intake. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 683 9–15.
Garland, CF, Garland, FC & Gorham, ED (1991) Can colon cancer incidence and death rates be reduced with calcium and vitamin D? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54 193S–201S.
Glerup, H, Mikkelsen, K, Poulsen, L, Hass, E, Overbeck, S, Thomsen, J, Charles, P & Eriksen, EF (2000) Commonly recommended daily intake of vitamin D is not sufficient if sunlight exposure is limited. Journal of Internal Medicine 247 260–268.
Goldberg, P, Fleming, MC & Picard, EH (1986) Multiple sclerosis decreased relapse rate through dietary supplementation with calcium, magnesium and vitamin D. Medical Hypotheses 21 193–200.
Graafmans, WC, Ooms, ME, Hofstee, HM, Bezemer, PD, Bouter, LM & Lips, P (1996) Falls in the elderly: a prospective study of risk factors and risk profiles. American Journal of Epidemiology 143 1129–1136.
Grady, D, Halloran, B, Cummings, S, Leveille, S, Wells, L, Black, D & Byl, N (1991) 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and muscle strength in the elderly: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 73 1111–1117.
Guillemant, J, Le, HT, Maria, A, Allemandou, A, Peres, G & Guillemant, S (2001) Wintertime vitamin D deficiency in male adolescents: effect on parathyroid function and response to vitamin D3 supplements. Osteoporosis International 12 875–879.
Guyton, KZ, Kensler, TW & Posner, GH (2001) Cancer chemoprevention using natural vitamin D and synthetic analogs. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 41 421–42.
Harris, SS & Dawson-Hughes, B (1998) Seasonal changes in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of young American black and white women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 67 1232–1236.
Hartman, JJ (2000) Vitamin D deficiency rickets in children: prevalence and need for community education. Orthopaedic Nursing 19 63–67.
Hayes, CE, Cantorna, MT & DeLuca, HF (1997) Vitamin D and multiple sclerosis. Proceedings of the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine 216 21–27.
Health Council of the Netherlands (2000) Dietary Reference Values: Calcium, Vitamin D, Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Pantothenic Acid and Biotin, Publication No. 2000/12. The Hague, The Netherlands: Health Council of the Netherlands.
Heaney, RP (2000) Vitamin D: How much do we need, and how much is too much? Osteoporosis International 11 553–555.
Hegarty, V, Woodhouse, P & Khaw, KT (1994) Seasonal variation in 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone concentrations in healthy elderly people. Age and Ageing 23 478–482.
Hein, G & Oelzner, P (2000) Vitamin D metabolites in rheumatoid arthritis: findings – hypotheses – consequences [in German]. Zeitschrift für Rheumatologie 59, Suppl. 1, 28–32.
Hellebostad, M, Markestad, T & Seeger Halvorsen, K (1985) Vitamin D deficiency rickets and vitamin B12 deficiency in vegetarian children. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica 74 191–195.
Heseker, H, Adolf, T, Eberhardt, W, Hartmann, S, Herwig, A, Kübler, W, Matiaske, B, Moch, KJ, Nitsche, A, Schneider, R & Zipp, A (1994) Lebensmittel- und Nährstoffaufnahme Erwachsener in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, 2nd Ed. [Kübler, W, Anders, H, Heeschen, W and Kohlmeier, M, editors], Niederkleen. Germany: Wissenschaftlicher Fachverlag Dr. Fleck.
Hesse, V & Jahreis, G (1990) Vitamin D-induced tissue calcinosis and arteriosclerosis changes. II Current knowledge and conclusions for preventive vitamin D administration in infancy and early childhood [in German]. Pädiatrie und ihre Grenzgebiete 29 213–219.
Holick, MF (1994) McCollum Award Lecture, Vitamin D: New horizons for the 21st century. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 60 619–630.
Holick, MF (2002) Vitamin D: The underappreciated D-lightful hormone that is important for skeletal and cellular health. Current Opinion in Endocrinology and Diabetes 9 87–98.
Holick, MF, Matsuoka, LY & Wortsman, J (1989) Age, vitamin D and solar ultraviolet. Lancet ii 1104–1105.
Holmes, RP & Kummerow, FA (1983) The relationship of adequate and excessive intake of vitamin D to health and disease. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 2 173–199.
Hotamisligil, CS & Spiegelman, BM (1994) Tumor necrosis factor α: a key component of the obesity-diabetes link. Diabetes 43 1271–1278.
Huber, SA, Sakkinen, P, Conze, D, Hardin, N & Tracy, R (1999) Interleukin-6 exacerbates early atherosclerosis in mice. Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 19 2364–2367.
Hunter, D, Major, P, Arden, N, Swaminathan, R, Andrew, T, MacGregor, AJ, Keen, R, Snieder, H & Spector, TD (2000) A randomized controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation on preventing postmenopausal bone loss and modifying bone metabolism using identical twin pairs. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 15 276–283.
Hyppönen, E, Laara, E, Reunanen, A, Jarvelin, MR & Virtanen, SM (2001) Intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes: a birth-cohort study. Lancet 358 1500–1503.
Jacobus, CH, Holick, MF, Shao, Q, Chen, TC, Holm, IA, Kolodny, JM, Fuleihan, GE & Seely, EW (1992) Hypervitaminosis D associated with drinking milk. New England Journal of Medicine 30 1173–1177.
Jahnsen, J, Falch, JA, Mowinckel, P & Aadland, E (2002) Vitamin D status, parathyroid hormone and bone mineral density in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 37 192–199.
John, EM, Schwartz, GG, Dreon, DM & Koo, J (1999) Vitamin D and breast cancer risk: the NHANES I Epidemiologic follow-up study, 1971–1975 to 1992. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 8 399–406.
Kärkkainen, MU, Wiersma, JW & Lamberg-Allardt, CJ (1997) Postprandial parathyroid hormone response to four calcium-rich foodstuffs. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65 1726–1730.
Kocian, J (1992) Diabetic osteopathy. Favorable effect of treatment of osteomalacia with vitamin D and calcium on high blood glucose levels [in Czech]. Vnitrni Lekarstri 38 352–356.
Koutka, P, Chen, TC & Holick, MF (2001) Vitamin D intoxication associated with an over-the-counter supplement. New England Journal of Medicine 345 66–67.
Krause, R, Böhring, M, Hopfenmhller, W, Holick, MF & Sharma, AM (1998) Ultraviolet B and blood pressure. Lancet 352 709–710.
Kröger, H, Penttila, IM & Alhava, EM (1993) Low serum vitamin D metabolites in women with rheumatoid arthritis. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology 22 172–177.
Kumar, S, Davies, M, Zakaria, Y, Mawer, EB, Gordon, C, Olukoga, AO & Boulton, AJ (1994) Improvement in glucose tolerance and beta-cell function in a patient with vitamin D deficiency during treatment with vitamin D. Postgraduate Medicine Journal 70 440–443.
Lamb, EJ, Wong, T, Smith, DJ, Simpson, DE, Coakley, AJ, Moniz, C & Muller, AF (2002) Metabolic bone disease is present at diagnosis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapy 16 1895–1902.
Lamberg-Allardt, CJE, Outila, TA, Kärkkäinen, MUM, Rita, HJ & Valsta, LM (2001) Vitamin D deficiency and bone health in healthy adults in Finland: could this be a concern in other parts of Europe? Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 16 2066–2073.
Lawson, DE, Cole, TJ, Salem, SI, Galal, OM, el-Meligy, R, Abdel-Azim, S, Paul, AA & el-Husseini, S (1987) Aetiology of rickets in Egyptian children. Human Nutrition Clinical Nutrition 41 199–208.
Lawson, M, Thomas, M & Hardiman, A (1999) Dietary and lifestyle factors affecting plasma vitamin D levels in Asian children living in England. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53 268–272.
LeBoff, MS, Kohlmeier, L, Hurwitz, S, Franklin, J, Wright, J & Glowacki, J (1999) Occult vitamin D deficiency in postmenopausal US women with acute hip fracture. JAMA 281 1505–1511.
Lehtonen-Veromaa, M, Mottonen, T, Irjala, K, Karkkainen, M, Lamberg-Allardt, C, Hakola, P & Viikari, J (1999) Vitamin D intake is low and hypovitaminosis D common in healthy 9- to 15-year-old Finnish girls. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53 746–751.
Lehtonen-Veromaa, M, Mottonen, T, Nuotio, I, Irjala, K & Viikari, J (2002) The effect of conventional vitamin D(2) supplementation on serum 25(OH)D concentration is weak among peripubertal Finnish girls: a 3-y prospective study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 56 431–437.
Lemire, JM, Adams, JS, Kermani-Arab, V, Bakke, AC, Sakai, R & Jordan, SC (1985) 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 suppresses human T helper/inducer lymphocyte activity in vitro. Journal of Immunology 134 3032–3035.
Lemire, JM, Archer, DC, Beck, L & Spiegelberg, HL (1995) Immunosuppressive actions of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3: preferential inhibition of Th1 functions. Journal of Nutrition 125, Suppl. 6, 1704S–1708S.
Lilienfeld-Toal, HV, Messerschmidt, W, Sturm, B & Ochs, H (1978) 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels in a patient with hypervitaminosis D. Klinische Wochenschrift 56 715–717.
Lind, L, Lithell, H, Skarfors, E, Wide, L & Ljunghall, S (1988) Reduction of blood pressure by treatment with alphacalcidol. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Acta Medica Scandinavica 223 211–217.
Lind, L, Wengle, B & Ljunghall, S (1987) Blood pressure is lowered by vitamin D (alphacalcidol) during long-term treatment of patients with intermittent hypercalcaemia. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Acta Medica Scandinavica 222 423–427.
Lind, L, Wengle, B, Wide, L & Ljunghall, S (1989) Reduction of blood pressure during long-term treatment with active vitamin D (Alphacalcidiol) is dependent on plasma rennin activity and calcium status. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. American Journal of Hypertension 2 20–25.
Linhares, ER, Jones, DA, Round, JM & Edwards, RHT (1984) Effect of nutrition on vitamin D status: studies on healthy and poorly nourished children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 39 625–630.
Lips, P, Graafmans, WC, Ooms, ME, Bezemer, PD & Bouter, LM (1996) Vitamin D supplementation and fracture incidence in elderly persons. A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 15 400–406.
Ljunghall, S, Lind, L, Lithell, H, Skarfors, E, Selenus, I, Sörensen, OH & Wide, L (1987) Treatment with one-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol in middle-aged men with impaired glucose tolerance – A prospective randomized double-blind study. Acta Medica Scandinavica 222 361–367.
McAlindon, TE, Felson, DT, Zhang, Y, Hannan, MT, Aliabadi, P, Weissman, B, Rush, D & Wilson, PWF (1996) Relation of dietary intake and serum levels of vitamin D to progression of osteoarthritis of the knee among participants in the Framingham study. Annals of Internal Medicine 125 353–359.
McCarron, DA, Morris, CD & Bukoski, R (1987) The calcium paradox of essential hypertension. American Journal of Medicine 82 27–33.
MacGregor, GA & Cappuccio, FP (1993) The kidney and essential hypertension: a link to osteoporosis? Journal of Hypertension 11 781–785.
McKeigue, PM, Pierpoint, T, Ferrie, JE & Marmot, MG (1992) Relationship of glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinaemia to body fat pattern in south Asians and Europeans. Diabetologia 35 785–791.
McKenna, M (1992) Differences in vitamin D status between countries in young adults and elderly. American Journal of Medicine 93 69–77.
McKenna, MJ & Freaney, R (1998) Secondary hyperparathyroidisms in the elderly: means to defining hypovitaminosis D. Osteoporosis International 8 S3–S6.
Malabanan, A, Veronikis, IE & Holick, MF (1998) Redefining vitamin D insufficiency. Lancet 351 805–806.
Markestad, T, Hesse, V, Siebenhuner, M, Jahreis, G, Aksnes, L, Plenert, W & Aarskog, D (1987) Intermittent high-dose vitamin D prophylaxis during infancy: effect on vitamin D metabolites, calcium, and phosphorus. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 46 652–658.
Mendall, MA, Patel, P, Asante, M, Ballam, L, Morris, J, Strachan, DP, Camm, AJ & Northfield, TC (1997) Relation of serum cytokine concentrations to cardiovascular risk factors and coronary heart disease. Heart 78 273–277.
Muhe, L, Lulseged, S, Mason, KE & Simoes, EAF (1997) Case-control study of the role of nutritional rickets in the risk of developing pneumonia in Ethiopian children. Lancet 349 1801–1804.
Müller, K, Diamant, M & Bendtzen, K (1991 a) Inhibition of production and function of interleukin-6 by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Immunology Letters 28 115–120.
Müller, K, Haahr, PM, Diamant, M, Rieneck, K, Kharazmi, A & Bendtzen, K (1992) 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits cytokine production by human blood monocytes at the post-transcriptional level. Cytokine 4 506–512.
Müller, K, Heilmann, C, Poulsen, LK, Barington, T & Bendtzen, K (1991 b) The role of monocytes and T cells in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 mediated inhibition of B cell function in vitro. Immunopharmacology 21 121–128.
National Nutrition Council (1999) Finnish Nutrition Recommendations, pp. 24. Helsinki, Finland: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.
Need, AG, Horowitz, M, Morris, HA & Nordin, BEC (2000) Vitamin D status: effects on parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in postmenopausal women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71 1577–1581.
Nemere, I & Farach-Carson, MC (1998) Membrane receptors for steroid hormones: A case for specific cell surface binding sites for vitamin D metabolites and estrogens. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 248 442–449.
Nemere, I, Zhou, LX & Norman, AW (1993) Nontranscriptional effects of steroid hormones. Receptor 3 277–291.
Nieves, J, Cosman, F, Herbert, J, Shen, V & Lindsay, R (1994) High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and reduced bone mass in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 44 1687–1692.
Nordin, BE, Baker, MR, Horsman, A & Peacock, M (1985) A prospective trial of the effect of vitamin D supplementation on metacarpal bone loss in elderly women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 42 470–474.
Norman, AW (1998) Receptors for 1α25(OH)2D3: Past, present, and future. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 13 1360–1369.
Oelzner, P, Müller, A, Deschner, F, Höller, M, Abendroth, K, Hein, G & Stein, G (1998) Relationship between disease activity and serum levels of vitamin D metabolites and PTH in rheumatoid arthritis. Calcified Tissue International 62 193–198.
Ooms, ME, Roos, JC, Bezemer, PD, van der Vijgh, WJ, Bouter, LM & Lips, P (1995) Prevention of bone loss by vitamin D supplementation in elderly women: a randomized double-blind trial. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 80 1052–1058.
Ortlepp, JR, Lauscher, J, Hoffmann, R, Hanrath, P & Joost, HG (2001) The vitamin D receptor gene variant is associated with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. Diabetic Medicine 18 842–845.
Outila, TA, Kärkkäinen, MUM & Lamberg-Allardt, CJE (2001) Vitamin D status affects serum parathyroid hormone concentrations during winter in female adolescents: associations with forearm bone mineral density. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 74 206–210.
Pan, WH, Wang, CY, Li, LA, Kao, LS & Yeh, SH (1993) No significant effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on blood pressure and calcium metabolism in elderly Chinese. Chinese Journal of Physiology 36 85–94.
Patel, R, Collins, D, Bullock, S, Swaminathan, R, Blake, GM & Fogelman, I (2001) The effect of season and vitamin D supplementation on bone mineral density in healthy women: a double-masked crossover study. Osteoporosis International 12 319–325.
Peacock, M (1995) Nutritional aspects of hip fractures. Challenges of Modern Medicine 7 213–222.
Peacock, M, Liu, G, Carey, M, McClintock, R, Ambrosius, W, Hui, S & Johnston, CC (2000) Effect of calcium or 25OH vitamin D3 dietary supplementation on bone loss at the hip in men and women over the age of 60. Journal Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 85 3011–3019.
Pfeifer, M, Begerow, B, Minne, HW, Abrams, C, Nachtigall, D & Hansen, C (2000) Effects of a short-term vitamin D and calcium supplementation on body sway and secondary hyperparathyroidism in elderly women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 15 1113–1138.
Pfeiffer, M, Begerow, B, Minne, HW, Nachtigall, D & Hansen, C (2001) Effects of a short-term vitamin D(3) and calcium supplementation on blood pressure and parathyroid hormone levels in elderly women. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 86 1633–1667.
Pleasure, D, Wyszynski, B, Summer, A, Schotland, D, Feldmann, B, Nugent, N, Hitz, K & Goodman, X (1979) Skeletal muscle calcium metabolism and contraction force in vitamin D deficient chicks. Journal of Clinical Investigation 64 1157–1167.
Podolsky, DK (1991) Inflammatory bowel disease. New England Journal of Medicine 325 928–1016.
Poiton, JJ, Francis, MJ & Smith, R (1979) Effect of vitamin D deficiency on sarcoplasmic reticulum function and troponin C concentration of rabbit skeletal muscle. Clinical Science 57 257–263.
Provvedini, DM, Deftos, LJ & Manolagas, SC (1986) 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 promotes in vitro morphologic and enzymatic changes in normal human monocytes consistent with their differentiation into macrophages. Bone 7 23–28.
Provvedini, DM & Manolagas, SC (1989) 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor distribution and effects in subpopulations of normal human T lymphocytes. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 68 774–779.
Pryke, AM, Duggan, C, White, CP, Posen, S & Mason, RS (1990) Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces vitamin D-1-hydroxylase activity in normal human alveolar macrophages. Journal of Cell Physiology 142 652–656.
Rehman, PKM (1994) Sub-clinical rickets and recurrent infection. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 40, 58.
Rigby, WFC (1988) The immunobiology of vitamin D. Immunology Today 9 54–58.
Rigby, WF, Waugh, M & Graziano, RF (1990) Regulation of human monocyte HLA-DR and CD4 antigen expression, and antigen presentation by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Blood 76 189–197.
Rimaniol, JM, Authier, FJ & Chariot, P (1994) Muscle weakness in intensive care patients’ initial manifestation of vitamin D deficiency. Intensive Care Medicine 20 591–592.
Ritz, E, Boland, R & Kreusser, W (1980) Effects of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone on muscle: potential role in uremic myopathy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 33 1522–1529.
Rudnicki, PM & Molsted-Pedersen, L (1997) Effect of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol on glucose metabolism in gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 40 40–44.
Scharla, SH (1998) Prevalence of subclinical vitamin D deficiency in different European countries. Osteoporosis International 8 S7–S12.
Scharla, SH, Scheidt-Nave, C, Leidig, G, Woitge, H, Wüster, C, Seibel, MJ & Ziegler, R (1996) Lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with increased bone resorption markers and lower bone density at the proximal femur in normal females: A population-based study. Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology and Diabetes 104 289–292.
Schwartz, GG (1992) Multiple sclerosis and prostate cancer: what do their similar geographies suggest? Neuroepidemiology 11 244–254.
Scragg, R (1981) Seasonality of cardiovascular disease mortality and the possible protective effect of ultra-violet radiation. International Journal of Epidemiology 10 337–341.
Scragg, R, Holdaway, I, Jackson, R & Lim, T (1992) Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and its relation to physical activity and other heart disease risk factors in the general population. Annals of Epidemiology 2 697–703.
Scragg, R, Jackson, R, Holdaway, IM, Lim, T & Beaglehole, R (1990) Myocardial infarction is inversely associated with plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels: a community-based study. International Journal of Epidemiology 19 559–563.
Scragg, R, Khaw, KT & Murphy, S (1995) Effect of winter oral vitamin D3 supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors in elderly adults. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49 640–646.
Selles, J, Bellido, T & Boland, R (1994) Modulation of calcium uptake in cultured cardiac muscle cells by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Journal of Molecular and Cell Cardiology 26 1593–1599.
Sonnenberg, A, McCarty, DJ & Jacobsen, SJ (1991) Geographic variation of inflammatory bowel disease within the United States. Gastroenterology 100 143–149.
Souci, SW, Fachmann, W & Kraut, H (1994) Die Zusammensetzung der Lebensmittel. Nährwerttabellen. Stuttgart, Germany: Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH.
Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board and Institute of Medicine (1997) Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D and Fluoride, pp. 250–287. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences.
Statistisches Bundesamt (1998) Gesundheitsbericht für Deutschland. Diabetes Mellitus, pp. 237–242. Stuttgart, Germany: Metzler und Poeschel.
Stene, LC, Ulriksen, J, Magnus, P & Joner, G (2000) Use of cod liver oil during pregnancy associated with lower risk of type I diabetes in the offspring. Diabetologia 43 1093–1098.
Strazzullo, P (1991) The renal leak in primary hypertension: pathophysiological aspects and clinical implications. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Disease 1 98–103.
Stroder, J & Arensmeyer, E (1965) Der Actomyosingehalt der Skelettmuskulatur bei experimenteller Rachitis (The actinomysin content of the skeletal muscle in experimental rickets). Klinische Wochenschrift 43 1201–1202.
Trang, H, Cole, DE, Rubin, LA, Pierratos, A, Siu, S & Vieth, R (1998) Evidence that vitamin D3 increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D more efficiently than does vitamin D2. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 68 854–858.
Tuohimaa, P, Lyakhovich, A, Aksenov, N, Pennanen, P, Syvala, H, Lou, YR, Ahonen, M, Hasan, T, Pasanen, P, Blauer, M, Manninen, T, Miettinen, S, Vilja, P & Ylikomi, T (2001) Vitamin D and prostate cancer. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 76 125–134.
Türk, S, Yeksan, M, Tamer, N, Gürbilek, M, Erdogan, Y & Erkul, I (1992) Effect of 1,25(OH)2 D3 treatment on glucose intolerance in uremia. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 7 1207–1212.
van der Wielen, RPJ, Lowik, MRH, van den Berg, H, de Groot, LC, Haller, J, Moreiras, O & Van Staveren, WA (1995) Serum vitamin D concentrations among elderly people in Europe. Lancet 346 207–210.
van Lente, (2000) Markers of inflammation as predictors in cardiovascular disease. Clinica Chimica Acta 293 31–52.
Vieth, R (1999) Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 69 842–856.
Vieth, R, Chan, PC & MacFarlane, GD (2001 a) Efficacy and safety of vitamin D3 intake exceeding the lowest observed adverse effect level. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 73 288–294.
Vieth, R, Cole, DE, Hawker, GA, Trang, HM & Rubin, LA (2001 b) Wintertime vitamin D insufficiency is common in young Canadian women, and their vitamin D intake does not prevent it. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 55 1091–1097.
Vik, T, Try, K & Stromme, JH (1980) The vitamin D status of man at 70° north. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation 40 227–232.
Whybro, A, Jagger, H, Barker, M & Eastell, R (1998) Phosphate supplementation in young men: lack of effect on calcium homeostasis and bone turnover. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52 29–33.
Wilkinson, RJ, Llewelyn, M, Toossi, Z, Patel, P, Pasvol, G, Lalvani, A, Wright, D, Latif, M & Davidson, RN (2000) Influence of vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D receptor polymorphisms on tuberculosis among Gujarati Asians in west London: a case-control study. Lancet 355 618–621.
Woo, J, Chan, HS, Hazlett, CB, Ho, SC, Chan, R, Sham, A & Davies, PD (1996) Tuberculosis among elderly Chinese in residential homes: tuberculin reactivity and estimated prevalence. Gerontology 42 155–162.
Wortsman, J, Matsuoka, LY, Chen, TC, Lu, Z & Holick, MF (2000) Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 72 690–693.
Yamauchi, Y, Tsunematsu, T, Konda, S, Hoshino, T, Itokawa, Y & Hoshizaki, H (1989) A double blind trial of alfacalcidol on patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) [in Japanese]. Ryumachi 29 11–24.
Ziambaras, K & Dagogo-Jack, S (1997) Reversible muscle weakness in patients with vitamin D deficiency. Western Journal of Medicine 167 435–439.
Zittermann, A (1987) Vitamin D Status von Patienten mit hereditären Aminosäurestoffwechselstörungen und von Patienten mit Phenylketonurie (Vitamin D status in patients with hereditary disturbances in amino acid metabolism and in patients with phenylketonuria). PhD thesis, Bonn
Zittermann, A, Sabatschus, O, Jantzen, S, Platen, P, Danz, A, Dimitriou, T, Scheld, K, Klein, K & Stehle, P (2000) Exercise-trained young men have higher calcium absorption rates and plasma calcitriol levels in comparison to age-matched sedentary controls. Calcified Tissue International 67 215–219.
Zittermann, A, Scheld, K & Stehle, P (1998) Seasonal variations in vitamin D status and calcium absorption do not influence bone turnover in young women. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52 501–506.
Zittermann, A, Schulze Schleithoff, S, Tenderich, G, Berthold, HK, Körfer, R & Stehle, P (2003) Low vitamin D status: a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 43 105–112.