Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Vitamin D status and its determinants in adolescents from the Northern Ireland Young Hearts 2000 cohort

  • Tom R. Hill (a1), Alice A. Cotter (a1), Sarah Mitchell (a1), Colin A. Boreham (a2), Werner Dubitzky (a3), Liam Murray (a4), J. J. Strain (a5), Albert Flynn (a1), Paula J. Robson (a5), Julie M. W. Wallace (a5), Mairead Kiely (a1) and Kevin D. Cashman (a1) (a6)...
Abstract

Despite recent concerns about the high prevalence of sub-clinical vitamin D deficiency in adolescents, relatively few studies have investigated the underlying reasons. The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and predictors of vitamin D inadequacy among a large representative sample of adolescents living in Northern Ireland (54–55°N). Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were analysed by enzyme-immunoassay in a subgroup of 1015 of the Northern Ireland Young Hearts 2000 cohort; a cross-sectional study of 12 and 15 year-old boys and girls. Overall mean 25(OH)D concentration throughout the year was 64·3 (range 5–174) nmol/l; 56·7 and 78·1 nmol/l during winter and summer, respectively. Reported intakes of vitamin D were very low (median 1·7 μg/d). Of those adolescents studied, 3 % and 36 % were vitamin D deficient and inadequate respectively, as defined by serum 25(OH)D concentrations < 25 and < 50 nmol/l. Of the subjects, 46 % and 17 % had vitamin D inadequacy during winter and summer respectively. Gender differences were also evident with 38 % and 55 % of boys and girls respectively classified as vitamin D inadequate during winter (P < 0·001). Predictors of vitamin D inadequacy during winter were vitamin D intake and gender. In conclusion, there is a high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in white-skinned adolescents in Northern Ireland, particularly during wintertime and most evident in girls. There is a clear need for dietary recommendations for vitamin D in this age group and for creative strategies to increase overall vitamin D status in the population.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Vitamin D status and its determinants in adolescents from the Northern Ireland Young Hearts 2000 cohort
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Vitamin D status and its determinants in adolescents from the Northern Ireland Young Hearts 2000 cohort
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Vitamin D status and its determinants in adolescents from the Northern Ireland Young Hearts 2000 cohort
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Professor Kevin D. Cashman, fax +353 21 4270244, email k.cashman@ucc.ie
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

4MJ McKenna (1992) Differences in vitamin D status between countries in young adults and the elderly. Am J Med 93, 6977.

5RP van der Wielen , MR Lowik , H van den Berg , LC de Groot , J Haller , O Moreiras & WA van Staveren (1995) Serum vitamin D concentrations among elderly people in Europe. Lancet 346, 8969, 207210.

6P Lips , T Duong , A Oleksik , D Black , S Cummings , D Cox & T Nickelsen (2001) A global study of vitamin D status and parathyroid function in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: baseline data from the multiple outcomes of raloxifene evaluation clinical trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86, 12121221.

7P Lips , D Hosking , K Lippuner , JM Norquist , L Wehren , G Maalouf , S Ragi-Eis & J Chandler (2006) The prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy amongst women with osteoporosis: an international epidemiological investigation. J Intern Med 260, 245254.

10J Guillemant , HT Le , A Maria , A Allemandou , G Peres & S Guillemant (2001) Wintertime vitamin D deficiency in male adolescents: effect on parathyroid function and response to vitamin D3 supplements. Osteoporos Int 12, 875879.

13R Andersen , C Molgaard , LT Skovgaard , (2005) Teenage girls and elderly women living in northern Europe have low winter vitamin D status. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 533541.

14G Das , S Crocombe , M McGrath , J Berry & Z Mughal (2006) Hypovitaminosis D among healthy adolescent girls attending an inner city school. Arch Dis Child 91, 569572.

15F Ginty , C Cavadini , P-A Michaud , (2004) Effects of usual nutrient intake and vitamin D status on markers of bone turnover in Swiss adolescents. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 12571265.

16A Looker , B Dawson-Hughes , M Calvo , E Gunter & N Sahyoun (2000) Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D status of adolescents and adults in two seasonal subpopulations from NHANES III. Bone 30, 771777.

17C Gordon , K DePeter , H Feldman , E Grace & S Emans (2004) Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 158, 531537.

18L Harkness & B Cromer (2005) Low levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D are associated with elevated parathyroid hormone in healthy adolescent females. Osteoporos Int 16, 109113.

19S Sullivan , C Rosen , W Halteman , T Chen & M Holick (2005) Adolescent girls in Maine are at risk for vitamin D insufficiency. J Am Diet Assoc 105, 971974.

20G El-Hajj Fuleihan , M Nabulsi , M Choucair , (2001) Hypovitaminosis D in healthy schoolchildren. Pediatrics 107, E53.

23G Jones , C Blizzard , MD Riley , V Parameswaran , TM Greenaway & T Dwyer (1999) Vitamin D levels in prepubertal children in Southern Tasmania: prevalence and determinants. Eur J Clin Nutr 53, 824829.

24MF Holick (2006) Resurrection of vitamin D deficiency and rickets. J Clin Invest 116, 20622072.

25JW Yarnell (1998) The PRIME study: classical risk factors do not explain the several fold differences in risk of coronary heart disease between France and Northern Ireland. Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction. QJM 91, 667676.

26GV McDonnell & SA Hawkins (1998) An epidemiologic study of multiple sclerosis in Northern Ireland. Neurology 50, 423428.

28C McGartland , PJ Robson , L Murray , G Cran , MJ Savage , D Watkins , M Rooney & C Boreham (2003) Carbonated soft drink consumption and bone mineral density in adolescence: the Northern Ireland Young Hearts project. J Bone Miner Res 18, 15631569.

30DC Watkins , LJ Murray , P McCarron , CA Boreham , GW Cran , IS Young , C McGartland , PJ Robson & JM Savage (2005) Ten-year trends for fatness in Northern Irish adolescents: the Young Hearts Projects – repeat cross-sectional study. Int J Obes 29, 579585.

31AR Webb , L Kline & MF Holick (1988) Influence of season and latitude on the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D3: exposure to winter sunlight in Boston and Edmonton will not promote vitamin D3 synthesis in human skin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 67, 373378.

35SH Scharla (1998) Prevalence of subclinical vitamin D deficiency in different European countries. Osteoporosis Int 8, S7S12.

36B Basha , DS Rao , ZH Han & AM Parfitt (2000) Osteomalacia due to vitamin D depletion: a neglected consequence of intestinal malabsorption. Am J Med 108, 296300.

42MM Salamoun , AS Kizirian , RI Tannous , (2005) Low calcium and vitamin D intake in healthy children and adolescents and their correlates. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 177184.

43B Dawson-Hughes , RP Heaney , MF Holick , P Lips , PJ Meunier & R Vieth (2005) Estimates of optimal vitamin D status. Osteopor Int 16, 713716.

44GD Carter , R Carter , J Jones & J Berry (2004) How accurate are assays for 25-hydroxyvitamin D? Data from the international vitamin D external quality assessment scheme. Clin Chem 50, 21952197.

46GD Carter , JC Jones & JL Berry (2007) The anomalous behaviour of exogenous 25-hydroxyvitamin D in competitive binding assays. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 103, 480482.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: