1Boucher B, Mannan N, Noonan K, et al. (1995) Glucose intolerance and impairment of insulin secretion in relation to vitamin D deficiency in East London Asians. Diabetologia 38, 1239–1245.
2Isaia G, Giorgino R & Adami S (2001) High prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in female type 2 diabetic population. Diabetes Care 24, 1496.
3Lucas JA, Bolland MJ, Grey AB, et al. (2005) Determinants of vitamin D status in older women living in a subtropical climate. Osteoporos Int 16, 1641–1648.
4Scragg R, Holdaway I, Singh V, et al. (1995 b) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels decreased in impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 27, 181–188.
5Mattila C, Knekt P, Mannisto S, et al. (2007) Serum 25-hyrdroxyvitamin D concentration and subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 30, 2569–2570.
6Maghbooli Z, Hossein-Nezhad A, Karimi F, et al. (2008) Correlation between vitamin D3 deficiency and insulin resistance in pregnancy. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 24, 27–32.
7Alemzadeha R, Kichlerb J, Babara G, et al. (2008) Hypovitaminosis D in obese children and adolescents: relationship with adiposity, insulin sensitivity, ethnicity, and season. Metabolism 57, 183–191.
8Forouhi NG, Luan Ja, Cooper A, et al. (2008) Baseline serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D is predictive of future glycemic status and insulin resistance: The Medical Research Council Ely Prospective Study 1990–2000. Diabetes 57, 2619–2626.
9Kumar S, Davies M & Zakaria Y (1994) Improvement in glucose tolerance and beta-cell function in a patient with vitamin D deficiency during treatment with vitamin D. Postgrad Med J 70, 440–443.
10Borissova A, Tankova T, Kirilov G, et al. (2003) The effect of vitamin D3 on insulin secretion and peripheral insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients. Int J Clin Pract 57, 258–261.
11Gedik O & Akalin S (1986) Effects of vitamin D deficiency and repletion on insulin and glucagon secretion in man. Diabetologia 29, 142–145.
12Tai K, Need AG, Horowitz M, et al. (2008) Glucose tolerance and vitamin D: effects of treating vitamin D deficiency. Nutrition 24, 950–956.
13Nagpal J, Pande JN & Bhartia A (2009) A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the short-term effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on insulin sensitivity in apparently healthy, middle-aged, centrally obese men. Diabet Med 26, 19–27.
14Pittas AG, Lau J, Hu FB, et al. (2007) Review: the role of vitamin D and calcium in type 2 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92, 2017–2029.
15Vieth R, Bischoff-Ferrari H, Boucher BJ, et al. (2007) The urgent need to recommend an intake of vitamin D that is effective. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 649–650.
16Heaney RP, Davies KM, Chen TC, et al. (2003) Human serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol response to extended oral dosing with cholecalciferol. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 204–210.
17Vieth R, Chan P-CR & MacFarlane GD (2001) Efficacy and safety of vitamin D3 intake exceeding the lowest observed adverse effect level. Am J Clin Nutr 73, 288–294.
18Ministry of Health, N.Z. (2006) Asian Health Chart Book 2006 Public Health Intelligence: Monitoring Report No. 4, p. 47. Wellington: Ministry of Health.
19Von Hurst PR, Stonehouse W, Kruger MC, et al. (2007) Vitamin D status of South Asian women living in New Zealand (abstract). Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 16, S50.
20Von Hurst PR, Stonehouse W, Matthys C, et al. (2008) Metabolic syndrome, vitamin D and bone status in South Asian women living in Auckland, New Zealand: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind vitamin D intervention. BMC Public Health 8, 1–8.
21Deepa R, Shanthirani SS, Premalatha G, et al. (2002) Prevalence of insulin resistance syndrome in a selected South Indian population – the Chennai urban population study-7 (CUPS-7). Indian J Med Res 115, 118–127.
22Reaven GM (2005) The insulin resistance syndrome: definition and dietary approaches to treatment. Annu Rev Nutr 25, 391–406.
23Matthews DR, Hosker JP, Rudenski AS, et al. (1985) Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia 28, 412–419.
24Bonora E, Targher G, Alberiche M, et al. (2000) Homeostasis model assessment closely mirrors the glucose clamp technique in the assessment of insulin sensitivity. Diabetes Care 23, 57–63.
25Wallace T, Levy J & Matthews D (2004) Use and abuse of HOMA modelling. Diabetes Care 27, 1487–1495.
26Levy JC, Matthews D & Hermans M (1998) Correct homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) evaluation uses the computer program. Diabetes Care 21, 2191–2192.
27Sari R, Balci MK, Balci N, et al. (2007) Acute effect of exercise on plasma leptin level and insulin resistance in obese women with stable caloric intake. Endocr Res 32, 9–17.
29Chel V, Ooms M & Popp-Snijders C (1998) Ultraviolet irradiation corrects vitamin D deficiency and suppresses secondary hyperparathyroidism in the elderly. J Bone Miner Res 13, 1238–1242.
30Taylor A & Wise P (1998) Vitamin D replacement in Asians with diabetes may increase insulin resistance. Postgrad Med J 74, 365–366.
31Barger-Lux MJ, Heaney RP, Dowell S, et al. (1998) Vitamin D and its major metabolites: serum levels after graded oral dosing in healthy men. Osteoporos Int 8, 222.
32Jones G, Strugnell SA & Deluca HF (1998) Current understanding of the molecular actions of vitamin D. Physiol Rev 78, 1193–1231.
33Cade C & Norman AW (1986) Vitamin D3 improves impaired glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in the vitamin D-deficient rat in vivo. Endocrinology 119, 84–90.
34Chertow BS, Sivitz WI, Baranestsky NG, et al. (1983) Cellular mechanisms of insulin release: the effects of vitamin D deficiency and repletion on rat insulin secretion. Endocrinology 113, 1511–1518.
35Johnson J, Grande J, Roche P, et al. (1994) Immunohistochemical localization of the 1,25(OH)2D3 receptor and calbindin D28k in human and rat pancreas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 267, E356–E360.
36Chiu KC, Chu A, Go VLW, et al. (2004) Hypovitaminosis D is associated with insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 820–825.
37Weisberg S, McCann D, Desai M, et al. (2003) Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue. J Clin Invest 112, 1796–1808.
38Kershaw EE & Flier JS (2004) Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89, 2548–2556.
39Schleithoff SS, Zittermann A, Tenderich G, et al. (2006) Vitamin D supplementation improves cytokine profiles in patients with congestive heart failure: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 754–759.
40Muller K, Haahr P, Diamant M, et al. (1992) 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits cytokine production by human blood monocytes at the post-transcriptional level. Cytokine 4, 506–512.
41Canning M, Grotenhuis K, Wit Hd, et al. (2001) 1-Alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 hampers the maturation of fully active immature dendritic cells from monocytes. Eur J Endocrinol 145, 351–357.
42Timms PM, Mannan N, Hitman GA, et al. (2002) Circulating MMP9, vitamin D and variation in the TIMP-1 response with VDR genotype: mechanisms for inflammatory damage in chronic disorders? QJM 95, 787–796.
43Kelley-Hedgepeth A, Lloyd-Jones DM, Colvin A, et al. (2008) Ethnic differences in C-reactive protein concentrations. Clin Chem 54, 1027–1037.
44Maestro B, Davila N, Carranza MC, et al. (2003) Identification of a vitamin D response element in the human insulin receptor gene promoter. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 84, 223–230.
45Maestro B, Campion J, Davila N, et al. (2000) Stimulation by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 of insulin receptor expression and insulin responsiveness for glucose transport in U-937 human promonocytic cells. Endocr J 47, 383–391.
46Maestro B, Molero S, Bajo S, et al. (2002) Transcriptional activation of the human insulin receptor gene by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Cell Biochem Funct 20, 227–232.
47Withers D & White M (2000) Perspective: The insulin signaling system – a common link in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Endocrinology 141, 1917–1921.
48Kim Y, Kotani K, Ciaraldi T, et al. (2003) Insulin-stimulated protein kinase C lambda/zeta activity is reduced in skeletal muscle of humans with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 52, 1935–1942.