Skip to main content

Vitamins and cardiovascular disease

  • S. Honarbakhsh (a1) and M. Schachter (a1)

CVD is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the Western world. In recent years its importance has expanded internationally and it is believed that by 2020 it will be the biggest cause of mortality in the world, emphasising the importance to prevent or minimise this increase. A beneficial role for vitamins in CVD has long been explored but the data are still inconsistent. While being supported by observational studies, randomised controlled trials have not yet supported a role for vitamins in primary or secondary prevention of CVD and have in some cases even indicated increased mortality in those with pre-existing late-stage atherosclerosis. The superiority of combination therapy over single supplementation has been suggested but this has not been confirmed in trials. Studies have indicated that β-carotene mediates pro-oxidant effects and it has been suggested that its negative effects may diminish the beneficial effects mediated by the other vitamins in the supplementation cocktail. The trials that used a combination of vitamins that include β-carotene have been disappointing. However, vitamin E and vitamin C have in combination shown long-term anti-atherogenic effects but their combined effect on clinical endpoints has been inconsistent. Studies also suggest that vitamins would be beneficial to individuals who are antioxidant-deficient or exposed to increased levels of oxidative stress, for example, smokers, diabetics and elderly patients, emphasising the importance of subgroup targeting. Through defining the right population group and the optimal vitamin combination we could potentially find a future role for vitamins in CVD.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Vitamins and cardiovascular disease
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Vitamins and cardiovascular disease
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Vitamins and cardiovascular disease
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: S. Honarbakhsh, fax +44 207 8866145, email
Hide All
1Lopez AD & Murray CC (1998) The global burden of disease, 1990–2020. Nat Med 4, 12411243.
2He FJ, Nowson CA, Lucas M, et al. (2007) Increased consumption of fruit and vegetables is related to a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of cohort studies. J Hum Hypertens 21, 717728.
3Dauchet L, Amouyel P, Hercberg S, et al. (2006) Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. J Nutr 136, 25882593.
4Joshipura KJ, Hu FB, Manson JE, et al. (2001) The effect of fruit and vegetable intake on risk for coronary heart disease. Ann Intern Med 134, 11061114.
5Liu S, Lee IM, Ajani U, et al. (2001) Intake of vegetables rich in carotenoids and risk of coronary heart disease in men: The Physicians' Health Study. Int J Epidemiol 30, 130135.
6He FJ, Nowson CA & MacGregor GA (2006) Fruit and vegetable consumption and stroke: meta-analysis of cohort studies. Lancet 367, 320326.
7Gillman MW, Cupples LA, Gagnon D, et al. (1995) Protective effect of fruits and vegetables on development of stroke in men. JAMA 273, 11131117.
8Joshipura KJ, Ascherio A, Manson JE, et al. (1999) Fruit and vegetable intake in relation to risk of ischemic stroke. JAMA 282, 12331239.
9Vollset SE & Bjelke E (1983) Does consumption of fruit and vegetables protect against stroke? Lancet ii, 742.
10Gaziano JM, Manson JE, Branch LG, et al. (1995) A prospective study of consumption of carotenoids in fruits and vegetables and decreased cardiovascular mortality in the elderly. Ann Epidemiol 5, 255260.
11Liu S, Manson JE, Lee IM, et al. (2000) Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of cardiovascular disease: the Women's Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 922928.
12Cross CE, Halliwell B, Borish ET, et al. (1987) Oxygen radicals and human disease. Ann Intern Med 107, 526545.
13Finking G & Hanke H (1997) Nikolaj Nikolajewitsch Anitschkow (1885–1964) established the cholesterol-fed rabbit as a model for atherosclerosis research. Atherosclerosis 135, 17.
14Steinberg D, Parthasarathy S, Carew TE, et al. (1989) Beyond cholesterol. Modifications of low-density lipoprotein that increase its atherogenicity. N Engl J Med 320, 915924.
15Berliner JA & Heinecke JW (1996) The role of oxidized lipoproteins in atherogenesis. Free Radic Biol Med 20, 707727.
16Jialal I & Devaraj S (1996) Low-density lipoprotein oxidation, antioxidants, and atherosclerosis: a clinical biochemistry perspective. Clin Chem 42, 498506.
17Stringer MD, Gorog PG, Freeman A, et al. (1989) Lipid peroxides and atherosclerosis. BMJ 298, 281284.
18Regnstrom J, Nilsson J, Tornvall P, et al. (1992) Susceptibility to low-density lipoprotein oxidation and coronary atherosclerosis in man. Lancet 339, 11831186.
19Quinn MT, Parthasarthy S, Fong LG, et al. (1987) Oxidatively modified low density lipoproteins: a potential role in recruitment and retention of monocyte/macrophages during atherogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 84, 29952998.
20Quinn MT, Parthasarthy S & Steinberg D (1985) Endothelial cell derived chemotactic activity for mouse peritoneal macrophages and the effects of modified forms of low density lipoprotein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 82, 59495953.
21Cathcart MK, Morel DW & Chisolm GM (1985) Monocytes and neutrophils oxidize low-density lipoproteins making it cytotoxic. J Leukoc Biol 38, 341350.
22Morel DW, DiCorleto PE & Chisolm GM (1984) Endothelial and smooth muscle cells alter low density lipoprotein in vitro by free radical oxidation. Arteriosclerosis 4, 357364.
23Morel DW, Hessler GM & Chisolm GM (1983) Low density lipoprotein cytotoxicity induced by free radical peroxidation of lipid. J Lipid Res 24, 10701076.
24Cai H & Harrison DG (2000) Endothelial dysfunction in cardiovascular diseases: the role of oxidant stress. Circ Res 87, 840844.
25Chin JH, Azhar S & Hoffman BB (1992) Inactivation of endothelium-derived relaxing factor by oxidized lipoproteins. J Clin Invest 89, 1018.
26Galle J, Mulsch A, Busse R, et al. (1991) Effects of native and oxidized low density lipoproteins on formation and inactivation of endothelium-derived relaxing factor. Arterioscler Thromb 11, 198203.
27Diaz MN, Frei B, Vita JA, et al. (1997) Antioxidants and atherosclerotic heart disease. N Engl J Med 337, 408416.
28Steinbrecher UP, Parthasarathy S, Leake DS, et al. (1984) Modification of low density lipoprotein by endothelial cells involves lipid peroxidation and degradation of low density lipoprotein phospholipids. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 81, 38833887.
29Taddei S, Virdis A, Ghiadoni L, et al. (1997) Vitamin C improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation by restoring nitric oxide activity in essential hypertension. Circulation 97, 22222229.
30Crawford RS, Kirk EA, Rosenfeld ME, et al. (1998) Dietary antioxidants inhibit development of fatty streak lesions in the LDL receptor-deficient mouse. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 18, 15061513.
31Fruebis J, Carew TE & Palinski W (1995) Effect of vitamin E on atherogenesis in LDL receptor-deficient rabbits. Atherosclerosis 117, 217224.
32Verlangieri AJ & Bush MJ (1992) Effects of d-α-tocopherol supplementation on experimentally induced primate atherosclerosis. J Am Coll Nutr 11, 131138.
33Smith TL & Kummerow FA (1989) Effect of dietary vitamin E on plasma lipids and atherogenesis in restricted ovulator chickens. Atherosclerosis 75, 105109.
34Mezzetti A, Zuliani G, Romano F, et al. (2001) Vitamin E and lipid peroxide plasma levels predict the risk of cardiovascular events in a group of healthy very old people. J Am Geriatr Soc 49, 533537.
35Haidari M, Javadi E, Kadkhodaee M, et al. (2001) Enhanced susceptibility to oxidation and diminished vitamin E content of LDL from patients with stable coronary artery disease. Clin Chem 47, 12341240.
36Chiu HC, Jeng JR & Shieh SM (1994) Increased oxidizability of plasma low density lipoprotein from patients with coronary artery disease. Biochim Biophys Acta 1225, 200208.
37Luoma PV, Nayha S, Sikkila K, et al. (1995) High serum α-tocopherol, albumin, selenium and cholesterol, and low mortality from coronary heart disease in northern Finland. J Intern Med 237, 4954.
38Gey KF, Moser UK, Jordan P, et al. (1993) Increased risk of cardiovascular disease at suboptimal plasma concentrations of essential antioxidants: an epidemiological update with special attention to carotene and vitamin C. Am J Clin Nutr 57, Suppl. 5, 787S797S.
39Gey KF, Stahelin HB & Eichholzer M (1993) Poor plasma status of carotene and vitamin C is associated with higher mortality from ischemic heart disease and stroke: Basel Prospective Study. Clin Investig 71, 36.
40Gey KF, Puska P, Jordan P, et al. (1991) Inverse correlation between plasma vitamin E and mortality from ischemic heart disease in cross-cultural epidemiology. Am J Clin Nutr 53, Suppl. 1, 326S334S.
41Esterbauer H, Rotheneder G, Striegl G, et al. (1989) Vitamin E and other lipophilic antioxidants protect LDL against oxidation. Fat Sci Technol 91, 316324.
42Jessup W, Rankin SM, De Whalley CV, et al. (1990) α-Tocopherol consumption during low-density-lipoprotein oxidation. Biochem J 265, 399405.
43Burton GW, Joyce A & Ingold KU (1983) Is vitamin E the only lipid-soluble, chain-breaking antioxidant in human blood plasma and erythrocyte membranes? Arch Biochem Biophys 221, 281290.
44Traber MG (2007) Vitamin E regulatory mechanisms. Annu Rev Nutr 27, 347362.
45Princen HM, van Poppel G, Vogelezang C, et al. (1992) Supplementation with vitamin E but not β-carotene in vivo protects low density lipoprotein from lipid peroxidation in vitro. Effect of cigarette smoking. Arterioscler Thromb 12, 554562.
46Dieber-Rotheneder M, Puhl H, Waeg G, et al. (1991) Effect of oral supplementation with D-α-tocopherol on the vitamin E content of human low density lipoproteins and resistance to oxidation. J Lipid Res 32, 13251332.
47Ross R (1999) Atherosclerosis – an inflammatory disease. N Engl J Med 340, 115126.
48Islam KN, Devaraj S & Jialal I (1998) α-Tocopherol enrichment of monocytes decreases agonist-induced adhesion to human endothelial cells. Circulation 98, 22552261.
49Devaraj S, Li D & Jialal I (1996) The effects of α-tocopherol supplementation on monocyte function. Decreased lipid oxidation, interleukin 1 β secretion, and monocyte adhesion to endothelium. J Clin Invest 98, 756763.
50Faruqi R, de la Motte C & DiCorleto PE (1994) α-Tocopherol inhibits agonist-induced monocytic cell adhesion to cultured human endothelial cells. J Clin Invest 94, 592600.
51Zapolska-Downar D, Zapolski-Downar A, Markiewski M, et al. (2000) Selective inhibition by α-tocopherol of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in human vascular endothelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 274, 609615.
52Wu D, Koga T, Martin KR, et al. (1999) Effect of vitamin E on human aortic endothelial cell production of chemokines and adhesion to monocytes. Atherosclerosis 147, 297307.
53Devaraj S & Jialal I (1999) α-Tocopherol decreases interleukin-1 β release from activated human monocytes by inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 19, 11251133.
54Munteanu A, Taddei M, Tamburini I, et al. (2006) Antagonistic effects of oxidized low density lipoprotein and α-tocopherol on CD36 scavenger receptor expression in monocytes: involvement of protein kinase b and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. J Biol Chem 281, 64896497.
55Devaraj S, Hugou I & Jialal I (2001) α-Tocopherol decreases CD36 expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages. J Lipid Res 42, 521527.
56Keaney JF Jr, Simon DI & Freedman JE (1999) Vitamin E and vascular homeostasis: implications for atherosclerosis. FASEB J 13, 965975.
57Ozer NK, Palozza P, Boscoboinik D, et al. (1993) d-α-Tocopherol inhibits low density lipoprotein induced proliferation and protein kinase C activity in vascular smooth muscle cells. FEBS Lett 322, 307310.
58Freedman JE, Farhat JH, Loscalzo J, et al. (1996) α-Tocopherol inhibits aggregation of human platelets by a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism. Circulation 94, 24342440.
59Steiner M (1991) Influence of vitamin E on platelet function in humans. J Am Coll Nutr 10, 466473.
60Keaney JF Jr, Gaziano JM, Xu A, et al. (1993) Dietary antioxidants preserve endothelium-dependent vessel relaxation in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90, 1188011884.
61Murohara T, Ikeda H, Katoh A, et al. (2002) Vitamin E inhibits lysophosphatidylcholine-induced endothelial dysfunction and platelet activation. Antioxid Redox Signal 4, 791798.
62Boscoboinik D, Szewczyk A, Hensey C, et al. (1991) Inhibition of cell proliferation by α-tocopherol. Role of protein kinase C. J Biol Chem 266, 61886194.
63Sugiyama S, Kugiyama K, Ogata N, et al. (1998) Biphasic regulation of transcription factor nuclear factor-κB activity in human endothelial cells by lysophosphatidylcholine through protein kinase C-mediated pathway. ArteriosclerThromb Vasc Biol 18, 568576.
64Li D, Saldeen T & Mehta JL (2000) Effects of α-tocopherol on ox-LDL-mediated degradation of IκB and apoptosis in cultured human coronary artery endothelial cells. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 36, 297301.
65Goya K, Sumitani S, Otsuki M, et al. (2006) The thiazolidinedione drug troglitazone up-regulates nitric oxide synthase expression in vascular endothelial cells. J Diab Complicat 20, 336342.
66Keaney JF Jr, Guo Y, Cunningham D, et al. (1996) Vascular incorporation of α-tocopherol prevents endothelial dysfunction due to oxidized LDL by inhibiting protein kinase C stimulation. J Clin Invest 98, 386394.
67Ulrich-Merzenich G, Metzner C, Schiermeyer B, et al. (2002) Vitamin C and vitamin E antagonistically modulate human vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cell DNA synthesis and proliferation. Eur J Nutr 41, 2734.
68Kuzuya M, Naito M, Funaki C, et al. (1991) Antioxidants stimulate endothelial cell proliferation in culture. Artery 18, 115124.
69Uemura M, Manabe H, Yoshida N, et al. (2002) α-Tocopherol prevents apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells via a mechanism exceeding that of mere antioxidation. Eur J Pharmacol 456, 2937.
70Li D, Saldeen T, Romeo F, et al. (2000) Oxidized LDL up-regulates angiotensin II type receptor expression in cultured human coronary artery endothelial cells: the potential role of transcription factor NF-κB. Circulation 102, 19701976.
71Azzi A, Aratri E, Boscoboinik D, et al. (1998) Molecular basis of α-tocopherol control of smooth muscle cell proliferation. Biofactors 7, 314.
72Haendeler J, Zeiher AM & Dimmeler S (1996) Vitamin C and E prevent lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis in human endothelial cells by modulation of Bcl-2 and Bax. Eur J Pharmacol 317, 407411.
73Koga T, Kwan P, Zubik L, et al. (2004) Vitamin E supplementation suppresses macrophage accumulation and endothelial cell expression of adhesion molecules in the aorta of hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Atherosclerosis 176, 265272.
74Terasawa Y, Ladha Z, Leonard SW, et al. (2000) Increased atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic mice deficient in α-tocopherol transfer protein and vitamin E. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97, 1383013834.
75Niki E, Yamamoto Y, Komuro E, et al. (1991) Membrane damage due to lipid oxidation. Am J Clin Nutr 53, 201S205S.
76Jialal I & Grundy SM (1991) Preservation of the endogenous antioxidants in low density lipoprotein by ascorbate but not probucol during oxidative modification. J Clin Invest 87, 597601.
77Kagan VE, Serbinova EA, Forte T, et al. (1992) Recycling of vitamin E in human low density lipoproteins. J Lipid Res 33, 385397.
78Rossig L, Hoffmann J, Hugel B, et al. (2001) Vitamin C inhibits endothelial cell apoptosis in congestive heart failure. Circulation 104, 21822187.
79Ulrich-Merzenich G, Zeitler H, Panek D, et al. (2007) Vitamin C promotes human endothelial cell growth via the ERK-signalling pathway. Eur J Nutr 46, 8794.
80Tomoda H, Yoshitake M, Morimoto K, et al. (1996) Possible prevention of postangioplasty restenosis by ascorbic acid. Am J Cardiol 78, 12841286.
81Rayment SJ, Shaw J, Woollard KJ, et al. (2003) Vitamin C supplementation in normal subjects reduces constitutive ICAM-1 expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 308, 339345.
82Heller R, Munscher-Paulig F, Grabner R, et al. (1999) l-Ascorbic acid potentiates nitric oxide synthesis in endothelial cells. J Biol Chem 274, 82548260.
83Gokce N, Keaney JF Jr, Frei B, et al. (1999) Long term ascorbic acid administration reverses endothelial vasomotor dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation 99, 32343240.
84Siow RC, Richards JP, Pedley KC, et al. (1999) Vitamin C protects human vascular smooth muscle cells against apoptosis induced by moderately oxidized LDL containing high levels of lipid hydroperoxides. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 19, 23872394.
85Reaven PD, Khouw A, Beltz WF, et al. (1993) Effect of dietary antioxidant combinations in humans. Protection of LDL by vitamin E but not by β-carotene. Arterioscler Thromb 13, 590600.
86Tsuchihashi H, Kigoshi M, Iwatsuki M, et al. (1995) Action of β-carotene as an antioxidant against lipid peroxidation. Arch Biochem Biophys 323, 137147.
87Jialal I, Norkus EP, Cristol L, et al. (1991) β-Carotene inhibits the oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein. Biochim Biophys Acta 1086, 134138.
88Rautalahti M, Albanes D, Virtamo J, et al. (1997) β-Carotene did not work: aftermath of the ATBC study. Cancer Lett 114, 235236.
89Palozza P, Calviello G & Bartoli GM (1995) Prooxidant activity of β-carotene under 100 % oxygen pressure in rat liver microsomes. Free Radic Biol Med 19, 887892.
90Hozawa A, Jacobs DR Jr, Steffes MW, et al. (2007) Relationships of circulating carotenoid concentrations with several markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA)/Young Adult Longitudinal Trends in Antioxidants (YALTA) study. Clin Chem 53, 447455.
91D'Odorico A, Martines D, Kiechl S, et al. (2000) High plasma levels of α- and β-carotene are associated with a lower risk of atherosclerosis: results from the Bruneck study. Atherosclerosis 153, 231239.
92Ito Y, Kurata M, Suzuki K, et al. (2006) Cardiovascular disease mortality and serum carotenoid levels: a Japanese population-based follow-up study. J Epidemiol 16, 154160.
93Knekt P, Ritz J, Pereira MA, et al. (2004) Antioxidant vitamins and coronary heart disease risk: a pooled analysis of 9 cohorts. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 15081520.
94Kushi LH, Folsom AR, Prineas RJ, et al. (1996) Dietary antioxidant vitamins and death from coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 334, 11561162.
95Knekt P, Reunanen A, Jarvinen R, et al. (1994) Antioxidant vitamin intake and coronary mortality in a longitudinal population study. Am J Epidemiol 139, 11801189.
96Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Ascherio A, et al. (1993) Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease in men. N Engl J Med 328, 14501456.
97Stampfer MJ, Hennekens CH, Manson JE, et al. (1993) Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary disease in women. N Engl J Med 328, 14441449.
98Osganian SK, Stampfer MJ, Rimm E, et al. (2003) Vitamin C and risk of coronary heart disease in women. J Am Coll Cardiol 42, 246252.
99Enstrom JE, Kanim LE & Klein MA (1992) Vitamin C intake and mortality among a sample of the United States population. Epidemiology 3, 194202.
100Osganian SK, Stampfer MJ, Rimm E, et al. (2003) Dietary carotenoids and risk of coronary artery disease in women. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 13901399.
101Klipstein-Grobusch K, Geleijnse JM, den Breeijen JH, et al. (1999) Dietary antioxidants and risk of myocardial infarction in the elderly: the Rotterdam Study. Am J Clin Nutr 69, 261266.
102Buijsse B, Feskens EJ, Kwape L, et al. (2008) Both α- and β-carotene, but not tocopherols and vitamin C, are inversely related to 15 year cardiovascular mortality in Dutch elderly men. J Nutr 138, 344350.
103Buijsse B, Feskens EJ, Schlettwein-Gsell D, et al. (2005) Plasma carotene and α-tocopherol in relation to 10-y all-cause and cause-specific mortality in European elderly: the Survey in Europe on Nutrition and the Elderly, a concerted action (SENECA). Am J Clin Nutr 82, 879886.
104Hathcock JN, Azzi A, Blumberg J, et al. (2005) Vitamins E and C are safe across a broad range of intakes. Am J Clin Nutr 81, 736745.
105Kappus H & Diplock AT (1992) Tolerance and safety of vitamin E: a toxicological position report. Free Radic Biol Med 13, 5574.
106Wright ME, Lawson KA, Weinstein SJ, et al. (2006) Higher baseline serum concentrations of vitamin E are associated with lower total and cause-specific mortality in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Am J Clin Nutr 84, 12001207.
107Hercberg S, Galan P, Preziosi P, et al. (2004) The SU.VI.MAX Study: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the health effects of antioxidant vitamins and minerals. Arch Intern Med 164, 23352342.
108Lee IM, Cook NR, Gaziano JM, et al. (2005) Vitamin E in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer: the Women's Health Study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 294, 5665.
109Salonen RM, Nyyssonen K, Kaikkonen J, et al. (2003) Six-year effect of combined vitamin C and E supplementation on atherosclerotic progression: the Antioxidant Supplementation in Atherosclerosis Prevention (ASAP) Study. Circulation 107, 947953.
110Hodis HN, Mack WJ, LaBree L, et al. (2002) α-Tocopherol supplementation in healthy individuals reduces low-density lipoprotein oxidation but not atherosclerosis: the Vitamin E Atherosclerosis Prevention Study (VEAPS). Circulation 106, 14531459.
111Christen WG, Gaziano JM, et al. (2000) Design of Physicians' Health Study II – a randomized trial of β-carotene, vitamins E and C, and multivitamins, in prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and eye disease, and review of results of completed trials. Ann Epidemiol 10, 125134.
112Salonen JT, Nyyssonen K, Salonen R, et al. (2000) Antioxidant Supplementation in Atherosclerosis Prevention (ASAP) study: a randomized trial of the effect of vitamins E and C on 3-year progression of carotid atherosclerosis. J Intern Med 248, 377386.
113Hennekens CH, Buring JE, Manson JE, et al. (1996) Lack of effect of long-term supplementation with β-carotene on the incidence of malignant neoplasms and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 334, 11451149.
114Omenn GS, Goodman GE, Thornquist MD, et al. (1996) Effects of a combination of β-carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 334, 11501155.
115Anonymous (1994) The effect of vitamin E and β-carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group. N Engl J Med 330, 10291035.
116Blot WJ, Li JY, Taylor PR, et al. (1993) Nutrition intervention trials in Linxian, China: supplementation with specific vitamin/mineral combinations, cancer incidence, and disease-specific mortality in the general population. J Natl Cancer Inst 85, 14831492.
117Cook NR, Albert CM, Gaziano JM, et al. (2007) A randomized factorial trial of vitamins C and vitamin E and β-carotene in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events in women: results from the Women's Antioxidant Cardiovascular Study. Arch Intern Med 167, 16101618.
118Waters DD, Alderman EL, Hsia J, et al. (2002) Effects of hormone replacement therapy and antioxidant vitamin supplements on coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 288, 24322440.
119Heart Protection Study Collaborative Group (2002) MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of antioxidant vitamin supplementation in 20 536 high-risk individuals: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 360, 2333.
120Brown BG, Zhao XQ, Chait A, et al. (2001) Simvastatin and niacin, antioxidant vitamins, or the combination for the prevention of coronary disease. N Engl J Med 345, 15831592.
121Steinberg D (1995) Clinical trials of antioxidants in atherosclerosis: are we doing the right thing? Lancet 346, 3638.
122de Gaetano G (2001) Low-dose aspirin and vitamin E in people at cardiovascular risk: a randomised trial in general practice. Collaborative Group of the Primary Prevention Project. Lancet 357, 8995.
123Yusuf S, Dagenais G, Pogue J, et al. (2000) Vitamin E supplementation and cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. N Engl J Med 342, 154160.
124Anonymous (1999) Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto miocardico. Lancet 354, 447455.
125Lonn E, Bosch J, Yusuf S, et al. (2005) HOPE and HOPE-TOO trial investigators. Effects of long-term vitamin E supplementation on cardiovascular events and cancer: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 293, 11381147.
126Jialal I, Fuller CJ & Huet BA (1995) The effect of α-tocopherol supplementation on LDL oxidation. A dose–response study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 15, 190198.
127Simons LA, Von Konigsmark M & Balasubramaniam S (1996) What dose of vitamin E is required to reduce susceptibility of LDL to oxidation? Aust N Z J Med 26, 496503.
128Upston JM, Terentis AC & Stocker R (1999) Tocopherol-mediated peroxidation of lipoproteins: implications for vitamin E as a potential antiatherogenic supplement. FASEB J 13, 977994.
129Podmore ID, Griffiths HR, Herbert KE, et al. (1998) Vitamin C exhibits pro-oxidant properties. Nature 392, 559.
130Keaney JF Jr, Gaziano JM, Xu A, et al. (1994) Low-dose α-tocopherol improves and high-dose α-tocopherol worsens endothelial vasodilator function in cholesterol-fed rabbits. J Clin Invest 93, 844851.
131Cheung MC, Zhao XQ, Chait A, et al. (2001) Antioxidant supplements block the response of HDL to simvastatin-niacin therapy in patients with coronary artery disease and low HDL. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 21, 13201326.
132Corrigan JJ Jr (1982) The effect of vitamin E on warfarin-induced vitamin K deficiency. Ann N Y Acad Sci 393, 361368.
133Fang JC, Kinlay S, Beltrame J, et al. (2002) Effect of vitamins C and E on progression of transplant-associated arteriosclerosis: a randomised trial. Lancet 359, 11081113.
134Boaz M, Smetana S, Weinstein T, et al. (2000) Secondary prevention with antioxidants of cardiovascular disease in endstage renal disease (SPACE): randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 356, 12131218.
135Stephens NG, Parsons A, Schofield PM, et al. (1996) Randomised controlled trial of vitamin E in patients with coronary disease: Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study (CHAOS). Lancet 347, 781786.
136Manson JE, Gaziano JM, Spelsberg A, et al. (1995) A secondary prevention trial of antioxidant vitamins and cardiovascular disease in women. Rationale, design, and methods. The WACS Research Group. Ann Epidemiol 5, 261269.
137Hoppe PP & Krennrich G (2000) Bioavailability and potency of natural-source and all-racemic α-tocopherol in the human: a dispute. Eur J Nutr 39, 183193.
138Leth T & Sondergaard H (1983) Biological activity of all-rac-α-tocopherol and RRR-α-tocopherol determined by three different rat bioassays. Int J Vit Nutr Res 53, 297311.
139Vega-Lopez S, Kaul N, Devaraj S, et al. (2004) Supplementation with ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and all-rac α-tocopherol alone and in combination failed to exert an anti-inflammatory effect in human volunteers. Metabolism 53, 236240.
140Upritchard JE, Sutherland WH & Mann JI (2000) Effect of supplementation with tomato juice, vitamin E, and vitamin C on LDL oxidation and products of inflammatory activity in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 23, 733738.
141Traber MG (2007) Heart disease and single-vitamin supplementation. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 293S299S.
142Jiang Q, Christen S, Shigenaga MK, et al. (2001) γ-Tocopherol, the major form of vitamin E in the US diet, deserves more attention. Am J Clin Nutr 74, 714722.
143Jiang Q, Elson-Schwab I, Courtemanche C, et al. (2000) γ-Tocopherol and its major metabolite, in contrast to α-tocopherol, inhibit cyclooxygenase activity in macrophages and epithelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97, 1149411499.
144Huang HY & Appel LJ (2003) Supplementation of diets with α-tocopherol reduces serum concentrations of γ- and δ-tocopherol in humans. J Nutr 133, 31373140.
145Handelman GJ, Machlin LJ, Fitch K, et al. (1985) Oral α-tocopherol supplements decrease plasma γ-tocopherol levels in humans. J Nutr 115, 807813.
146Di Mascio P, Kaiser S & Sies H (1989) Lycopene as the most efficient biological carotenoid singlet oxygen quencher. Arch Biochem Biophys 274, 532538.
147Rissanen TH, Voutilainen S, Nyyssonen K, et al. (2003) Serum lycopene concentrations and carotid atherosclerosis: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 133138.
148McQuillan BM, Hung J, Beilby JP, et al. (2001) Antioxidant vitamins and the risk of carotid atherosclerosis. The Perth Carotid Ultrasound Disease Assessment study (CUDAS). J Am Coll Cardiol 38, 17881794.
149Sesso HD, Buring JE, Norkus EP, et al. (2004) Plasma lycopene, other carotenoids, and retinol and the risk of cardiovascular disease in women. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 4753.
150Rissanen TH, Voutilainen S, Nyyssonen K, et al. (2001) Low serum lycopene concentration is associated with an excess incidence of acute coronary events and stroke: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Br J Nutr 85, 749754.
151Stocker R, Bowry VW & Frei B (1991) Ubiquinol-10 protects human low density lipoprotein more efficiently against lipid peroxidation than does α-tocopherol. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 88, 16461650.
152Neuzil J, Thomas SR & Stocker R (1997) Requirement for, promotion, or inhibition by α-tocopherol of radical-induced initiation of plasma lipoprotein lipid peroxidation. Free Radic Biol Med 22, 5771.
153Buettner GR (1993) The pecking order of free radicals and antioxidants: lipid peroxidation, α-tocopherol, and ascorbate. Arch Biochem Biophys 300, 535543.
154Packer JE, Slater TF & Willson RL (1979) Direct observation of a free radical interaction between vitamin E and vitamin C. Nature 278, 737738.
155Hirano R, Kondo K, Iwamoto T, et al. (1997) Effects of antioxidants on the oxidative susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 43, 435444.
156Sato K, Niki E & Shimasaki H (1990) Free radical-mediated chain oxidation of low density lipoprotein and its synergistic inhibition by vitamin E and vitamin C. Arch Biochem Biophys 279, 402405.
157Rifici VA & Khachadurian AK (1993) Dietary supplementation with vitamins C and E inhibits in vitro oxidation of lipoproteins. J Am Coll Nutr 12, 631637.
158Palozza P & Krinsky NI (1992) β-Carotene and α-tocopherol are synergistic antioxidants. Arch Biochem Biophys 297, 184187.
159Jialal I & Grundy SM (1993) Effect of combined supplementation with α-tocopherol, ascorbate, and β-carotene on low-density lipoprotein oxidation. Circulation 88, 27802786.
160Fuller CJ, May MA & Martin KJ (2000) The effect of vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation on LDL oxidizability and neutrophil respiratory burst in young smokers. J Am Coll Nutr 19, 361369.
161Singh RB, Niaz MA, Rastogi SS, et al. (1996) Usefulness of antioxidant vitamins in suspected acute myocardial infarction (the Indian experiment of infarct survival-3). Am J Cardiol 77, 232236.
162Yang AJ & Lowe GM (2001) Antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties of carotenoids. Arch Biochem Biophys 385, 2027.
163Arad Y, Spadaro LA, Roth M, et al. (2005) Treatment of asymptomatic adults with elevated coronary calcium scores with atorvastatin, vitamin C, and vitamin E: the St. Francis Heart Study randomized clinical trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 46, 166172.
164Kiokias S & Gordon MH (2003) Dietary supplementation with a natural carotenoid mixture decreases oxidative stress. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, 11351140.
165Stahl W, Junghans A, de Boer B, et al. (1998) Carotenoid mixtures protect multilamellar liposomes against oxidative damage: synergistic effects of lycopene and lutein. FEBS Lett 427, 305308.
166Zhao GF, Seng JJ, Zhang H, et al. (2005) Effects of oxidized low density lipoprotein on the growth of human artery smooth muscle cells. Chin Med J (Engl) 118, 19731978.
167Qiao C, Zhang K & Xia J (2007) Influence of oxidized low density lipoprotein on the proliferation of human artery smooth muscle cells in vitro. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci 27, 2023.
168Siess W, Zangl KJ, Essler M, et al. (1999) Lysophosphatidic acid mediates the rapid activation of platelets and endothelial cells by mildly oxidized low density lipoprotein and accumulates in human atherosclerotic lesions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96, 69316936.
169Anselmi M, Garbin U, Agostoni P, et al. (2006) Plasma levels of oxidized-low-density lipoproteins are higher in patients with unstable angina and correlated with angiographic coronary complex plaques. Atherosclerosis 185, 114120.
170Ryszawa N, Kawczynska-Drozdz A, Pryjma J, et al. (2006) Effect of novel plant antioxidants on platelet superoxide production and aggregation in atherosclerosis. J Physiol Pharmacol 57, 611626.
171Jandak J, Steiner M & Richardson PD (1998) Reduction of platelet adhesiveness by vitamin E supplementation in humans. Thromb Res 49, 393404.
172Steinberg D & Witztum JL (2002) Is the oxidative modification hypothesis relevant to human atherosclerosis? Do the antioxidant trials conducted to date refute the hypothesis? Circulation 105, 21072111.
173Bleys J, Miller ER III, Pastor-Barriuso R, et al. (2006) Vitamin–mineral supplementation and the progression of atherosclerosis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 84, 880885, quiz 954–885.
174Rapola JM, Virtamo J, Ripatti S, et al. (1997) Randomised trial of α-tocopherol and β-carotene supplements on incidence of major coronary events in men with previous myocardial infarction. Lancet 349, 17151720.
175Miller ER III, Pastor-Barriuso R, Dalal D, et al. (2005) Meta-analysis: high-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. Ann Intern Med 142, 3746.
176Virtamo J, Rapola JM, Ripatti S, et al. (1998) Effect of vitamin E and β-carotene on the incidence of primary nonfatal myocardial infarction and fatal coronary heart disease. Arch Intern Med 158, 668675.
177Hayden KM, Welsh-Bohmer KA, Wengreen HJ, et al. (2007) Risk of mortality with vitamin E supplements: the Cache County study. Am J Med 120, 180184.
178Sun JZ, Tang XL, Park SW, et al. (1996) Evidence for an essential role of reactive oxygen species in the genesis of late preconditioning against myocardial stunning in conscious pigs. J Clin Invest 97, 562576.
179Bowry VW & Stocker R (1993) The prooxidant effect of vitamin E on the radical-initiated oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein. J Am Chen Soc 115, 60296044.
180Jialal I, Freeman DA & Grundy SM (1991) Varying susceptibility of different low density lipoproteins to oxidative modification. Arterioscler Thromb 11, 482488.
181Esterbauer H, Puhl H, Dieber-Rotheneder M, et al. (1991) Effect of antioxidants on oxidative modification of LDL. Ann Med 23, 573581.
182Halliwell B (2000) The antioxidant paradox. Lancet 355, 11791180.
183Azzi A, Boscoboinik D, Marilley D, et al. (1995) Vitamin E: a sensor and an information transducer of the cell oxidation state. Am J Clin Nutr 62, Suppl. 6, 1337S1346S.
184Meagher EA, Barry OP, Lawson JA, et al. (2001) Effects of vitamin E on lipid peroxidation in healthy persons. JAMA 285, 11781182.
185Patrignani P, Panara MR, Tacconelli S, et al. (2000) Effects of vitamin E supplementation on F(2)-isoprostane and thromboxane biosynthesis in healthy cigarette smokers. Circulation 102, 539545.
186Brown M (1999) Do vitamin E and fish oil protect against ischaemic heart disease? Lancet 354, 441442.
187Meagher E & Rader DJ (2001) Antioxidant therapy and atherosclerosis: animal and human studies. Trends Cardiovasc Med 11, 162165.
188Block G, Dietrich M, Norkus EP, et al. (2002) Factors associated with oxidative stress in human populations. Am J Epidemiol 156, 274285.
189Panza JA, Casino PR, Kilcoyne CM, et al. (1993) Role of endothelium-derived nitric oxide in the abnormal endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation of patients with essential hypertension. Circulation 87, 14681474.
190Singh RB, Niaz MA, Bishnoi I, et al. (1994) Diet, antioxidant vitamins, oxidative stress and risk of coronary artery disease: the Peerzada Prospective Study. Acta Cardiol 49, 453467.
191Heitzer T, Just H & Munzel T (1996) Antioxidant vitamin C improves endothelial dysfunction in chronic smokers. Circulation 94, 69.
192Neunteufl T, Kostner K, Katzenschlager R, et al. (1998) Additional benefit of vitamin E supplementation to simvastatin therapy on vasoreactivity of the brachial artery of hypercholesterolemic men. J Am Coll Cardiol 32, 711716.
193Plantinga Y, Ghiadoni L, Magagna A, et al. (2007) Supplementation with vitamins C and E improves arterial stiffness and endothelial function in essential hypertensive patients. Am J Hypertens 20, 392397.
194Skyrme-Jones RA, O'Brien RC, Berry KL, et al. (2000) Vitamin E supplementation improves endothelial function in type I diabetes mellitus: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. J Am Coll Cardiol 36, 94102.
195Poredos P, Orehek M & Tratnik E (1999) Smoking is associated with dose-related increase of intima-media thickness and endothelial dysfunction. Angiology 50, 201208.
196Glantz SA & Parmley WW (1991) Passive smoking and heart disease. Epidemiology, physiology, and biochemistry. Circulation 83, 112.
197Harats D, Ben-Naim M, Dabach Y, et al. (1989) Cigarette smoking renders LDL susceptible to peroxidative modification and enhanced metabolism by macrophages. Atherosclerosis 79, 245252.
198Liu CS, Lii CK, Ou CC, et al. (2000) Autoantibody against oxidized low-density lipoproteins may be enhanced by cigarette smoking. Chem Biol Interact 127, 125137.
199Morrow JD, Frei B, Longmire AW, et al. (1995) Increase in circulating products of lipid peroxidation (F2-isoprostanes) in smokers. Smoking as a cause of oxidative damage. N Engl J Med 332, 11981203.
200Mezzetti A, Lapenna D, Pierdomenico SD, et al. (1995) Vitamins E, C and lipid peroxidation in plasma and arterial tissue of smokers and non-smokers. Atherosclerosis 112, 9199.
201Bolton-Smith C, Casey CE, Gey KF, et al. (1991) Antioxidant vitamin intakes assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire: correlation with biochemical status in smokers and non-smokers. Br J Nutr 65, 337346.
202Faure H, Preziosi P, Roussel AM, et al. (2006) Factors influencing blood concentration of retinol, α-tocopherol, vitamin C, and β-carotene in the French participants of the SU.VI.MAX trial. Eur J Clin Nutr 60, 706717.
203Ayaori M, Hisada T, Suzukawa M, et al. (2000) Plasma levels and redox status of ascorbic acid and levels of lipid peroxidation products in active and passive smokers. Environ Health Perspect 108, 105108.
204Frei B, Forte TM, Ames BN, et al. (1991) Gas phase oxidants of cigarette smoke induce lipid peroxidation and changes in lipoprotein properties in human blood plasma. Protective effects of ascorbic acid. Biochem J 277, 133138.
205Lykkesfeldt J, Loft S, Nielsen JB, et al. (1997) Ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid as biomarkers of oxidative stress caused by smoking. Am J Clin Nutr 65, 959963.
206Stryker WS, Kaplan LA, Stein EA, et al. (1988) The relation of diet, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption to plasma β-carotene and α-tocopherol levels. Am J Epidemiol 127, 283296.
207Hemalatha A, Venkatesan A, Bobby Z, et al. (2006) Antioxidant response to oxidative stress induced by smoking. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 50, 416420.
208Lykkesfeldt J, Christen S, Wallock LM, et al. (2000) Ascorbate is depleted by smoking and repleted by moderate supplementation: a study in male smokers and nonsmokers with matched dietary antioxidant intakes. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 530536.
209Fuller CJ, Grundy SM, Norkus EP, et al. (1996) Effect of ascorbate supplementation on low density lipoprotein oxidation in smokers. Atherosclerosis 119, 139150.
210Dietrich M, Block G, Hudes M, et al. (2002) Antioxidant supplementation decreases lipid peroxidation biomarker F(2)-isoprostanes in plasma of smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11, 713.
211Kim HS & Lee BM (2001) Protective effects of antioxidant supplementation on plasma lipid peroxidation in smokers. J Toxicol Environ Health A 63, 583598.
212Truscott TG (1996) β-Carotene and disease: a suggested pro-oxidant and anti-oxidant mechanism and speculations concerning its role in cigarette smoking. J Photochem Photobiol B 35, 233235.
213Strauss RS (1999) Comparison of serum concentrations of α-tocopherol and β-carotene in a cross-sectional sample of obese and non-obese children (NHANES III). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. J Pediatr 134, 160165.
214Decsi T, Molnar D & Koletzko B (1997) Reduced plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol and β-carotene in obese boys. J Pediatr 130, 653655.
215Kuno T, Hozumi M, Morinobu T, et al. (1998) Antioxidant vitamin levels in plasma and low density lipoprotein of obese girls. Free Radic Res 28, 8186.
216Ble-Castillo JL, Cleva-Villanueva G, Diaz-Zagova JC, et al. (2007) Effects of α-tocopherol on oxidative status and metabolic profile in overweight women. Int J Environ Res Public Health 4, 260267.
217Sutherland WH, Manning PJ, Walker RJ, et al. (2007) Vitamin E supplementation and plasma 8-isoprostane and adiponectin in overweight subjects. Obestity (Silver Spring) 15, 386391.
218Davi G, Alessandrini P, Mezzetti A, et al. (1997) In vivo formation of 8-epi-prostaglandin F2 α is increased in hypercholesterolemia. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 17, 32303235.
219Yalcin AS, Sabuncu N, Kilinc A, et al. (1989) Increased plasma and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation in hyperlipidemic individuals. Atherosclerosis 80, 169170.
220Cominacini L, Pastorino AM, Garbin U, et al. (1994) The susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein to in vitro oxidation is increased in hypercholesterolemic patients. Nutrition 10, 527531.
221Lavy A, Brook GJ, Dankner G, et al. (1991) Enhanced in vitro oxidation of plasma lipoproteins derived from hypercholesterolemic patients. Metabolism 40, 794799.
222Parker RA, Sabrah T, Cap M, et al. (1995) Relation of vascular oxidative stress, α-tocopherol, and hypercholesterolemia to early atherosclerosis in hamsters. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 15, 349358.
223Rezaian GR, Taheri M, Mozaffari BE, et al. (2002) The salutary effects of antioxidant vitamins on the plasma lipids of healthy middle aged-to-elderly individuals: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Med Liban 50, 1013.
224Simon JA & Hudes ES (1998) Relation of serum ascorbic acid to serum lipids and lipoproteins in US adults. J Am Coll Nutr 17, 250255.
225Hallfrisch J, Singh VN, Muller DC, et al. (1994) High plasma vitamin C associated with high plasma HDL- and HDL2 cholesterol. Am J Clin Nutr 60, 100105.
226Singh U, Otvos J, Dasgupta A, et al. (2007) High-dose α-tocopherol therapy does not affect HDL subfractions in patients with coronary artery disease on statin therapy. Clin Chem 53, 525528.
227Leonard SW, Joss JD, Mustacich DJ, et al. (2007) Effects of vitamin E on cholesterol levels of hypercholersterolemic patients receiving statins. Am J Health Syst Pharm 64, 22572266.
228Jula A, Marniemi J, Huupponen R, et al. (2002) Effects of diet and simvastatin on serum lipids, insulin, and antioxidants in hypercholersterolemic men: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 287, 598605.
229Cangemi R, Loffredo L, Carnevale R, et al. (2008) Early decrease of oxidative stress by atorvastatin in hypercholesterolaemic patients: effect on circulating vitamin E. Eur Heart J 29, 5462.
230Blum S, Milman U, Shapira C, et al. (2008) Dual therapy with statins and antioxidants is superior to statins alone in decreasing the risk of cardiovascular disease in a subgroup of middle-aged individuals with both diabetes mellitus and the haptoglobin 2-2 genotype. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 28, e18e20.
231Landmesser U & Harrison DG (2001) Oxidative stress and vascular damage in hypertension. Coron Artery Dis 12, 455461.
232Russo C, Olivieri O, Girelli D, et al. (1998) Anti-oxidant status and lipid peroxidation in patients with essential hypertension. J Hypertens 16, 12671271.
233Appel LJ, Moore TJ, Obarzanek E, et al. (1997) A clinical trial of the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. DASH Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med 336, 11171124.
234Chen J, He J, Hamm L, Batuman V, et al. (2002) Serum antioxidant vitamins and blood pressure in the United States population. Hypertension 40, 810816.
235Salonen JT, Salonen R, Ihanainen M, et al. (1988) Blood pressure, dietary fats, and antioxidants. Am J Clin Nutr 48, 12261232.
236On YK, Kim CH, Sohn DW, et al. (2002) Improvement of endothelial function by amlodipine and vitamin C in essential hypertension. Korean J Intern Med 17, 131137.
237Tse WY, Maxwell SR, Thomason H, et al. (1994) Antioxidant status in controlled and uncontrolled hypertension and its relationship to endothelial damage. J Hum Hypertens 8, 843849.
238Rodrigo R, Prat H, Passalacqua W, et al. (2007) Decrease of oxidative stress through vitamins C and E supplementation associates with blood pressure reduction in essential hypertensives. Clin Sci (Lond) 114, 625634.
239Fotherby MD, Williams JC, Forster LA, et al. (2000) Effect of vitamin C on ambulatory blood pressure and plasma lipids in older persons. J Hypertens 18, 411415.
240Ness AR, Khaw KT, Bingham S, et al. (1996) Vitamin C status and blood pressure. J Hypertens 14, 503508.
241Bates CJ, Walmsley CM, Prentice A, et al. (1998) Does vitamin C reduce blood pressure? Results of a large study of people aged 65 or older. J Hypertens 16, 925932.
242Czernichow S, Bertrais S, Blacher J, et al. (2006) Antioxidant supplements and risk of hypertension in the SU.VI.MAX trial: relationship to plasma antioxidants. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss 99, 665668.
243Miller ER III, Appel LJ, Levander OA, et al. (1997) The effect of antioxidant vitamin supplementation on traditional cardiovascular risk factors. J Cardiovasc Risk 4, 1924.
244Kim MK, Sasaki S, Sasazuki S, et al. (2002) Lack of long-term effect of vitamin C supplementation on blood pressure. Hypertension 40, 797803.
245Gopaul NK, Anggard EE, Mallet AI, et al. (1995) Plasma 8-epi-PGF2 α levels are elevated in individuals with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. FEBS Lett 368, 225229.
246Sobal G, Menzel J & Sinzinger H (2000) Why is glycated LDL more sensitive to oxidation than native LDL? A comparative study. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 63, 177186.
247Anderson JW, Gowri MS, Turner J, et al. (1999) Antioxidant supplementation effects on low-density lipoprotein oxidation for individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Am Coll Nutr 18, 451461.
248Uusitupa MI, Niskanen LK, Siitonen O, et al. (1993) Ten-year cardiovascular mortality in relation to risk factors and abnormalities in lipoprotein composition in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Diabetologia 36, 11751184.
249Fuller CJ, Chandalia M, Garg A, et al. (1996) RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation at pharmacologic doses decreases low-density-lipoprotein oxidative susceptibility but not protein glycation in patients with diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr 63, 753759.
250Reaven PD, Herold DA, Barnett J, et al. (1995) Effects of vitamin E on susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein subfractions to oxidation and on protein glycation in NIDDM. Diabetes Care 18, 807816.
251Ting HH, Timimi FK, Boles KS, et al. (1996) Vitamin C improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest 97, 2228.
252Costacou T, Zgibor JC, Evans RW, et al. (2006) Antioxidants and coronary artery disease among individuals with type 1 diabetes: findings from the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study. J Diabetes Complications 20, 387394.
253Bursell SE, Clermont AC, Aiello LP, et al. (1999) High-dose vitamin E supplementation normalizes retinal blood flow and creatinine clearance in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 22, 12451251.
254Milman U, Blum S, Shapira C, et al. (2008) Vitamin E supplementation reduces cardiovascular events in a subgroup of middle-aged individuals with both type-2 diabetes mellitus and the haptoglobin 2-2 genotype: a prospective double-blinded clinical trial. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 28, 341347.
255Stanner SA, Hughes J, Kelly CN, et al. (2004) A review of the epidemiological evidence for the ‘antioxidant hypothesis’. Public Health Nutr 7, 407422.
256Lonn E, Yusuf S, Hoogwerf B, et al. (2002) Effects of vitamin E on cardiovascular and microvascular outcomes in high-risk patients with diabetes: results of the HOPE study and MICRO-HOPE substudy. Diabetes Care 25, 19191927.
257Jha P, Flather M, Lonn E, et al. (1995) The antioxidant vitamins and cardiovascular disease. A critical review of epidemiologic and clinical trial data. Ann Intern Med 123, 860872.
258Handelman GJ, Walter MF, Adhikarla R, et al. (2001) Elevated plasma F2-isoprostanes in patients on long-term hemodialysis. Kidney Int 59, 19601966.
259Dasgupta A, Hussain S & Ahmad S (1992) Increased lipid peroxidation in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Nephron 60, 5659.
260Mullins PA, Cary NR, Sharples L, et al. (1992) Coronary occlusive disease and late graft failure after cardiac transplantation. Br Heart J 68, 260265.
261Jaxa-Chamiec T, Bednarz B, Drozdowska D, et al. (2005) Antioxidant effects of combined vitamins C and E in acute myocardial infarction. The randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, multicenter pilot Myocardial Infarction and VITamins (MIVIT) trial. Kardiol Pol 62, 344350.
262Pechan I, Danova K, Olejarova I, et al. (2003) Oxidative stress and antioxidant defense systems in patients after heart transplantation. Wien Klin Wochenschr 115, 648651.
263Singh RB, Niaz MA, Sharma JP, et al. (1994) Plasma levels of antioxidant vitamins and oxidative stress in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Acta Cardiol 49, 441452.
264Slakey DP, Roza AM, Pieper GM, et al. (1993) Delayed cardiac allograft rejection due to combined cyclosporine and antioxidant therapy. Transplantation 56, 13051309.
265Marchioli R, Levantesi G, Macchia A, et al. (2006) Vitamin E increases the risk of developing heart failure after myocardial infarction: results from the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) 7, 347350.
266Losonczy KG, Harris TB & Havlik RJ (1996) Vitamin E and vitamin C supplement use and risk of all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality in older persons: the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. Am J Clin Nutr 64, 190196.
267Kritchevsky SB, Shimakawa T, Tell GS, et al. (1995) Dietary antioxidants and carotid artery wall thickness. The ARIC Study. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Circulation 92, 21422150.
268Riemersma RA, Wood DA, Macintyre CC, et al. (1991) Risk of angina pectoris and plasma concentrations of vitamins A, C, and E and carotene. Lancet 337, 15.
269Iannuzzi A, Celentano E, Panico S, et al. (2002) Dietary and circulating antioxidant vitamins in relation to carotid plaques in middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 582587.
270Salonen JT, Nyyssonen K, Salonen R, et al. (1997) Lipoprotein oxidation and progression of carotid atherosclerosis. Circulation 95, 840845.
271Jousilahti P, Vartiainen E, Tuomilehto J, et al. (1999) Sex, age, cardiovascular risk factors, and coronary heart disease: a prospective follow-up study of 14 786 middle-aged men and women in Finland. Circulation 99, 11651172.
272Somogyi A, Herold M, Kocsis I, et al. (2005) Effect of vitamin E supplementation on the vitamin content of lipoprotein in young men and women (article in Hungarian). Orv Hetil 146, 18131818.
273Lyle BJ, Mares-Perlman JA, Klein BE, et al. (1998) Supplement users differ from nonusers in demographic, lifestyle, dietary and health characteristics. J Nutr 128, 23552362.
274Reinert A, Rohrmann S, Becker N, et al. (2007) Lifestyle and diet in people using dietary supplements: a German cohort study. Eur J Nutr 46, 165173.
275Pereira MA, O'Reilly E, Augustsson K, et al. (2004) Dietary fiber and risk of coronary heart disease: a pooled analysis of cohort studies. Arch Intern Med 164, 370376.
276Liu S, Buring JE, Sesso HD, et al. (2002) A prospective study of dietary fiber intake and risk of cardiovascular disease among women. J Am Coll Cardiol 39, 4956.
277Wolk A, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, et al. (1999) Long-term intake of dietary fiber and decreased risk of coronary heart disease among women. JAMA 281, 19982004.
278Pietinen P, Rimm EB, Korhonen P, et al. (1996) Intake of dietary fiber and risk of coronary heart disease in a cohort of Finnish men. The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Circulation 94, 27202727.
279Rimm EB, Ascherio A, Giovannucci E, et al. (1996) Vegetable, fruit, and cereal fiber intake and risk of coronary heart disease among men. JAMA 275, 447451.
280Geleijnse JM, Launer LJ, Van der Kuip DA, et al. (2002) Inverse association of tea and flavonoid intakes with the incident myocardial infarction: the Rotterdam Study. Am J Clin Nutr 75, 880886.
281Hertog MG, Feskens EJ, Hollman PC, et al. (1993) Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Lancet 342, 10071111.
282Lin J, Rexrode KM, Hu F, et al. (2007) Dietary intakes of flavonols and flavones and coronary heart disease in US women. Am J Epidemiol 165, 13051313.
283Mink PJ, Scrafford CG, Barraj LM, et al. (2007) Flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease mortality: a prospective study in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 895909.
284Hirvonen T, Pietinen P, Virtanen M, et al. (2001) Intake of flavonols and risk of coronary heart disease in male smokers. Epidemiology 12, 6267.
285Knekt P, Jarvinen R, Reunanen A, et al. (1996) Flavonoid intake and coronary mortality in Finland: a cohort study. BMJ 312, 478481.
286Rimm EB, Katan MB, Ascherio A, et al. (1996) Relation between intake of flavonoids and risk for coronary heart disease in male health professionals. Ann Intern Med 125, 384389.
287Kokubo Y, Iso H, Ishihara J, et al. (2007) Association of dietary intake of soy, beans, and isoflavones with risk of cerebral and myocardial infarctions in Japanese populations: the Japan Public Health Center-based (JPHC) study cohort I. Circulation 116, 25532562.
288Mursu J, Nurmi T, Tuomainen TP, et al. (2007) The intake of flavonoids and carotid atherosclerosis: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Br J Nutr 98, 814818.
289Rimm EB, Willett WC, Hu FB, et al. (1998) Folate and vitamin B6 from diet and supplements in relation to risk of coronary heart disease among women. JAMA 279, 359364.
290Bazzano LA, Reynolds K, Holder KN, et al. (2006) Effect of folic acid supplementation on risk of cardiovascular diseases: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA 296, 2272022726.
291Stocker R & Keaney JF Jr (2005) New insights on oxidative stress in the artery wall. J Thromb Haemost 3, 18251834.
292Clarke R & Armitage J (2002) Antioxidant vitamins and risk of cardiovascular disease. Review of large-scale randomised trials. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 16, 411415.
293Behrendt D, Beltrame J, Hikiti H, et al. (2006) Impact of coronary endothelial function on the progression of cardiac transplant-associated arteriosclerosis: effect of anti-oxidant vitamins C and E. J Heart Lung Transplant 25, 426433.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 29
Total number of PDF views: 132 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 378 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd January 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.