1Gandotra, P & Miller, M (2008) The role of triglycerides in cardiovascular risk. Curr Cardiol Rep 10, 505–511.
2Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (2001) Executive Summary of The Third Report of The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol In Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA 285, 2486–2497.
3Alberti, KG, Eckel, RH, Grundy, SM, et al. (2009) Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity. Circulation 120, 1640–1645.
4Galassi, A, Reynolds, K & He, J (2006) Metabolic syndrome and risk of cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis. Am J Med 119, 812–819.
5Tota-Maharaj, R, Defilippis, AP, Blumenthal, RS, et al. (2010) A practical approach to the metabolic syndrome: review of current concepts and management. Curr Opin Cardiol 25, 502–512.
6Rudkowska, I & Jones, PJ (2007) Functional foods for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases: cholesterol and beyond. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 5, 477–490.
7Shertzer, HG, Woods, SE, Krishan, M, et al. (2011) Dietary whey protein lowers the risk for metabolic disease in mice fed a high-fat diet. J Nutr 141, 582–587.
8Pal, S, Ellis, V & Ho, S (2010) Acute effects of whey protein isolate on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight, post-menopausal women. Atherosclerosis 212, 339–344.
9Pal, S, Ellis, V & Dhaliwal, S (2010) Effects of whey protein isolate on body composition, lipids, insulin and glucose in overweight and obese individuals. Br J Nutr 104, 716–723.
10Bortolotti, M, Maiolo, E, Corazza, M, et al. (2011) Effects of a whey protein supplementation on intrahepatocellular lipids in obese female patients. Clin Nutr 30, 494–498.
11Simard, E, Pilote, D, Dupont, , et al. (2003) Malleable Protein Matrice and Uses Thereof. A23J 3/08 [Bureau, WI, editor]. Laval, QC: Technologie Biolactis.
12Beaulieu, J, Dubuc, R, Beaudet, N, et al. (2007) Immunomodulation by a malleable matrix composed of fermented whey proteins and lactic acid bacteria. J Med Food 10, 67–72.
13Beaulieu, J, Dupont, C & Lemieux, P (2007) Anti-inflammatory potential of a malleable matrix composed of fermented whey proteins and lactic acid bacteria in an atopic dermatitis model. J Inflamm (Lond) 4, 6.
14Beaulieu, J, Girard, D, Dupont, C, et al. (2009) Inhibition of neutrophil infiltration by a malleable protein matrix of lactic acid bacteria-fermented whey proteins in vivo. Inflamm Res S8, 133–138.
15Beaulieu, J, Millette, E, Trottier, E, et al. (2010) Regulatory function of a malleable protein matrix as a novel fermented whey product on features defining the metabolic syndrome. J Med Food 13, 509–519.
16Berthold, HK, Schulte, DM, Lapointe, JF, et al. (2011) The whey fermentation product malleable protein matrix decreases triglyceride concentrations in subjects with hypercholesterolemia: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Dairy Sci 94, 589–601.
17Grundy, SM, Cleeman, JI, Daniels, SR, et al. (2005) Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement. Circulation 112, 2735–2752.
18O'Neill, RT (1987) Statistical analysis of adverse event data from clinical trials. Drug Information J 21, 9–30.
19Chobanian, AV, Bakris, GL, Black, HR, et al. (2003) The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 report. JAMA 289, 2560–2572.
20Gouni-Berthold, I & Krone, W (2005) Hypertriglyceridemia – why, when and how should it be treated? Z Kardiol 94, 731–739.
21Grundy, SM, Cleeman, JI, Merz, CN, et al. (2004) Implications of recent clinical trials for the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 24, e149–e161.
22Grundy, SM (1999) Hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and the metabolic syndrome. Am J Cardiol 83, 25F–29F.
23Bays, H (2008) Rationale for prescription omega-3-acid ethyl ester therapy for hypertriglyceridemia: a primer for clinicians. Drugs Today (Barc) 44, 205–246.
24Anderson, JW, Johnstone, BM & Cook-Newell, ME (1995) Meta-analysis of the effects of soy protein intake on serum lipids. N Engl J Med 333, 276–282.
25Anderson, JW (2000) Dietary fiber prevents carbohydrate-induced hypertriglyceridemia. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2, 536–541.
26AbouRjaili, G, Shtaynberg, N, Wetz, R, et al. (2010) Current concepts in triglyceride metabolism, pathophysiology, and treatment. Metabolism 59, 1210–1220.
27Nies, LK, Cymbala, AA, Kasten, SL, et al. (2006) Complementary and alternative therapies for the management of dyslipidemia. Ann Pharmacother 40, 1984–1992.
28Wang, TJ, Gona, P, Larson, MG, et al. (2007) Multiple biomarkers and the risk of incident hypertension. Hypertension 49, 432–438.
29Libby, P & Plutzky, J (2007) Inflammation in diabetes mellitus: role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists. Am J Cardiol 99, 27B–40B.
30Zhang, X & Beynen, AC (1993) Lowering effect of dietary milk-whey protein v. casein on plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations in rats. Br J Nutr 70, 139–146.
31Chen, Q & Reimer, RA (2009) Dairy protein and leucine alter GLP-1 release and mRNA of genes involved in intestinal lipid metabolism in vitro. Nutrition 25, 340–349.
32Nagaoka, S, Kanamaru, Y, Kuzuya, Y, et al. (1992) Comparative studies on the serum cholesterol lowering action of whey protein and soybean protein in rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 56, 1484–1485.
33Lovati, MR, West, CE, Sirtori, CR, et al. (1990) Dietary animal proteins and cholesterol metabolism in rabbits. Br J Nutr 64, 473–485.
34Jacobs, DR Jr, Gross, MD & Tapsell, LC (2009) Food synergy: an operational concept for understanding nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 1543S–1548S.
35Nagaoka, S, Kanamaru, Y & Kuzuya, Y (1991) Effects of whey protein and casein on the plasma and liver lipids in rats. Agric Biol Chem 55, 813–818.
36Sautier, C, Dieng, K, Flament, C, et al. (1983) Effects of whey protein, casein, soya-bean and sunflower proteins on the serum, tissue and faecal steroids in rats. Br J Nutr 49, 313–319.
37Pichon, L, Potier, M, Tome, D, et al. (2008) High-protein diets containing different milk protein fractions differently influence energy intake and adiposity in the rat. Br J Nutr 99, 739–748.
38Kawase, M, Hashimoto, H, Hosoda, M, et al. (2000) Effect of administration of fermented milk containing whey protein concentrate to rats and healthy men on serum lipids and blood pressure. J Dairy Sci 83, 255–263.
39Agerbaek, M, Gerdes, LU & Richelsen, B (1995) Hypocholesterolaemic effect of a new fermented milk product in healthy middle-aged men. Eur J Clin Nutr 49, 346–352.
40Richelsen, B, Kristensen, K & Pedersen, SB (1996) Long-term (6 months) effect of a new fermented milk product on the level of plasma lipoproteins – a placebo-controlled and double blind study. Eur J Clin Nutr 50, 811–815.
41Schaafsma, G, Meuling, WJ, van, DW, et al. (1998) Effects of a milk product, fermented by Lactobacillus acidophilus and with fructo-oligosaccharides added, on blood lipids in male volunteers. Eur J Clin Nutr 52, 436–440.
42St-Onge, MP, Farnworth, ER & Jones, PJ (2000) Consumption of fermented and nonfermented dairy products: effects on cholesterol concentrations and metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 674–681.
43Xiao, JZ, Kondo, S, Takahashi, N, et al. (2003) Effects of milk products fermented by Bifidobacterium longum on blood lipids in rats and healthy adult male volunteers. J Dairy Sci 86, 2452–2461.
44Lakka, HM, Laaksonen, DE, Lakka, TA, et al. (2002) The metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men. JAMA 288, 2709–2716.
45Mottillo, S, Filion, KB, Genest, J, et al. (2010) The metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol 56, 1113–1132.
46Ervin, RB (2009) Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adults 20 years of age and over, by sex, age, race and ethnicity, and body mass index: United States, 2003–2006. Natl Health Stat Report 1–7.
47Ford, ES, Li, C & Zhao, G (2010) Prevalence and correlates of metabolic syndrome based on a harmonious definition among adults in the US. J Diabetes 2, 180–193.
48Grundy, SM, Brewer, HB Jr, Cleeman, JI, et al. (2004) Definition of metabolic syndrome: Report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/American Heart Association conference on scientific issues related to definition. Circulation 109, 433–438.
49Ford, ES, Giles, WH & Dietz, WH (2002) Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. JAMA 287, 356–359.
50Grundy, SM, Cleeman, JI, Daniels, SR, et al. (2006) Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute scientific statement. Curr Opin Cardiol 21, 1–6.
51Gaede, P, Lund-Andersen, H, Parving, HH, et al. (2008) Effect of a multifactorial intervention on mortality in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 358, 580–591.
52Coutinho, M, Gerstein, HC, Wang, Y, et al. (1999) The relationship between glucose and incident cardiovascular events. A metaregression analysis of published data from 20 studies of 95,783 individuals followed for 12·4 years. Diabetes Care 22, 233–240.
53Ho, SC, Chen, YM, Woo, JL, et al. (2001) Association between simple anthropometric indices and cardiovascular risk factors. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 25, 1689–1697.
54Onat, A, Avci, GS, Barlan, MM, et al. (2004) Measures of abdominal obesity assessed for visceral adiposity and relation to coronary risk. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 28, 1018–1025.
55Jia, WP, Lu, JX, Xiang, KS, et al. (2003) Prediction of abdominal visceral obesity from body mass index, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio in Chinese adults: receiver operating characteristic curves analysis. Biomed Environ Sci 16, 206–211.
56Aekplakorn, W, Kosulwat, V & Suriyawongpaisal, P (2006) Obesity indices and cardiovascular risk factors in Thai adults. Int J Obes (Lond) 30, 1782–1790.
57Henderson, DC, Fan, X, Sharma, B, et al. (2009) Waist circumference is the best anthropometric predictor for insulin resistance in nondiabetic patients with schizophrenia treated with clozapine but not olanzapine. J Psychiatr Pract 15, 251–261.
58Diepvens, K, Haberer, D & Westerterp-Plantenga, M (2008) Different proteins and biopeptides differently affect satiety and anorexigenic/orexigenic hormones in healthy humans. Int J Obes (Lond) 32, 510–518.
59Wilson, PW, Kannel, WB, Silbershatz, H, et al. (1999) Clustering of metabolic factors and coronary heart disease. Arch Intern Med 159, 1104–1109.
60Gerber, Y, Dankner, R, Chetrit, A, et al. (2005) The role of risk factor time trends in the steep decline of CHD mortality between two Israeli cohort studies. Prev Med 41, 85–91.
61Angelin, B, Leijd, B, Hultcrantz, R, et al. (1990) Increased turnover of very low density lipoprotein triglyceride during treatment with cholestyramine in familial hypercholesterolaemia. J Intern Med 227, 201–206.
62Major, GC, Chaput, JP, Ledoux, M, et al. (2008) Recent developments in calcium-related obesity research. Obes Rev 9, 428–445.
63Berthold, HK, Unverdorben, S, Degenhardt, R, et al. (2006) Effect of policosanol on lipid levels among patients with hypercholesterolemia or combined hyperlipidemia: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 295, 2262–2269.