The brown planthoppers (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) and the white-backed planthoppers (WBPH) Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) annually migrate from tropical and subtropical regions to temperate regions in Asia, including Japan, Korea and northern China. To elucidate the genetic divergence based on geography of planthoppers and to estimate their migration route on the basis of molecular data, we analysed a part of their mitochondrial genome sequences. Sequences of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (cox1) – transfer RNA for Leu (trnL2) – cox2 were determined for 579 BPH (1,928 bp) and 464 WBPH (1,927 bp) individuals collected from 31 and 25 locations, respectively, in East and Southeast Asia. Thirty and 20 mitochondrial haplotypes were detected for BPH and WBPH, respectively. Single populations of both planthoppers included multiple haplotypes, and many haplotypes were shared in some populations and areas. The most frequently detected haplotypes accounted for approximately 50% of all BPH and WBPH individuals. To evaluate gene flow among planthoppers in different regions in Asia, pairwise fixation index (Fst) values were calculated. For BPH, high Fst values (0.580–0.926) were shown between planthoppers in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and the other areas and moderate Fst values (0.176–0.362) were observed between those in southern Philippines and other areas. For WBPH, the Fst value was the highest between Taiwan and southern Vietnam (0.236), and low among the other areas. AMOVA indicated no genetic structure among eight areas, excluding southern Philippines and PNG, for BPH, and among ten areas for WBPH. These data indicate that both planthoppers do not show much differentiation of local populations and/or have genetically intermixed Asian populations. These data also indicate that it may be difficult to distinguish regional planthopper populations on the basis of differences in mitochondrial sequences.