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Bih ′ = Wey ′?

Abstract

The gloss bih you wey yee (with the reading of in the falling tone indicated by the faanchiebih. bih ell faan ”) is to be found in Ju Shi ′s “Collected Commentaries to the Four Books” (Syhshu Jyijuh) in explanation of a famous passage in Mencius (Jiuann [hereafter abbreviated as J.], 1, p. 5B). The King Huey of Wey admits to Mencius the ignominious position into which his country has fallen from the heights of past glory through defeats suffered on all sides, and tells him of his intention to make a supreme effort to wipe off the shame: Goaren chyy jy.

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page 789 note 1 Reference is made to the reprints in the Series Syhbuh-beyyaw inline-graphic (hereafter abbreviated SSBY) for the commentaries by Ju Shi, Jaw Chyi inline-graphic and Jiau Shyun inline-graphic. The (Pseudo–) Suen Shyh inline-graphic Commentary Menqtzyy Jenqyih inline-graphic will be quoted according to Roan Yuan inline-graphic edition of the Shyrsanjing inline-graphic (lithographed edition by Mohwanqshian Goan inline-graphicof 1887). For the translationsreference is made to the following books:– Legge J., Chinese Classics, vol. ii, 2nd ed., Oxford, 1895. Couvreur S., Les quatre livres, avec un commentaire abregi en chinois, et une double traduction en frangais et en latin,2nd ed., Ho Kien Fu, 1910. Wilhelm R., Mong Dsi (Mong Ko),Jena, 1916. Kanno Dômei inline-graphic, Môshi Tsûkai inline-graphic Tokio, 1925. Gabelentz H. C. von der, Sse-schu, Schu-king, Schi-king in Mandschuischer Uebersetzung,Erstes Heft: Text., Leipzig, 1864 (= Abhandlungen der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, iii, 1).

page 789 note 2 The italics in this and in the following translations are mine.

page 789 note 3 I have substituted û for the ô of Gabelentz′s transcription.

page 789 note 4 See here below, p. 802.

page 790 note 1 See Wang Niannsuen inline-graphic′s Goangyea sujenq inline-graphic (SBBY, J. 3, p. 12A).

page 790 note 2 Seethe reprint in the Series Syhbuh-Tsongkan inline-graphic hereafter abbreviated as SBTK.

page 790 note 3 Shanghai, Chunghwa Press, 1915, vol. ii, Section Mao,p. 209, 3rd column, No. 8.

page 790 note 4 Shanghai, Chunghwa Press, 1937, Section Chern,p. 259, 3rd column, No. 7.

page 790 note 5 Shanghai, Commercial Press, 2nd ed., 1931, J. 1, pp. 9–10.

page 790 note 6 Shanghai, Commercial Press, 1st ed., 1930, p. 459.

page 790 note 7 Tokio, Waseda University, 5th ed., 1925, p. 655.

page 791 note 1 The italics in this and in the following translations are mine.

page 791 note 2 See here below, p. 792.

page 791 note 3 The text of the “ Imperial Translation ” transcribed by Gabelentz here differs considerably from the version in the Maan-Hann-tzyh herbih Syhshujyijiih inline-graphic Lioulichaang, Borguu(tarng and) Shenqjingtarng inline-graphic 13 parts, no year (cf. Mōllendorff, “Essay on Manchu Literature ”, Journ. of the China Branch of the B.A.S., N.S., xxiv (1890), (p. 15, No. 51, and Li Teh Ch′i, Union Catalogue of Manchu Books,Peiping, 1933, p. 3, No. 121, 2), Menqtzyy jyijuh, 3. 2,p. 47A, where the passage runs: “ tere anggala akûha urse deboihon be beye de nikeburakû oci, tede niyalmai mnjilen selarakû semeo ? ” But the rendering of bih by de is not affected.

page 792 note 1 See here above, p. 789, n. 1, and, with reference to the authenticity of this work, the remarks in the Syhkuh-chyuanshu-tzoongmuh-tyiyaw inline-graphic (J. 35, first title), which were also reprinted by Roan Yuan in his edition of the commentary in the Shyrsanjing.

page 792 note 2 See here below, p. 794.

page 793 note 1 J. 63 Shiah,p. 7B, 1. 7, of the lithographed Horng Wen inline-graphic edition of 1888.

page 793 note 2 J. 6, p. 17A, of the Japanese reprint made in 1923 by Kwaitohudd inline-graphic.

page 793 note 3 See below, p. 800.

page 793 note 4 No reprint of Suen Shyh′s work was accessible to me. Professor G. Haloun, however, very kindly verified the quotation in the edition of the Menqtzyy Jaw juh inline-graphic included in the Ueiboshieh Tsongshu inline-graphic, where the Menqtzyy-inyihhas been added as an appendix. Ding Gongjuh′s gloss referring to the passage bih chyifaan yee can also be found in the collection of fragments of his commentary (Menqtzyy Ding Shyh Shoouin),included in the Series Yuhharnshanfarng Jyiyihshu inline-graphic (J. 48, p. 5B′), and reoccurs there on p. 9B6, where our second Mencius passage (bih huah jee)is referred to.

page 793 note 5 SBTK, J. 20, p. 12B (beginning of the chapter Dar Yuh inline-graphic ); p. 358 of the translation by R. Wilhelm (frühling und Herbst des M Bu We,Jena, 1928).

page 794 note 1 See for instance the gloss inline-graphic coupled with the faan chie inline-graphic in Yan Shyguu inline-graphic′s commentary to the Chyanhannshu(J. 39, p. 27B of the edition quoted here below, p. 796, n. 9).

page 795 note 1 This function of both jee and yeehas been observed by Suen Jingshyh inline-graphic. See his “ Supplementary Notes ” to Wang Yiinjy inline-graphic′ s Jingjuann-shyhtsyr inline-graphic, the Jingjuann-shyhlsyr-buu (inline-graphic), first published in 1885 (according to S. Y. Teng and K. Bigger- staff′s Annotated Bibliography of Selected Chinese Reference Works, Peiping, 1936, p. 173, n. 1), pp. 18B/19A of the 4th tseh inline-graphic of the edition by Cherngdu-Shujyu inline-graphic of the Jingjvannshyhtsyr(1928), or J. 9, p. 10, of the reprint of the latter work in the Series Shyuesheng-Gwoshym- Tsongshu inline-graphic (Shanghai, Commercial Pr., 1931).

page 795 note 2 Reference may be made to the interesting remarks on “Till, in the sense of Before” in R. 0. Williams, Some Questions of Good English,New York, 1897, pp. 204, etc.

page 795 note 3 Note also example No. 11 which shows ji inline-graphic “ to complete ” after bih with its variant quoted in the note.

page 795 note 4 Howhannshu, J. 63 (Liehjuann, 3. 23), p. 23A6 of the edition quoted here below, p. 796, n. 9.

page 795 note 5 Cf. the Manchu version of the Liijih (J. xvii, p. 2, of the Yuhjyh Fanyih Liijih inline-graphic of 1783 Printed 1792. see w. Fuchs, Beitrāge z. Mandjurischen Bibliographie u. Literatur, Tokyo, 1936, p. 88), where inline-graphic is rendered as aniya giyalame, giydlamebeing derived from Chinese jian inline-graphic “ between ”,

page 796 note 1 See the Oxford English Dictionary {A New English Dictionary, etc.,ed. by J. A. Murray) under by,vol. i, 1888, p. 1228, 21rf, and the Scottish National Dictionary,ed. by W. Grant, vol. ii (1941), p. 337.

page 796 note 2 See the Oxford English Dictionary,loc. cit., p. 1228, 6, and the Scottish National Dictionary,loc. cit.

page 796 note 3 Maa Shyh Wentortq inline-graphic, Shanghai, Comm. Pr., 21st ed., 1930, 3.8, pp. 46–7. See also Yang Shuhdar, Maa Shyh Wentong Kanwuh inline-graphic, Shanghai, Comm. Pr., 1931, p. 155.

page 796 note 4 See here, above, p. 790.

page 796 note 5 Tsyrchyuan,p. 9, No. 5: inline-graphic

page 796 note 6 Gaudeeng Gwowenfaa,p. 458: inline-graphic

page 796 note 7 Loc. cit., P. 457: inline-graphic

page 796 note 8 Of Morimoto Kakuzô inline-graphic′s Gokyô Sakuin inline-graphic (“Concordance to the Wuujing”, Tokio, 1935– ?) the volume which includes the syllable hi inline-graphic was not accessible to me. Otherwise I should probably have been able to give a fuller list of examples from the “ Five Classics ”. I have used, however, Yeh Shawjiun inline-graphic′ s “ Index to the Thirteen Classics” (Shyrsanjing Suooyiin inline-graphic, Shanghai, 1934), and, of course, Fraser– Lockhart′s “ Index to the Tso Chuan ” (Oxford, 1930), and the Indexes to Couvreur′s translations of the Chinese Classics. A few examples I owe to Yang Shuhdar. It may be noted that the Index to the new reprint of the Peywen Yunnfuu inline-graphic by Commercial Press, which has been arranged according to the first characters of the compounds, opens up also for grammatical research this invaluable collection of quotations.

page 796 note 9 For quotations from Mencius see above, p. 789, n. 1. The following editions and translations are referred to in the examples from other Chinese texts:– (i) Chyanhannshu inline-graphic. Lithographed print by Wenrueyhu inline-graphic (in 4 taw) of the edition by Wang Shianchian inline-graphic (Hannshu-buujuh inline-graphic). Transl. by H. H. Dubs (The History of the Former Han Dynasty,vols. 1, 2, Baltimore)

page 797 note 1 I have refrained from expressing any criticisms as far as these translations are concerned. It must be admitted, however, that even the Standard Translations of the Tzuoojuannand Liijih,by Legge and Couvreur, are not free from serious misunderstandings, whereas the Japanese and Manchu translations, which I consulted at the same time, proved generally correct.

page 798 note 1 The meaning “ until ” has here been paraphrased exactly by the commentator Jenq Shyuan inline-graphic (127–200), who states that the banner ceasesto be shown on leaving the house and is no longer there (wu yii) when the mourners reach the grave: inline-graphic

page 798 note 2 The erlis an emendation for chyi inline-graphic, to be found in old prints (e.g. the Ming-print in SBTK, J. 6, p. 7A, last line), in accordance with a quotation in the Taypyng-yuhlaanand the Harnshytoayjuann(see Bih Yuan inline-graphic′s note in the Leu-Shyh-chuenchiou)(SBBY, loc. cit.) and here below, note 3. Also the parallel version in the Shuoyuann(J. 1, p. 15B/16A) has erl.Cf. also Shuoyuann, 3.10, p. 7B4.

page 798 note 3 Bih dannoccurs as a textual variant of Ii dann inline-graphic in Shyyjih, 3.113, p. 173. The Chyanhannshu (J. 95, p. 39B8) has jyh dann inline-graphic. The functional identity of Iiand jyhwith bihis also shown by two further alternative expressions for “ by dawn ”, viz. Ii ming inline-graphic and jyh ming inline-graphic. It is interesting to note that both expressions have been explained by Chinese commentators as bih ming inline-graphic Cf. Ii mingin Shyyjih,J. 8, p. 292 (Chavannes, ii, p. 348), and jyh mingin Chyanhannshu, 3.1 Shanq, p. 9A15 (Dubs, i, p. 53), and see in particular Wang Niannsuen inline-graphic′s remarks in Dunishu-tzarjyh inline-graphic, Hannshu, J. l, Oaudihjih,entry jyh ming (p. 3A of the lithographed edition of 1924 by Saoyehshanfarng inline-graphic). The realization of the functional identity of H and jyhwith bih,in conjunction with the comparison of the parallel version in Chyanhannshu, 3.97 Shanq,p. 2B12, have led Wang Niannsuen to an important textual emendation in Shyyjih, 3.9, p. 56, where mingmust be deleted and Chavannes′ translation (ii, 410) corrected accordingly (“ by the time Shiaw Huey returned... ”). See Wang Niannsuen, loc. cit., Shyyjih, J. l, Leuhow-beenjih,entry Ii ming Shiaw Huey hwan inline-graphic (pp. 11B/12A), and cf. here below, p. 801, n. 4.

page 798 note 4 The substitution of the character inline-graphic for inline-graphic in some of the passages dealing with the omen of the mulberry tree and the papermulberry tree (saang guu inline-graphic) springing from the same root and/or growing to a size of two spans within a night or within three or seven days, is an obvious mistake, recognized already by Chavannes when dealing with Shyyhjih, J.3, p. 17 (Chavannes, i, 190), and the correct version, Shyyjih, J.6, p. 5 (Chav., iii, 417). See furthermore Chyanhannshu, J.25 Shanq, p. 16B6 (with Sheen Chinharn inline-graphic′s note, quoted by Wang Shianchian), and J. 27, Jong-jy Shiah inline-graphic p. 18B9; Koongtzyy-jiayeu inline-graphic Text of SBTK, J. 1, pp. 27B/28A, Harnshy-wayjuann,SBTK, J. 3, p. 1B2, and the Luenherng inline-graphic SBTK, J. 5, p. 1A4, transl. by Forke (see Mitteilungen des Sem. f. Or. Sprachen, Berlin, Beiband z. Jahrgang, xiv (1911), p. 161, and n. 1); furthermore Legge′s translation of the Preface to the Shoo King, attributed to Confucius (Chinese Classics, vol. iii (1865), p. 6, No. 22 and note), Suen Shingyean inline-graphic′s note in his Shanqshu-jin-guu-wen-juhsu inline-graphic, J. 30(P. 86 of the text in the Series Gwoshyue-jibeen-tsongshu inline-graphic), and the Shanqshu-dahjuann inline-graphic, SBTK, J. 2, p. 157.

page 798 note 5 Note the similar occurrence of eelafter swei inline-graphic (although that is so) in Sangwojyh, Weyjyh J.28, p. 39A8.

page 799 note 1 Cf. also examples 9 and 10, and the passages referring to Shiaw Huey′s return, quoted above, p. 798, n. 3.

page 799 note 2 See above, note 1.

page 799 note 3 See above, p. 795, n. 3. Cf. also Shnoyuann,J. 13, p. 7B3, jin ji nian erl toangnow it has perished within a year. (Continuation of the passage quoted as example, p. 800, n. 3.)

page 799 note 4 Note the position of the KA-clause after the main clause inline-graphic. According to a note by Sonq Chyi inline-graphic, adduced by Wang Shianchian, jeeis required at the end of the clause. Note that the clause re-occurs on p. 39A8 (Stange, pp. 26–7): inline-graphic (until the Emperor is capped and I (can) hand over the government to him).

page 799 note 5 Other examples for inline-graphic in the meaning “ by the time ” with the place of destination either understood or named after jyhmay be listed more briefly: bih jyhin Gwoyeu, Chyiyeu, J. 6,p. 2A7; bihjyh Ytihcherng (inline-graphic) in Chyanhannshu, J.61, p. 29A5, and Shyyjih,J. 123, p. 351 (Hirth in J. Am. Or. Soc, 37 (1917), p. 110); bih jyh Cherngyang(inline-graphic) in Shyyjih,J. 106, p. 247, and Chyanhannshu,J. 35, p. 46A8; bihjyh Shyrcherng(inline-graphic) in Sonqshu,J. 84 (SBTK, p. 22B1). In Shinshiuh,J. 8, p. 4A10, we find bih jyh gong men(by the time he arrived at the gate of the Duke′s Palace), for which the Barnshy-wayjuann(J. 1, p. 10A3) has the variant bih jyh chaur(inline-graphic “ the Court ”).

page 800 note 1 See also bih bin,here below, p. 801, n. 1. bihwould seem merely to emphasize the duration of the period, though this is already expressed by jyh yu.The same kind of emphasis is given in the passage in Liijih,J. 3, p. 5A9 (Legge, i, 171, 40; Couvreur, i, p. 207, 40): (inline-graphic). (With reference to the change to an auspicious sacrifice) [taking into account] all the time [from then] to the fnhsacrifice, (it [the fuhsacrifice] must be on the following day).

page 800 note 2 Cf. also bihjyh gong men,quoted here above, p. 799, n. 5.

page 800 note 3 See above, p. 795, and cf. example No. 11. Another passage with the clause bih-jyi san nianoccurs in Shxioyuann,J. 13, p. 7B1. See also here, p. 799, n. 3.

page 800 note 4 As was already mentioned above, p. 795, the parallel version in the Jeatzyy-shinshu(J. 10, p. 69B7) has merely bih san yueh jee.

page 800 note 5 Cf. above, example No. 18 and the example given here above in note 1.

page 800 note 6 As shown by the two passages given under No. 25, jyimerely emphasizes that the duration of the period extendsto the burial.

page 801 note 1 Note the change in the translation owing to the context. In example 25b the passage mentions in addition to the period before the burial (during which the ruler does not eat flesh), the period from the burial until the end of wailing, bih tzwu ku inline-graphic (during which the ruler does not have music) and the period from the death to the coffining, bih bin(see also here above, p. 800, n. 1).

page 801 note 2 In the commentary Jenq Shyuan explains bih shyras inline-graphic.

page 801 note 3 Note the creeping in of wey.Either bihor weywould be sufficient.

page 801 note 4 The sentence preceding our passage (p. 12B10) has been quoted by Wang Niansuenn as an example for jt, A (see here, above, p. 798, n. 3): inline-graphic I hope Juger Lianq will not already have taken Cherntsang by the time you get there?

page 801 note 5 See here above, p. 795 and n. 1. In a literal translation the force of jee can be rendered by -ing: Ex. No. 1 “ by guests depart-ing ”, etc.

page 801 note 6 See also above, p. 791, last paragraph.

page 801 note 7 As a context where bihbefore syymust be rendered by “ until” I noted, in a Manchu- Chinese collection of phrases (manuscript), the sentence bih syy mah buh shiuh koou inline-graphicbucetele angga ci toorengge nakarakH(“until his death he did not stop swearing”).

page 802 note 1 See J. 32 = J. 1393, pp. 3A/B, of the reprint of this work in the Series Htvangching-jingjiee-shiuhbian inline-graphic.

page 802 note 2 See Hummel, Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period,vol. ii, p. 945.

page 802 note 3 Yu Yueh′s copy read, however, wey(inline-graphic) syy buh shi minqjeeinstead of jinn(inline-graphic) syy,etc., so that his explanation of bihas jinnhas been arrived at independently from the Pseudo Suen Shyh.

page 802 note 4 See Mitteilungen des Seminars fur Orientalische Sprachen zu Berlin,Jg. XXXIII (1930), Abteilung I, p. 167.

page 802 note 5 See Kanbuntaikei,vol. i, MtSshi-teihon,J. 1, pp. 12–13, and J. 4, p. 13.

page 802 note 6 See G. B. Sansom, Historical Grammar of Japanese,Oxford, 1928, p. 269: kuru made ni “by the time he comes ”. B. H. Chamberlain, Handbook of Colloquial Japanese(2nd ed., 1889, p. 93) remarks, however, with reference to made ni,that “ while it often corresponds to our word by...the Japanese mind does not clearly apprehend the shade of difference which, with us, separates byfrom till”.

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