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A Periplus of Magan and Meluḫḫa

  • John Hansman
Extract

Perhaps no question of historical-geographical interest relating to the ancient Middle East has been so frequently a subject of inquiry or brought a greater difference of opinion than has that of the location of the countries of Magan and Meluḫḫa. The problems of identification are particularly confused because widely separate areas appear to be indicated at different periods. Old Babylonian and Sumerian references seem to place these regions at the lower end of the Persian Gulf and along the coast of the Indian Ocean beyond, while texts of the late Assyrian period indicate Egypt and Nubia/Ethiopia

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1 For abbreviations, see p. 584.

2 Landsberger, B., ZA, xxxv, 3, 1924, 217.

3 ibid., p. 217, n. 2.

4 Herzfeld, E., The Persian Empire, Wiesbaden, 1968, 63.

5 Note by Eilers, W. in Leemans, W., JESHO, III, 1, 1960, 29.

6 Herzfeld, , op. oit., 63–4.

7 Gelb, I. J., RA, LXIV, 1, 1970, 5.

8 Leemans, W. F., Foreign trade in the Old Babẏlonian period, Leiden, 1966, 162, 164.

9 Weidner, E. F., Af.O, XVI, 1, 1962, 22.

10 Leemans, , Foreign trade, 159.

11 Kramer, S. N., An., XXXVII, 146, 1963, p. 114, n. 11.

12 The case for identifying Telmun or Dilmun with Bahrain is set out in Cornwall, B., BASOR, 103, 1946, 3f., and in Cornwall, B., JCS, VI, 4, 1952, 137 f.

13 Barton, G. A., The royal inscriptions of Sumer and Akkad, New Haven, (1929, 108.

14 ibid., 128–30.

15 ibid., 142.

16 ibid., 180, 184, 220.

17 Leemans, , Foreign trade, Magan copper, 19 (UET, III, 1689); Magan onions, 21 (UET, III, 751); Magan reed, 26 (UET, V, 678).

18 Leemans, , Foreign trade, Meluḫḫa copper, 161 (UET, III, 368); A.AB.BA wood, 161 (UET, in, 430, 660, 703, 752); mesu wood, 161 (UET, in, 818, 1498, 1241); ivory birds, 161 (UET, in, 757, 761, 764, 768, 770).

19 Leemans, , Foreign trade, 125, quoting OIP, XLIII, p. 194, no. 121.

20 ibid., 24–6 (UET, v, 526, 678).

21 ibid., 27 (UET, v, 292).

22 ibid., 36 (UET, v, 367).

23 ibid., 138 (ABM, v, 14).

24 Landsberger, B., MSL, v. For Magan and Meluḫḫa chairs, 158; Magan and Meluḫḫa tables, 168; MES wood of Magan and Meluḫḫa, 109; date-palm of Magan and Meluḫḫa, 117; A.AB.BA wood of Meluḫḫa, 105. For Magan and Meluḫḫa copper see Matouš, , LTBA, i, tablet 33, col. 5, 11. 32–6. See Scheil, , RA, xv, 1918, 115, for na4 GUG Meluḫḫa.

25 On these toponyms see Herzfeld, , The Persian Empire, 63.

26 Benedict, W. C. and von Voigtlander, E., JCS, x, 1, 1956, 3.

27 Kent, R. G., Old Persian grammar, New Haven, 1953, 117, 136, 141, 151.

28 ibid., 36, ‘Maka is ethnic Maciya with the palatalization because the suffix began with the palatal sound’.

29 Herodotus, III, xciii.

30 See Herzfeld, , op. cit., 300.

31 See Marquart, J. (ed.), A catalogue of the provincial capitals of Ērānshahr, Rome, 1931, 77.

32 Marquart, J. (ed.), Ērānšahr, Berlin, 1901, 16; Maricq, A., Syria, XXXV, 3–4, 1958, 336.

33 Herzfeld, , op. cit., 63; Leemans, , JESHO, III, 1, 1960, 29; Salonen, A., Die Türen des alten Mesopotamien, Helsinki, 1961, p. 99, n. 1.

34 See p. 555.

35 The identification of na4ESI as diorite is deduced from the finding that nearly all the covered statues of Gudea are of this stone.

36 Forbes, R. J., Metallurgy in antiquity, Leiden, 1950, 187.

37 CAH, third ed., i, pt. n, 440.

38 Forbes, R. J., Studies in ancient technology, VIII; Leiden, 1964, 212.

39 Caldwell, J., Investigations at Tal-i Iblis, Springfield, III., 1967, 347–8.

40 CHI, I, 85.

41 Caldwell, , op. cit., 13, 375; see also CHI, I, 503.

42 Gershevitch, I., BSOAS, XIX, 2, 1957, 317–20.

43 Watt, G., A dictionary of the economic products of India, III, Calcutta, 1890, 1314.

44 Legrain, L., UET, III, 859, 233.

45 ibid., 219, 493; 214, 363.

46 ibid., 260, 14.

47 On this point see Leemans, , Foreign trade, 159.

48 Although KÚB can be read as ‘mountain’ or ‘hill’, it may also indicate a land. In the case of KÚB MELUTḪḪA, Gudea caused ušu wood and gold dust to be brought down (IM.TA.É) from there (Barton, , The royal inscriptions, 184). In the case of KÚR MAGANk1, a more specifio word for mountain, ḪÚR.SAG MAGANk1, is also attested (Barton, , op. cit., 190).

49 KB, III, 1, 37; Thureau-Dangin, F. (ed.), Vne relation de la huitième campagne de Sargon, Paris, 1912, p. 53, n. 6.

50 Arrian, , Anabasis, vi, xxii, 67.

51 Watt, , A dictionary of the economic products of India, II, Calcutta, 1889, 261. For mangroves on the coast of Las Bela which geographically forms a part of eastern Magan, see Stein, M. A., GJ, CII, 5–6, 1943, 196.

52 Watt, , op. oit., II, 261.

53 RGSP, I, 1, 1948, 10, and plate 1; VII, 2, 1955, 58. See also Forbes, R. J., Studies in ancient technology, VII, Leiden, 1964, 12.

54 C. H. Desch, ‘Sumerian copper. Seventh interim report of committee appointed to report on the probable sources of the supply of copper used by the Sumerians’ [Report, British Association for the Advancement of Science, annual meeting, Blackpool, 1936, Section H, 3 pp.; a copy is in the Library of the Institute of Archaeology, University of London].

55 Peake, H., An., II, 8, 1928, 454.

56 ibid., 456.

57 SirMarshall, John (ed.), Mohenjo-daro, II, London, 1931, 484.

58 Lambert, W. G. (ed. and tr.), Babylonian wisdom literature, Oxford, 1960, 272.

59 Dales, G., An., XXXVI, 142, 1962, 90–2; Raikes, R. L., AA, LXVI, 2, 1964, 290.

60 Dales, , art. oit., 90–1.

61 ibid., 92.

62 Lamberg-Karlovsky, C. C., Iran, X, 1972, 93.

63 Tosi, M., EW, NS, XX, 1–2, 1970, 13.

64 Cardi, B. De, APAMNH, LI, 3, 1970, 268.

65 ibid., 257.

66 SirWheeler, Mortimer, The Indus civilization, third ed., Cambridge, 1968, 1618.

67 On the Kulli sequence see Wheeler, op. cit.

68 Fairservis, W. A. Jr, The roots of ancient India, London, 1971, 227.

69 Lamberg-Karlovsky, , art. oit., 93.

70 Personal communication from Dr. M. Tosi.

71 Cardi, De, art. cit., 243.

72 Wheeler, , op. oit., 132–3.

73 For the Sanskrit sources see below Bailey, pp. 584–6, § A.

74 Śatapathabrāhmaṇa (tr. Eggeling, J.), SBE, xxvi, 32.

75 Leemans, , Foreign trade, 164.

76 Luckenbill, D. D., The annals of Sennacherib, Chicago, 1924, 106, 110.

77 Herzfeld, , The Persian Empire, 70.

78 Luckenbill, , op. cit., 106.

79 Thompson, R. C., A dictionary of Assyrian botany, London, 1949, 342–3.

80 ibid., loc. cit. For the habitat of this plant see Watt, , A dictionary of the economic products of India, III, 334.

81 Thompson, , op. cit., 238–9(šamA.AB.BA and šamKA.A.AB.BA). For kušabku see CAD, VIII (K), 597.

82 Watt, , A dictionary of the economic products of India, II, 261.

83 Kent, , Old Persian grammar, 136, 141.

84 Arrian, , Anabasis, VI, xxii, 1.

85 There are structural similarities of Gadrosii and Gadrā, the name of a servile tribe who inhabit the Las Bela region west of Sind (Bray, D., The tribes of Baluchistan, Calcutta, 1915, 101). The language of these Gadrā is ‘local Sindhi vernacular’ classed together with Sindhi, Jaṭki (Census of India, 1931, IV, 1, 143). It is not possible on the available evidence to consider a linguistic connexion of the two names.

86 Herzfeld, , The Persian Empire, 335.

87 Stephanus Byzantinus, s.v. Alexandria Makarene.

88 Arrian, , Anabasis, vi, xxiv, 1.

89 Strabo, XV, ii, 9 and 14.

90 Strabo, XV, ii, 9.

91 See makan, Burrow, T. and Emeneau, M. B., A Dravidian etymological dictionary, Oxford, 1961, 304.

92 Maroian, , Periplus of the outer sea (trans. Sohoff, W.), Philadelphia, 1927, 23–4; Arrian, , Anabasis, VI, xvii, 2.

93 Al-Ṭabarī, I, 820.

94 Maricq, A., Syria, XXXV, 3–4, 1958, 306, 336.

95 Marquart, , Ērānšahr, 16.

96 Al-Muqaddasi, 478.

97 Firdausī, , Shāhnāma (tr. Warner, ), VII, London, 1915, 216–17.

98 Nöldeke, T., Geschichte der Perser und Araber zur Zeit der Sasaniden, Leyden, 1879 p.157, n.3.

99 Al-Mnqaddasī, 488–9.

100 El, first ed., s.v. ‘Balōčistān’, 628.

101 For a concise account of the Islamic history of Baluchistan and a list of the relevant sources, see ibid., 634–9.

102 Spooner, B., ‘Notes on the toponymy of the Persian Makran’, in Bosworth, C. E. (ed.), Iran and Islam, Edinburgh, [1971], 520.

103 Arrian, , Anabasis, VI, xxiv, 1; VI, xxvii, 1.

104 See Appendix II for a note on Alexander in Carmania.

105 Holdich, T. H., GJ, VII, 4, 1896, 409; Tarn, W. W., Alexander the Great, II, Cambridge, 1948, map.

106 Stein, M. A., Archaeological reconnaissances, London, 1937, 105–6.

107 ibid., 110.

108 On the ruins of Tiz, see Stein, , op. cit., 87–8.

109 Al-Muqaddasi, 478.

110 Al-Idrīsī, Nuzhat al-mushtāq, translated into English by Ahmad, S. M. as India and the neighbouring territories, Leiden, 1960, 46.

111 See p. 556.

112 On the end of the Indus civilization see Wheeler, , The Indus civilization, 132–3.

113 Mercer, S. A. (ed.), Tell el-Amarna tablets, Toronto, 1939, i, 266, 366, 374, 382, 390, 440.

114 ibid., I, 422, 436.

115 ibid., I, 222.

116 ibid., I, 712.

117 Posener, G., Kush, vi, 1958, 45–7.

118 For discussion and sources on Kush see CAH, third ed., II, pt. I, 346–9.

119 JCS, VI, 4, 1952, 143 f.

120 Mercer, , Tell el-Amarna tablets, I, 22, 70, 80–8, 128–44.

121 KUB, II, no. 51, 1. 20, and no. 52, 1. 6 f.

122 Weidner, E. F., A f. O, Beiheft 12, 1959, 30; ABA, I, 59.

123 Weidner, 21.

124 CAH, II third ed., pt. II, fasc. 49, 14.

125 Winckler, H., Die Keilschrifttexte Sargons, I, Leipzig, 1889, 114, 116; ABA, II, 32.

126 Luckenbill, , The annals of Sennacherib, 31–2.

127 Borger, R., Die Inschriften Asarhaddons, Graz, 1956, 86.

128 ibid., 112.

129 ibid., 36.

130 ibid., 80.

131 Piepkorn, A., Historical prism inscriptions of Ashurbanipal, Chicago, 1933, text B.30 and text D.31, no. 12; ABA, n, 292.

132 Piepkorn, 30–8; ABA, II, 292–3.

133 Piepkorn, 38; ABA, II, 295.

134 See above, p. 555, n. 11.

135 Weidner, , A f. 0, XVI, 1, 1952, 1.

136 ibid., 19.

137 Luckenbill, , The annals of Sennacherib, 74; ABA, I, 146.

138 See ARM, XV, 1954, 129, for text references to this Mari.

139 Barton, , The royal inscriptions, 105–6 and 112.

140 The bēru has been reckoned as equalling about 10 69 kilometres. SeeRA, XVIII, 1921, 133.

141 Mercer, Tell el-Amarna tablets. For gold see 1, 10, 16, 24, 32, 44–6; for ivory, I, 16, 41, 54–6.

142 ibid., I, 36.

143 Winekler, , Die Keilschrifttexte Sargons, I, 116; ASA, II, 32.

144 See Leemans, , Foreign trade, 144, 21.

145 Watt, , A dictionary of the economic products of India, III, 333–4.

146 Thompson, , A dictionary of Assyrian botany, 353–9 (šamAŠ).

147 Watt, , op. cit., 330.

148 Lamberg-Karlovsky, C. C., Excauations at Tepe Yahya 1967–1969, Cambridge, Mass., 1970, 5.

149 J. Marquart, A catalogue of the provincial capitals of Ērānshahr. Marquart arrives at this location by equating Old Persian Yutiya with Middle Persian Krmān Yut, the Yut of Kirman, and these with the Jut of south Kirmān.

150 Poebel, A. M., University of Pennsylvania. University Museum. Publications of the Babylonian Section, IV, 1914, 234.

151 Barton, , The royal inscriptions, 128, 130.

152 Herzfeld, , The Persian Empire, 178–9; Hansman, , Iran, X, 1972, 105.

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