Skip to main content

Nuuchahnulth Double Reduplication and Stratal Optimality Theory

  • John Stonham (a1)

Multiple reduplication is rare: the most often cited case is that of Salish double reduplication, which has been analyzed within the framework of Optimality Theory. For this reason, the simple and double reduplication processes found in Nuuchahnulth (Nootka) have theoretically interesting consequences for current models of morphology. This article demonstrates that Nuuchahnulth double reduplication challenges the standard, parallelist optimality theoretic account. An alternative analysis in terms of Stratal Optimality Theory is presented: the multistratal model is argued to be superior to the mono-stratal one, as the latter misses generalizations and fails to make correct predictions.


Le redoublement multiple est rare : le cas le plus souvent cité est celui du double redoublement dans les langues salishennes, qui a été analysé dans le cadre de la théorie de l’optimalité. Ainsi, les processus de redoublement simple et double que l’on retrouve en nuuchahnulth (nootka) ont des enjeux théoriques intéressants pour les modèles de morphologie contemporains. Cet article démontre que le double redoublement en nuuchahnulth est problématique pour l’analyse standard paralléliste de la théorie de l’optimalité. Une analyse alternative est présentée dans le cadre de la théorie de l’optimalité stratifiée : le modèle multi-stratifié est supérieur au modèle mono-stratifié en ce que ce dernier ne rend pas compte de certaines généralisations et ne produit pas de bonnes prédictions.

Hide All
Bermúdez-Otero, Ricardo. 1999. Constraint interaction in language change. Doctoral dissertation, University of Manchester/Universidad de Santiago de Compostela.
Bermúdez-Otero, Ricardo. 2003. The acquisition of phonological opacity. In Variation within Optimality Theory: Proceedings of the Stockholm Workshop on Variation within Optimality Theory, ed. Spenader, Jennifer, Eriksson, Anders, and Dahl, Osten, 2536. Stockholm: Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University. (Expanded version available from the Rutgers Optimality Archive, ROA 593.)
Bermúdez-Otero, Ricardo. To appear. Stratal Optimality Theory. Oxford Studies in Theoretical Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Broselow, Ellen. 1983. Salish double reduplications: Subjacency in morphology. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 1:317346.
Buckley, Eugene. 1998. Integrity and correspondence in Manam double reduplication. Proceedings of the North East Linguistic Society 28:5967.
Jacobsen, William H. Jr., 1979. Noun and verb in Nootkan. In The Victoria Conference on Northwestern Languages: Victoria, BC, November 4-5, 1976, ed. Efrat, Barbara S., 83155. Victoria, BC: British Columbia Provincial Museum.
Kim, Eun-Sook. 2003a. Patterns of reduplication in Nuu-chah-nulth. In NELS 33: Proceedings of the Thirty-Third Annual Meeting of the North East Linguistic Society, ed. Kadowaki, Makoto and Kawahara, Shigeto, 127146. Charleston, SC: BookSurge.
Kim, Eun-Sook. 2003b. Theoretical issues in Nuu-chah-nulth phonology and morphology. Doctoral dissertation, University of British Columbia.
Kiparsky, Paul. 1982. Lexical phonology and morphology. In Linguistics in the morning calm, ed. Yang, I.S., 391. Seoul: Hanshin.
Kiparsky, Paul. 1985. Some consequences of lexical phonology. Phonology Yearbook 2:85138.
Kiparsky, Paul. 2000. Opacity and cyclicity. The Linguistic Review 17:351365.
Mohanan, K.P. 1982. Lexical phonology. Doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Mohanan, K.P. 1986. The theory of lexical phonology. Boston: D. Reidel.
Rose, Sharon. 2000. Multiple correspondence in reduplication. In Proceedings of the 23 rd Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, ed. Juge, M. and Moxley, J., 315326. Berkeley: Berkeley Linguistics Society.
Rose, Suzanne M. 1981. Kyuquot grammar. Doctoral dissertation, University of Victoria.
Sapir, Edward. N.d. Fieldnotes on Nootka. Ms., Philadelphia, PA. In Boas Collection of the American Philosophical Society [W2a.l8].
Sapir, Edward, and Swadesh, Morris. 1939. Nootka texts: Tales and ethnological narratives with grammatical notes and lexical materials. Philadelphia: Linguistic Society of America.
Shaw, Patricia. 1989. The complex status of complex segments in Dakota. In Theoretical perspectives on Native American languages, ed. Gerdts, Donna and Michelson, Karin, 337. New York: SUNY Press.
Stonham, John. 1994a. All moras are not created equal. Cahiers Linguistiques d’Ottawa 21:125.
Stonham, John. 1994b. Combinatorial morphology. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Stonham, John. 1999. Aspects of Tsishaath Nootka phonetics and phonology. Munich: LINCOM Europa.
Stonham, John. 2003. Southern Wakashan double reduplication. In University of British Columbia Working Papers in Linguistics 11 : Papers for ICSNL XXXVIII: The 38th International Conference on Salish and Neighbouring Languages, ed. Brown, J.C. and Kalmar, Michele, 237251.
Stonham, John. 2004. Linguistic theory and complex words: Nuuchahnulth word formation. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Swadesh, Morris. 1931. The Nootka aspect system. Master’s thesis, University of Chicago.
Urbanczyk, Suzanne. 1995. Double reduplications in parallel. University of Massachusetts Occasional Papers 18:499531.
Wojdak, Rachel. 2001. An argument for category neutrality? In WCCFL 20: Proceedings of the 20th West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics, ed. Megerdoomian, Karine and Bar-el, Leora Anne, 621634. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
Zee, Draga. 1988. Sonority constraints on prosodie structure. Doctoral dissertation, Stanford University.
Zoll, Cheryl. 1996. Parsing below the segment in a constraint based framework. Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Canadian Journal of Linguistics/Revue canadienne de linguistique
  • ISSN: 0008-4131
  • EISSN: 1710-1115
  • URL: /core/journals/canadian-journal-of-linguistics-revue-canadienne-de-linguistique
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed