Skip to main content

On binding, lexical and superlexical prefixes, and si in the Baltic verb

  • Julija Korostenskiene (a1)

The present paper is concerned with a historical puzzle: the changing position of the marker si in the extant Baltic languages, Lithuanian and Latvian. Si appears before the root in prefixed verbs and verb-finally in prefixless verbs in Lithuanian and dialectal Latvian, as opposed to a consistently verb-final position in standard Latvian and in Slavic languages, specifically Russian. This ordering is examined within a larger picture of morpheme linearization – focusing primarily on Lithuanian, but also bringing in Latvian and Latgalian data – to account for the Baltic paradigm. Historically a pronoun, si is argued to have incorporated into the verbal structure, and to maintain nowadays a binding relation with the subject of the sentence. The placement of si within the verb is shown to depend on two factors: the type of the antecedent and the morphosyntactic composition of the verb. The findings presented here also provide new evidence against the Lexicalist Hypothesis.

Cet article traite d'une question longuement débattue : la position variable du marqueur si dans les langues baltes existantes, soit le lituanien et le letton. Si apparaît avant la racine dans les verbes préfixés, et en position finale dans les verbes sans préfixe en lituanien et en letton dialectal, alors qu'elle figure toujours en position finale en letton standard et dans les langues slaves, spécifiquement le russe. Nous examinons cet ordonnancement dans le contexte de la linéarisation des morphèmes avec des données du lithuanien, mais aussi du letton et du latgalien, pour en arriver à une analyse du paradigme balte. Nous soutenons que si , jadis pronominal, a été incorporé dans la structure verbale, et entretient aujourd'hui une relation de liage avec le sujet de la phrase. Nous démontrons que le placement de si dans le verbe dépend de deux facteurs: le type de l'antécédent et la composition morphosyntaxique du verbe. Les résultats présentés ici apportent également de nouvelles preuves contre l'hypothèse lexicaliste.

Corresponding author
Hide All

I express my sincere and profound gratitude to the three Anonymous Reviewers for their insightful comments, useful references, and valuable suggestions on the drafts of the manuscript. I am also very thankful to Prof. Ronnie Wilbur at Purdue University, USA, for her generous advice and comments at the early stages of this study. I also extend my deep gratitude to the Editor of the Canadian Journal of Linguistics for her generous assistance finalizing the manuscript. All remaining errors are my own.

Hide All
Ambrazas, Vytautas, ed. 2006. Dabartinės lietuvių kalbos gramatika [A Grammar of the Contemporary Lithuanian Language]. 4th ed. Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedijų leidybos institutas.
Andronov, Aleksey. 2010. Ocherki po prakticheskoj grammatike. Materialy k kursu latyshskogo yazyka. [Sketches on practical grammar. Materials for the course on the Latvian Language]. St. Petersburg.
Andronovas, Aleksejus. 1995. Priešdėlinių veiksmažodžių kirčiavimas morfologinės akcentologijos požiūriu [Stress patterns of prefixed verbs from the viewpoint of morphological accentology]. Baltistica 30(1): 93100.
Arkadiev, Peter. 2009. Teorija akcional'nosti i litovskij glagol. [A theory of actionality and the Lithuanian verb]. Balto-slavianskiye issledovaniya [Balto-Slavic Studies] 18: 7294. Мoskva: Yazyki slavianskix kul'tur.
Arkadiev, Peter. 2010. Notes on the Lithuanian restrictive. Baltic Linguistics 1: 949.
Arkadiev, Peter. 2011a. Aspect and actionality in Lithuanian on a typological background. In Langues baltiques, langues slaves, ed. Petit, Daniel, Feuvre, Claire Le et Menantaud, Henri, 6192. Paris: CNRS Editions.
Arkadiev, Peter. 2011b. On the aspectual uses of the prefix be- in Lithuanian. Baltic Linguistics 2: 3778.
Arkadiev, Peter. 2014. Glagol'naja restriktivnost’ v litvoskom jazyke. [Verbal restrictivity in Lithuanian]. In Acta linguistica Petropolitana: Studia typologica octogenario Victori Khrakovskij Samuelis filio dedicata, 12–42. St. Petersburg: Nauka.
Arkadiev, Peter. 2015. On the place of Lithuanian in the typology of aspectual systems. Paper presented at the Semantics and Structure of Linguistic Units, Klaipeda. (5.07.2015)
Arkadiev, Peter, Holvoet, Axel, and Wiemer, Björn. 2015. Baltic linguistics: State of the art. In Contemporary approaches to Baltic Linguistics, ed. Arkadiev, Peter, Holvoet, Axel, and Wiemer, Björn, 1111. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Babko-Malaya, Olga. 1999. Zero morphology: A study of aspect, argument structure, and case. Doctoral dissertation, Rutgers University. (4.16.2016).
Boeckx, Cedric, Hornstein, Norbert, and Nunes, Jairo. 2005. Overt copies in reflexive and control structures: A movement analysis. In University of Maryland Working Papers in Linguistics 15, ed. Conroy, Anastasia, Jing, Chunyuang, Nakao, Chizuru, and Takahashi, Eri, 146.
Borer, Hagit. 1998. Morphology and syntax. In The handbook of morphology, ed. Spencer, Andrew and Zwicky, Arnold M., 151190. Oxford: Blackwell.
Bowers, John. 2002. Transitivity. Linguistic Inquiry 33(2): 183224.
Bošković, Željko. 1997. The syntax of non-finite complementation: An economy approach. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Bošković, Željko. 2010. On NPs and clauses. Ms., University of Connecticut, Storrs. (26.3.2016).
Bukšs, Mikelis, and Placinskis, Juris. 1973. Latgaļu gramatika un pareizraksteibas vōrdneica [Latgalian grammar and orthographic dictionary]. Latgaļ Pētnīceibas Instituts.
Carnie, Andrew. 2013. Syntax: A generative introduction. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
Charnavel, Isabelle, and Sportiche, Dominique. 2016. Anaphor binding: What French inanimate anaphors show. Linguistic Inquiry 47(1): 3587.
Chomsky, Noam. 1981. Lectures on government and binding. Dordrecht: Foris.
Chomsky, Noam. 1995. The minimalist program. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Chomsky, Noam. 2001. Derivation by phase. In Ken Hale: A life in language, ed. Kenstowicz, Michael, 152. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Dahl, Osten. 1985. Tense and aspect systems. New York: Basil Backwell.
Despić, Miloje. 2011. Syntax in the absence of determiner phrase. Doctoral dissertation, University of Connecticut. (23.04.2016)
Di Sciullo, Anne Marie and Slabakova, Roumyana. 2005. Quantification and aspect. In Perspectives on aspect, ed. Verkuyl, Henk J., Swart, Henriette De, and Hout, Angeliek Van, 6180. Dordrecht: Springer.
Drummond, Alex, Kush, David, and Norstein, Norbert. 2011 print, 2012 online. Minimalist construal: Two approaches to A and B. In Oxford handbooks online. (2.04.2016).
Dyakonova, Marina. 2009. A phase-based approach to Russian free word order. Doctoral dissertation, University of Amsterdam. Amsterdam: LOT publications.
Embick, David, and Noyer, Rolf. 2001. Movement operations after syntax. Linguistic Inquiry 32(4): 555595.
Embick, David, and Noyer, Rolf. 2007. Distributed morphology and the syntax/morphology interface. In The Oxford handbook of linguistic interfaces, ed. Ramchand, Gillian and Reiss, Charles, 288324. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Endzelīns, Jānis. 1971. Comparative phonology and morphology of the Baltic languages. The Hague: Mouton.
Fennell, Trevor G. 1981. The first description of the Latvian debitive mood. Lituanus 27(4). (31.03.2016).
Felser, Claudia. 2000. Aspectual complement clauses and the (un-)availability of verb raising. In Verbal projections, ed. Janβen, Hero, 163193. Tübingen: Niemeyer.
Filip, Hanna. 2000. The quantization puzzle. In Events as grammatical objects, from the combined perspectives of lexical semantics, logical semantics and syntax, ed. Pustejovsky, James and Tenny, Carol L., 360. Stanford: CSLI.
Galnaitytė, Elzė. 1962. Ginčytini lietuvių kalbos veiksmažodžio veikslų klausimai [Debatable issues in Lithuanian verbal aspect]. Kalbotyra 4: 119139.
van Gelderen, Elly. 2004. Aspect, infinitival complements, and evidentials. In The composition of meaning: From lexeme to discourse, ed. ter Meulen, Alice G. B. and Abraham, Werner, 3969. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Geniušienė, Emma. 2007. Reciprocal and reflexive constructions in Lithuanian. In Reciprocal constructions, ed. Nedjalkov, Vladimir, 633673. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Goledzinowska, Magdalena. 2004. Syntactic transitivity of SE-reflexives in Polish. In Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics 22, ed. Frigeni, Chiara, 93120. University of Toronto: Linguistics Graduate Course Union.
Harley, Heidi. 2010. The syntax/morphology interface. Ms., University of Arizona. (16.04.2015).
Haspelmath, Martin. 2002. Understanding morphology. London: Arnold.
Haspelmath, Martin. 2011. The indeterminacy of word segmentation and the nature of morphology and syntax. Folia Linguistica 45(1): 3180. (22.03.2016).
Hicks, Glyn. 2009. The derivation of anaphoric relations. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Holvoet, Axel. 2001. Studies in the Latvian Verb. Krakow: Wydawnitctwo universytetu jagiellońskiego.
Holvoet, Axel, and Čižik-Prokaševa, Veslava. 2004. Veikslo priešpriešos tipai [Types of aspectual opposition]. In Gramatinių kategorijų tyrimai [Studies in grammatical categories], ed. Holvoet, Axel and Semėnienė, Lorete, 141162. Vilnius: Lietuvių kalbos institutas.
Holvoet, Axel, and Judžentis, Artūras. 2005. Beasmeniai sakiniai ir beasmeniškumo sąvoka. [Impersonal sentences and the concept of impersonality] In Gramatinių funkcijų tyrimai [Studies of grammatical functions], ed. Holvoet, Axel and Mikulskas, Rolandas, 161179. Vilnius: Lietuvių kalbos instituto leidykla.
Horiguchi, Daiki. 2015. Latvian attenuative pa-verbs in comparison with diminutives. In Contemporary approaches to Baltic Linguistics, ed. Arkadiev, Peter, Holvoet, Axel, and Wiemer, Björn, 235263. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Hornstein, Norbert. 1999. Movement and control. Linguistic Inquiry 30(1): 6996.
Hornstein, Norbert. 2000. Move! A minimalist theory of control. Oxford: Blackwell.
Hornstein, Norbert. 2001. Move! A minimalist theory of construal. Oxford: Blackwell.
Hornstein, Norbert. 2003. On control. In Minimalist syntax, ed. Hendrick, Randall, 681. Oxford: Blackwell.
Ilze, Auziņa and Nešpore, Gunta, eds. 2014. Latviešu valodas darbības vārdu tabulas [Latvian verb tables]. Rīga: Norden AB.
Jakulienė, Audronė. 1969. DĖL wisesi tur ischpažinti [One must confess everything]. Baltistica 5(2): 197198. Vilnius: Vilnius University Press. (17.04.2014).
Janda, Laura, and Lyashevskaya, Olga. 2013. Semantic profiles of five Russian prefixes: po-, s-, za-, na-, pro . Journal of Slavic Linguistics 21(2): 211–58.
Kabelka, Jonas. 1987. Latvių kalba [The Latvian Language] . Vilnius: Mokslas.
Kagan, Olga. 2012. Degree semantics for Russian verbal prefixes: the case of pod- and do-. The Russian Verb, Oslo Studies in Language 4(1), ed. Atle Grønn and Anna Pazelskaya, 207–243. Oslo: University of Oslo. (23.03.2016).
Kalnača, Andra. 2005. A study of aspect correspondences between Latvian and Finnish. Kalbų studijos / Studies About Languages 7: 2629. Kaunas: University of Technology (12.04.2016).
Kalnača, Andra. 2014. A typological perspective on Latvian grammar. Warsaw: de Gruyter Open. (7.2.2016)
Kalnača, Andra, and Lokmane, Ilze. 2010. Defective paradigms of reflexive nouns and participles in Latvian. In Defective paradigms: Missing forms and what they tell us, ed. Corbett, Greville G., Baerman, Matthew, and Brown, Dunstan, 5367. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kalnača, Andra, and Lokmane, Ilze. 2012. Semantics and distribution of Latvian reflexive verbs. In Multiple perspectives in linguistic research on Baltic Languages, ed. Usonienė, Aurelija, Nau, Nicole, and Dabašinskienė, Ineta, 222257. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Katz, Graham. 2003. Event arguments, adverb selection, and the Stative Adverb Gap. In Modifying adjuncts, ed. Lang, Ewald, Maienborn, Claudia, and Fabricius-Hansen, Cathrine, 455474. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Kayne, Richard. 1994. The antisymmetry of syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Kazlauskas, Jonas. 1968. Lietuvių kalbos istorinė gramatika (kirčiavimas, daiktavardis, veiksmažodis) [A historical grammar of Lithuanian (the stress, the noun, the verb)]. Vilnius: Mintis.
Kempchinsky, Paula. 2004. Romance SE as an aspectual element. In Contemporary approaches to Romance linguistics, ed. Auger, Julie, Clancy, J. Clements, , and Vance, Barbara, 239256. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Klavans, Judith. 1985. The independence of syntax and phonology in cliticization. Language 61(1): 95120.
Korostenskienė, Julija. 2014. Exploring Lithuanian reflexive verbs from the generative perspective. Darbai ir dienos/Deeds and Days 62: 5980.
Lazdiņa, Sanita, and Marten, Heiko F.. 2012. Latgalian in Latvia: A continuous struggle for political recognition. Journal of Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe 11(1): 6687. (31.03.2016).
Lokmane, Ilze, and Kalnača, Andra. 2014. Modal semantics and the morphosyntax of Latvian debitive. In Modes of modality: Modality, typology, and universal grammar, ed. Leiss, Elisabeth and Abraham, Werner, 167192. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Marantz, Alex. 1988. Clitics, morphological merger and the mapping to morphological structure. In Theoretical morphology: Approaches in modern linguistics, ed. Hammond, Michael P. and Noonan, Michael T., 253271. San Diego: Academic Press.
Marelj, Marijana, and Reuland, Eric. 2013. Clitic SE in Romance and Slavonic revisited. In Current Studies in Slavic Linguistics, ed. Chahine, Irina Kor, 7591. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Mathiassen, Terje. 1997. A short grammar of Latvian. Columbus, OH: Slavica Publishers.
Müller, Gereon. 2002. Two types of remnant movement. In Dimensions of movement: From features to remnants, ed. Alexiadou, Artemis, Anagnostopoulou, Elena, Barbiers, Sjef, and Gärtner, Hans-Martin, 209241. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Nau, Nicole. 2011. A short grammar of Latgalian. München: Lincom Europa.
Naua, Nikole. 2014. Latviešu valoda studentiem: skolotāja grāmata: metodisks līdzeklis [Latvian for students: Teacher's book: A toolkit] . Rīga: Latvian Language Agency.
Nunes, Jairo. 1995. The copy theory of movement and linearisation of chains in the minimalist program. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park.
Nunes, Jairo. 1999. Linearization of chains and phonetic linearization of chain links. In Working minimalism, ed. Epstein, Samuel David and Hornstein, Norbert, 217249. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Nunes, Jairo. 2004. Linearization of chains and sideward movement. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Pantcheva, Marina. 2009. Directional expressions cross-linguistically: Nanosyntax and lexicalization. In Nordlyd 36(1): Special issue on Nanosyntax, ed. Svenonius, Peter, Ramchand, Gillian, Starke, Michal, and Taraldsen, Knut Tarald, 739. Tromsø: CASTL. (26.03.2016).
Pantcheva, Marina. 2011. The syntax and semantics of paths. (Course materials). (23.08.2014).
Paslawska, Alla, and von Stechow, Arnim. 2003. Perfect readings in Russian. In Perfect Explorations, ed. Alexiadou, Artemis, Rathert, Monika, and Stechow, Arnim von, 307362. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. (2.12.2014).
Paulauskienė, Aldona. 1994. Lietuvių kalbos morfologija [Lithuanian Morphology]. Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedijų leidykla.
Paulauskienė, Aldona. 2001. Lietuvių kalbos kultūra [Culture of the Lithuanian Language]. Kaunas: Technologija.
Paulauskienė, Aldona. 2006. Lietuvių kalbos morfologijos pagrindai [Essentials of Lithuanian Morphology]. Kaunas: Technologija.
Paulauskienė, Aldona, and Miliūnaitė, Rita. 2009. Kalbos patarimai: gramatinės formos ir jų vartojimas [Language Advice: Grammatical Forms and their Use], 1. Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedijų leidybos institutas.
Pirnat, Žiga. 2015. Genesis of the Genitive of negation in Balto-Slavic and its evidence in contemporary Slovenian. Slovenski jezik – Slovene Linguistic Studies 10: 352. (26.04.2016).
Prauliņš, Dace, and Moseley, Christopher. 2015. Colloquial Latvian: The complete course for beginners. London: Routledge.
Ramchand, Gillian. 2004. Time and event: the semantics of Russian prefixes. Nordlyd 32(2): Special issue on Slavic prefixes, ed. Peter Svenonius, 323–361. Tromsø: CASTL. (2.5.2012).
Razanovaitė, Auksė. 2010. Apie lietuvių senųjų raštų atoninę įvardžio formą te ‘tave’ [On the atonic form of the pronoun te ‘you’ in old Lithuanian writings]. Baltistica 45(2): 261264.
Reinhart, Tanya, and Siloni, Tai. 2005. The lexicon–syntax parameter: Reflexivization and other arity operations. Linguistic Inquiry 36(3): 389436.
Reuland, Eric. 2006. Agreeing to bind. In Organizing grammar: Linguistic studies in honor of Henk van Riemsdijk, ed. Broekhuis, Hans, Corver, Norbert, Huybregts, Riny, Kleinhenz, Ursula, and Koster, Jan, 505513. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Reuland, Eric. 2007. Binding conditions: How can they be derived? Paper presented at St. Petersburg-Utrecht University. (3.6.2016).
Reuland, Eric. 2011. Anaphora and language design. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Rizzi, Luigi, and Roberts, Ian. 1989. Complex inversion in French. In Probus 1(1), ed. Wetzels, W. Leo, 130. Holland: Foris Publications.
Roberts, Ian. 1993. Verbs and diachronic syntax: A comparative history of English and French. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Rojina, Nina. 2004. English particles, Russian prefixes and prepositional phrases. Master's thesis. University of Tromsø. (6.11. 2014).
Romanova, Eugenia. 2004. Superlexical vs. lexical prefixes. Nordlyd 32(2), special issue on Slavic prefixes, ed. Peter Svenonius, 255–278. Tromsø: CASTL. (15.06.2014).
Romanova, Eugenia. 2007. Constructing perfectivity in Russian. Doctoral dissertation, University of Tromsø.
Rosinas, Albertas.1995. Baltų kalbų įvardžiai: morfologijos raida [Baltic pronouns: Development of morphology], Vilnius: Vilniaus universiteto leidykla.
Sawicki, Lea. 2000. Remarks on the category of aspect in Lithuanian. Linguistica Baltistica 8: 133142.
Schäfer, Florian. 2011. Passive of reflexive verbs. Paper presented at the Comparative Germanic Syntax Workshop. Amsterdam. (12.12.2013).
Slabakova, Roumiana. 2005. Perfective prefixes: what they are, what flavours they come in and how they are acquired. In Formal Approaches to Slavic Linguistics 13: The South Carolina Meeting, ed. Franks, Steven, Gladney, Frank Y., and Tasseva-Kurktchieva, Mila, 324341. Ann Arbor, MI: Michigan Slavic Publications.
Smith, Carlota S. 1991. The parameter of aspect. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Sola, Jaume. 2002. Clitic climbing and null subject languages. Catalan Journal of Linguistics 1: 225255.
Sportiche, Dominique. 2014. French reflexive se: Binding and merge locality. In Locality, ed. Aboh, Enoch Oladé, Guasti, Maria Teresa, and Roberts, Ian, 104138. Oxford: OUP. (2.02.2014).
Stolz, Thomas. 1989. Zum Wandel der morphotaktischen Positionsregeln des Baltischen Reflexivzeichens [On the change of the position of morphotactic rules of Baltic reflexive markers]. Folia Linguistica Historica 9(1): 1327.
Stolz, Thomas. 2012. A review of Nicole Nau, A Short Grammar of Latgalian . Baltic Linguistics (3): 193196.
Svenonius, Peter. 1996. The optionality of particle shift. In Working Papers in Scandinavian Syntax 57: 4775. Tromsø: CASTL.
Svenonius, Peter. 2003. Limits on P: Filling in holes vs. falling in holes. In Nordlyd. Proceedings of the 19th Scandinavian Conference of Linguistics 31(2), ed. Anne Dahl, Kristine Bentzen, and Peter Svenonius, 431445.
Svenonius, Peter. 2004. Slavic prefixes inside and outside VP. In Nordlyd, 32(2), Special issue on Slavic prefixes, ed. Svenonius, Peter, 205253. Tromsø: CASTL. (2.2.2012).
Svenonius, Peter. 2007. 1 … 3–2. In The Oxford handbook of linguistic interfaces, ed. Ramchand, Gillian and Reiss, Charles, 239289. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Svenonius, Peter. 2008a. Projections of P. In Syntax and semantics of spatial P, ed. Asbury, Anna, Dotlacil, Jakub, Gehrke, Berit, and Nouwen, Rick, 6384. John Benjamins: Amsterdam. (24.03.2016).
Svenonius, Peter. 2008b. Russian prefixes are phrasal. In Formal Description of Slavic Languages, ed. Zybatow, Gerhild, Szucsich, Luka, Junghanns, Uwe, and Meyer, Roland, 526537. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. (4.11.2013).
Svenonius, Peter. 2010. Spatial P in English. In Cartography of Syntactic Structures, ed. Cinque, Guillermo and Rizzi, Luigi, 127160. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (24.03.2016).
Šepetytė, Ritutė. 2006. Dėl žodžių iliustravimo jų vediniais aiškinamuosiuose lietuvių kalbos žodynuose. [On word illustration by their derivatives in Lithuanian explanatory dictionaries] In Leksikografija ir leksikologija 1: Aktualūs aiškinamųjų lietuvių kalbos žodynų klausimai [Lexicography and lexicology: Topical issues for the explanatory Lithuanian dictionaries], 209220. Vilnius: LKI.
Talmy, Leonard. 1978. Figure and ground in complex sentences. In Universals of Human Language 4, ed. Greenberg, Joseph H., 625649. Stanford University Press: Stanford, CA.
Talmy, Leonard. 2000. Toward a cognitive semantics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Tatevosov, Sergei. 2008. Intermediate prefixes in Russian. In Formal approaches to Slavic Lingustics: The Stony Brook Meeting 2007, ed. Antonenko, Andrei, Baylin, John F., and Bethin, Christina Y., 423442. Ann Arbor: Michigan Slavic Publications.
Tatevosov, Sergei. 2009a. Mnozhestvennaya prefiksaziya i anatomiya russkogo glagola [Multuple prefixation and the anatomy of the Russian verb]. In Korpusnye issledovaniya po russkoj grammatike [Corpus-based Studies in Russian Grammar], ed. Kisseleva, Xenia, Plungian, Vladimir, Rakhilina, Ekaterina, and Tatevosov, Sergei, 92156. Moscow: Probel.
Tatevosov, Sergei. 2009b. Building intensive resultatives. Paper presented at Formal Approaches to Slavic Linguistics 18. Cornell University, New York. (2.09.2015).
Tatevosov, Sergei. 2013. Mnozhestvennaya prefiksaciya i fiziologiya russkogo glagola [Multiple prefixation and physiology of the Russian verb]. Voprosy jazykoznanija 3: 4289.
Tatevosov, Sergei. 2015. Severing imperfectivity from the verb. In Slavic grammar from a formal perspective, ed. Zybatow, Gerhild, Biskup, Petr, Guhl, Marcel, Hurtig, Claudia, Mueller-Reichau, Olav, and Yastrebova, Maria, 465494. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
Tolskaya, Inna. 2015. Verbal prefixes in Russian: Conceptual structure versus syntax. Journal of Linguistics 51: 213243.
Ulvydas, Kazimieras, ed. 1971. Lietuvių kalbos gramatika [A Grammar of Lithuanian]. Vol 2. Morfologija. Vilnius: Mintis.
Vaičiulytė-Semėnienė, Loreta. 2012. Daiktavardžio predikatyvo morfosintaksinio žymėjimo koreliacija su veiksmažodžio veikslu [The correlation between the morphosyntactic marking of the noun predicative with the verbal aspect]. Lietuvių kalba, 6. (1.11.2015).
Vaišnienė, Daiva. 2013. Dėl priešdėlinių veiksmažodžių sangrąžos afikso kirčiavimo šiaurės žemaičių patarmėje [Accentuation of the reflexive affix of the prefixal verbs in the Northern Samogitian Subdialect] Žmogus ir žodis 1: 197200.
Verkuyl, Henk. 1972. On the compositional nature of the aspects. Dordrecht: Reidel.
Verkuyl, Henk. 1993. A theory of aspectuality: The interaction between temporal and atemporal structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Williams, Edwin. 2007. Dumping Lexicalism. In Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Interfaces, ed. Ramchand, Gillian and Reiss, Charles, 353383. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Žaucer, Rok. 2009. A VP-internal/resultative analysis of 4 “VP-external” uses of Slavic verbal prefixes. Doctoral dissertation, University of Ottawa. (22.2.2015)
Zinkevičius, Zigmas. 1981. Lietuvių kalbos istorinė gramatika [A Historical Grammar of Lithuanian]. Vol 2. Vilnius: Mokslas.
Zinkevičius, Zigmas. 1996. Lietuvių kalbos istorija [A History of the Lithuanian Language]. Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedijų leidykla.
Decree on the adaptation and renewal of religious life. Perfectae caritatis. Proclaimed by His Holiness Pope Paul VI on October 28, 1965. (20.06.2016).
Dekretas dėl vienuoliškojo gyvenimo tinkamo atnaujinimo Perfectae caritatis. Visuotinio Vatikano II Susirinkimo dokumentai. 1965 spalio 28 d. (20.06.2016).
Dabartinės lietuvių kalbos tekstynas – The Corpus of the Contemporary Lithuanian Language. (1992-).
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Canadian Journal of Linguistics/Revue canadienne de linguistique
  • ISSN: 0008-4131
  • EISSN: 1710-1115
  • URL: /core/journals/canadian-journal-of-linguistics-revue-canadienne-de-linguistique
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 18
Total number of PDF views: 59 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 282 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 18th January 2017 - 19th June 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.