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Early-onset vs. Late-onset Parkinson’s disease: A Clinical-pathological Study

  • Leslie Wayne Ferguson (a1), Ali H. Rajput (a1) and Alexander Rajput (a1)

Abstract

Background: Several studies have compared early-onset Parkinson disease (EOPD) and late-onset Parkinson disease (LOPD) but most are not based on autopsy confirmed cases. Methods: We compared clinical and pharmacological profiles, time to reach irreversible Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) Stage 3 and levodopa motor complications in autopsy confirmed EOPD and LOPD cases. Results: At first clinic visit EOPD cases were younger but had longer disease duration and they died at a younger age (all p<0.0001). Anti-Parkinsonian drug use, including levodopa, was significantly delayed in EOPD. Lifetime use of amantadine (p<0.05) and dopamine agonists (p<0.01) were higher in EOPD. While lifetime use of levodopa was similar in the two groups, levodopa was used for a significantly longer period by EOPD (p< 0.0001). EOPD had a higher cumulative incidence of dyskinesias (p<0.01), wearing-off (p<0.01), and on-off (p<0.01). However, the time to dyskinesia onset was similar in the two groups. The threshold to wearing-off was much longer in EOPD (p<0.01). H&Y stage profile at first visit was similar in the two groups. The duration from disease onset to reach irreversible H&Y stage 3 was significantly longer in EOPD. Conclusions: Our observations indicate that progression of PD is slower in EOPD and suggest that the pre-clinical interval in this group is longer. These findings can be used for case selection for drug trials and studies of the pathogenesis of PD.

Maladie de Parkinson à début précoce et à début tardif : étude anatomo-clinique. Contexte: Plusieurs études ont comparé la maladie de Parkinson à début précoce (MPDP) et la maladie de Parkinson à début tardif (MPDT), mais la plupart de ces études ne reposent pas sur des cas dont le diagnostic a été confirmé en anatomopathologie. Méthode : Nous avons comparé les profiles cliniques et pharmacologiques, le délai pour atteindre le stade 3 irréversible à l’échelle de Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) et les complications motrices du traitement par la lévodopa chez des cas de MPDP et de MPDT confirmés à l’autopsie. Résultats : Au moment de la première consultation, les cas de MPDP étaient plus jeunes, mais leur maladie durait depuis plus longtemps et ils sont morts plus jeunes (p<0,0001). L’utilisation de médicaments antiparkinsoniens, incluant la lévodopa, était significativement plus tardive chez les cas de MPDP. L’utilisation de l’amantadine au cours de la vie (p<0,05) et d’agonistes de la dopamine (p<0,01) étaient plus élevée chez les patients atteints de MPDP. Bien que la prise de lévodopa était similaire dans les deux groupes, la lévodopa avait été utilisée pendant plus longtemps par les patients atteints de MPDP (p<0,0001). L’incidence cumulative de dyskinésies était plus élevée chez les cas de MPDP (p<0,01), ainsi que les signes de l’épuisement de l’effet thérapeutique en fin de dose (p<0,01) et les fluctuations de la motricité, phénomène « on-off », (p<0,01). Cependant, le temps écoulé avant le début des dyskinésies était similaire dans les deux groupes. Le seuil de l’épuisement de l’effet thérapeutique était beaucoup plus long chez les patients atteints de la MPDP (p<0,01). Le profile du stade de H&Y à la première consultation était similaire dans les deux groupes. Le temps écoulé depuis le début de la maladie jusqu’au stade 3 irréversible de H&Y était significativement plus long chez les patients atteints de MPDP. Conclusions : Nos observations indiquent que la progression de la MP est plus lente chez les patients atteints de la MPDP ce qui suggère que l’intervalle préclinique est plus long chez ce groupe de patients. Ces observations peuvent être utilisées pour sélectionner les patients à inclure dans les essais thérapeutiques et les études sur la pathogenèse de la MP.

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Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Alexander Rajput, Division of Neurology, University of Saskatchewan, Room 1663, Royal University Hospital, 103 Hospital Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 0W8. E-mail: alex.rajput@usask.ca

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Keywords

Early-onset vs. Late-onset Parkinson’s disease: A Clinical-pathological Study

  • Leslie Wayne Ferguson (a1), Ali H. Rajput (a1) and Alexander Rajput (a1)

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