Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Functional MRI Applications in Epilepsy Surgery

  • Craig A. Beers (a1) (a2) and Paolo Federico (a1) (a2)

Abstract

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive neuroimaging technique that has grown rapidly in popularity over the past decade. It is already prevalent in psychology, cognitive and basic neuroscience research and is being used increasingly as a tool for clinical decision-making in epilepsy. It has been used to determine language location and laterality in patients, sometimes eliminating the need for invasive tests. fMRI can been used pre-surgically to guide resection margins, preserving eloquent cortex. Other fMRI paradigms assessing memory, visual and somatosensory systems have limited clinical applications currently, but show great promise. Simultaneous recording of electroencephalogram (EEG) and fMRI has also provided insights into the networks underlying seizure generation and is increasingly being used in epilepsy centres. In this review, we present some of the current clinical applications for fMRI in the pre-surgical assessment of epilepsy patients, and examine a number of new techniques that may soon become clinically relevant.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Functional MRI Applications in Epilepsy Surgery
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Functional MRI Applications in Epilepsy Surgery
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Functional MRI Applications in Epilepsy Surgery
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Departments of Clinical Neurosciences and Radiology, University of Calgary, Room C1214a, Foothills Medical Centre, 1403 29th Street NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 2T9, Canada. Email: pfederic@ucalgary.ca

References

Hide All
1Noachtar, S, Borggraefe, I.Epilepsy surgery: a critical review. Epilepsy Behav. 2009;15(1):6672.
2French, JA.Refractory epilepsy: clinical overview. Epilepsia. 2007; 48 Suppl 1:37.
3Spencer, S, Huh, L.Outcomes of epilepsy surgery in adults and children. Lancet Neurol. 2008;7(6):52537.
4Foldvary, N, Bingaman, WE, Wyllie, E.Surgical treatment of epilepsy. Neurol Clin. 2001;19(2):491515.
5Placantonakis, DG, Schwartz, TH.Localization in epilepsy. Neurol Clin. 2009;27(4):101530.
6Cascino, GD.Video-EEG monitoring in adults. Epilepsia. 2002;43 Suppl 3:8093.
7Schauble, B, Cascino, GD.Advances in neuroimaging: management of partial epileptic syndromes. Neurosurg Rev. 2003;26(4):23346; discussion 247-8.
8Duncan, JS.Imaging and epilepsy. Brain. 1997;120 (Pt 2):33977.
9Maehara, T.Neuroimaging of epilepsy. Neuropathology. 2007;27(6):58593.
10Matsuda, H, Matsuda, K, Nakamura, F, et al.Contribution of subtraction ictal SPECT coregistered to MRI to epilepsy surgery: a multicenter study. Ann Nucl Med. 2009;23(3):28391.
11Richardson, M.Current themes in neuroimaging of epilepsy: brain networks, dynamic phenomena, and clinical relevance. Clin Neurophysiol. 2010;121(8):115375.
12Richardson, MP.Epilepsy and surgical mapping. Br Med Bull. 2003;65:17992.
13Lee, BI, Markand, ON, Siddiqui, AR, et al.Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) brain imaging using N, N, N’-trimethyl-N’-(2 hydroxy-3-methyl-5-123I-iodobenzyl)-1,3-propanediamine 2 HCl (HIPDM): intractable complex partial seizures. Neurology. 1986;36(11):14717.
14Launes, J, Iivanainen, M, Salmi, T, Nikkinen, P, Lindroth, L, Liewendahl, K.Interictal brain 99Tc-HM-PAO SPECT hypoperfusion in patients with unstable partial epilepsy and normal CT. Acta Neurol Scand. 1992;86(6):55862.
15Ryvlin, P, Garcia-Larrea, L, Philippon, B, et al.High signal intensity on T2-weighted MRI correlates with hypoperfusion in temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia. 1992;33(1):2835.
16Knowlton, RC.The role of FDG-PET, ictal SPECT, and MEG in the epilepsy surgery evaluation. Epilepsy Behav. 2006;8(1):91101.
17Ray, A, Bowyer, SM.Clinical applications of magnetoencephalography in epilepsy. Ann Indian Acad Neurol. 2010;13 (1):1422.
18Stufflebeam, SM, Tanaka, N, Ahlfors, SP.Clinical applications of magnetoencephalography. Hum Brain Mapp. 2009;30(6):181323.
19Stufflebeam, SM.Clinical magnetoencephalography for neurosurgery. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2011;22(2):15367, vii-viii.
20Najib, U, Bashir, S, Edwards, D, Rotenberg, A, Pascual-Leone, A.Transcranial brain stimulation: clinical applications and future directions. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2011;22(2):23351, ix.
21Groening, K, Brodbeck, V, Moeller, F, et al.Combination of EEG-fMRI and EEG source analysis improves interpretation of spike-associated activation networks in paediatric pharmacoresistant focal epilepsies. Neuroimage. 2009;46(3):82733.
22LeVan, P, Tyvaert, L, Moeller, F, Gotman, J.Independent component analysis reveals dynamic ictal BOLD responses in EEG-fMRI data from focal epilepsy patients. Neuroimage. 2010;49(1): 36678.
23Tyvaert, L, Hawco, C, Kobayashi, E, LeVan, P, Dubeau, F, Gotman, J.Different structures involved during ictal and interictal epileptic activity in malformations of cortical development: an EEG-fMRI study. Brain. 2008;131(Pt 8):204260.
24Siegel, AM.Presurgical evaluation and surgical treatment of medically refractory epilepsy. Neurosurg Rev. 2004;27(1):118; discussion 19-21.
25Curatolo, JM, Macdonell, RA, Berkovic, SF, Fabinyi, GC.Intraoperative monitoring to preserve central visual fields during occipital corticectomy for epilepsy. J Clin Neurosci. 2000;7(3):2347.
26Ogawa, S, Lee, TM, Nayak, AS, Glynn, P.Oxygenation-sensitive contrast in magnetic resonance image of rodent brain at high magnetic fields. Magn Reson Med. 1990;14(1):6878.
27Benar, CG, Gross, DW, Wang, Y, et al.The BOLD response to interictal epileptiform discharges. Neuroimage. 2002;17(3): 118292.
28Keogh, BP, Cordes, D.Quantitative approaches to functional MRI: applications in epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2007;48 Suppl 4:2736.
29Sullivan, JE, 3rd, Detre, JA.Functional magnetic resonance imaging in the treatment of epilepsy. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2005;5(4):299306.
30Logothetis, NK.The underpinnings of the BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging signal. J Neurosci. 2003;23(10): 396371.
31Menon, RS.Imaging function in the working brain with fMRI. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2001;11(5):6306.
32Malonek, D, Grinvald, A.Interactions between electrical activity and cortical microcirculation revealed by imaging spectroscopy: implications for functional brain mapping. Science. 1996;272 (5261):5514.
33Haller, S, Bartsch, AJ.Pitfalls in FMRI. Eur Radiol. 2009;19(11):2689706.
34Bookheimer, S.Pre-surgical language mapping with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Neuropsychol Rev. 2007;17(2):14555.
35Swanson, SJ, Sabsevitz, DS, Hammeke, TA, Binder, JR.Functional magnetic resonance imaging of language in epilepsy. Neuropsychol Rev. 2007;17(4):491504.
36Aldenkamp, AP, Boon, PA, Deblaere, K, et al.Usefulness of language and memory testing during intracarotid amobarbital testing: observations from an fMRI study. Acta Neurol Scand. 2003;108(3):14752.
37Arora, J, Pugh, K, Westerveld, M, Spencer, S, Spencer, DD, Todd Constable, R.Language lateralization in epilepsy patients: fMRI validated with the Wada procedure. Epilepsia. 2009;50(10):222541.
38Binder, JR, Swanson, SJ, Sabsevitz, DS, Hammeke, TA, Raghavan, M, Mueller, WM.A comparison of two fMRI methods for predicting verbal memory decline after left temporal lobectomy: language lateralization versus hippocampal activation asymmetry. Epilepsia. 2010;51(4):61826.
39Szaflarski, JP, Holland, SK, Jacola, LM, Lindsell, C, Privitera, MD, Szaflarski, M.Comprehensive presurgical functional MRI language evaluation in adult patients with epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2008;12(1):7483.
40Fernandes, MA, Smith, ML, Logan, W, Crawley, A, McAndrews, MP.Comparing language lateralization determined by dichotic listening and fMRI activation in frontal and temporal lobes in children with epilepsy. Brain Lang. 2006;96(1):10614.
41Pelletier, I, Sauerwein, HC, Lepore, F, Saint-Amour, D, Lassonde, M.Non-invasive alternatives to the Wada test in the presurgical evaluation of language and memory functions in epilepsy patients. Epileptic Disord. 2007;9(2):11126.
42Wada, J, Rasmussen, T.Intracarotid injection of sodium amytal for the lateralization of cerebral speech dominance. J Neurosurg. 1960;106(6):111733.
43Loddenkemper, T, Morris, HH, Moddel, G.Complications during the Wada test. Epilepsy Behav. 2008;13(3):5513.
44Jones-Gotman, M, Sziklas, V, Djordjevic, J, et al.Etomidate speech and memory test (eSAM): a new drug and improved intracarotid procedure. Neurology. 2005;65(11):17239.
45Jones-Gotman, M, Sziklas, V, Djordjevic, J.Intracarotid amobarbital procedure and etomidate speech and memory test. Can J Neurol Sci. 2009;36 Suppl 2:S514.
46Gallentine, WB, Mikati, MA.Intraoperative electrocorticography and cortical stimulation in children. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2009;26(2):95108.
47Hamberger, MJ, Seidel, WT, McKhann, GM 2nd, Perrine, K, Goodman, RR.Brain stimulation reveals critical auditory naming cortex. Brain. 2005;128(Pt 11):27429.
48Hartman, AL, Lesser, RP.Update on epilepsy and cerebral localization. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2007;7(6):498507.
49Ojemann, G, Ojemann, J, Lettich, E, Berger, M.Cortical language localization in left, dominant hemisphere. An electrical stimulation mapping investigation in 117 patients. J Neurosurg. 1989;71(3):31626.
50Chakraborty, A, McEvoy, AW.Presurgical functional mapping with functional MRI. Curr Opin Neurol. 2008;21(4):44651.
51Powell, HW, Duncan, JS.Functional magnetic resonance imaging for assessment of language and memory in clinical practice. Curr Opin Neurol. 2005;18(2):1616.
52Binder, JR, Sabsevitz, DS, Swanson, SJ, Hammeke, TA, Raghavan, M, Mueller, WM.Use of preoperative functional MRI to predict verbal memory decline after temporal lobe epilepsy surgery. Epilepsia. 2008;49(8):137794.
53Binder, JR.Preoperative prediction of verbal episodic memory outcome using FMRI. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2011;22(2):21932, ix.
54Binder, JR, Gross, WL, Allendorfer, JB, et al.Mapping anterior temporal lobe language areas with fMRI: a multicenter normative study. Neuroimage. 2011;54(2):146575.
55Binder, JR.Functional MRI is a valid noninvasive alternative to Wada testing. Epilepsy Behav. 2011;20(2):21422.
56Engstrom, M, Ragnehed, M, Lundberg, P, Soderfeldt, B.Paradigm design of sensory-motor and language tests in clinical fMRI. Neurophysiol Clin. 2004;34(6):26777.
57Gaillard, WD, Berl, MM, Duke, ES, et al.fMRI language dominance and FDG-PET hypometabolism. Neurology. 2011;76(15): 13229.
58Waites, AB, Briellmann, RS, Saling, MM, Abbott, DF, Jackson, GD.Functional connectivity networks are disrupted in left temporal lobe epilepsy. Ann Neurol. 2006;59(2):33543.
59Desmond, JE, Sum, JM, Wagner, AD, et al.Functional MRI measurement of language lateralization in Wada-tested patients. Brain. 1995;118 (Pt 6):141119.
60Rutten, GJ, Ramsey, NF, van Rijen, PC, Alpherts, WC, van Veelen, CW.FMRI-determined language lateralization in patients with unilateral or mixed language dominance according to the Wada test. Neuroimage. 2002;17(1):44760.
61Giussani, C, Roux, FE, Ojemann, J, Sganzerla, EP, Pirillo, D, Papagno, C.Is preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging reliable for language areas mapping in brain tumor surgery? Review of language functional magnetic resonance imaging and direct cortical stimulation correlation studies. Neurosurgery. 2010;66(1):11320.
62Rutten, GJ, Ramsey, NF, van Rijen, PC, van Veelen, CW.Reproducibility of fMRI-determined language lateralization in individual subjects. Brain Lang. 2002;80(3):42137.
63Fernandez, G, Specht, K, Weis, S, et al.Intrasubject reproducibility of presurgical language lateralization and mapping using fMRI. Neurology. 2003;60(6):96975.
64Fedorenko, E, Hsieh, PJ, Nieto-Castanon, A, Whitfield-Gabrieli, S, Kanwisher, N.New method for fMRI investigations of language: defining ROIs functionally in individual subjects. J Neurophysiol. 2010;104(2):117794.
65Gartus, A, Foki, T, Geissler, A, Beisteiner, R.Improvement of clinical language localization with an overt semantic and syntactic language functional MR imaging paradigm. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2009;30(10):197785.
66Fesl, G, Bruhns, P, Rau, S, et al.Sensitivity and reliability of language laterality assessment with a free reversed association task-a fMRI study. Eur Radiol. 2010;20(3):68395.
67Rodrigo, S, Oppenheim, C, Chassoux, F, et al.Language lateralization in temporal lobe epilepsy using functional MRI and probabilistic tractography. Epilepsia. 2008;49(8):136776.
68Tie, Y, Suarez, RO, Whalen, S, Radmanesh, A, Norton, IH, Golby, AJ.Comparison of blocked and event-related fMRI designs for pre-surgical language mapping. Neuroimage. 2009;47 Suppl 2: T10715.
69Rutten, GJ, Ramsey, NF, van Rijen, PC, Noordmans, HJ, van Veelen, CW.Development of a functional magnetic resonance imaging protocol for intraoperative localization of critical temporoparietal language areas. Ann Neurol. 2002;51(3):35060.
70Vigneau, M, Beaucousin, V, Herve, PY, et al.Meta-analyzing left hemisphere language areas: phonology, semantics, and sentence processing. Neuroimage. 2006;30(4):141432.
71Ellis, TL, Stevens, A.Deep brain stimulation for medically refractory epilepsy. Neurosurg Focus. 2008;25(3):E11.
72Grattan-Smith, JD, Harvey, AS, Desmond, PM, Chow, CW.Hippocampal sclerosis in children with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy: detection with MR imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1993;161(5):10458.
73Nakatsuka, T, Chen, HX, Roper, SN, Gu, JG.Cannabinoid receptor-1 activation suppresses inhibitory synaptic activity in human dentate gyrus. Neuropharmacology. 2003;45(1):11621.
74Wiebe, S, Blume, WT, Girvin, JP, Eliasziw, M.A randomized, controlled trial of surgery for temporal-lobe epilepsy. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(5):31118.
75Janszky, J, Jokeit, H, Kontopoulou, K, et al.Functional MRI predicts memory performance after right mesiotemporal epilepsy surgery. Epilepsia. 2005;46(2):244.-50.
76Mechanic-Hamilton, D, Korczykowski, M, Yushkevich, PA, et al.Hippocampal volumetry and functional MRI of memory in temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2009;16(1):12838.
77Richardson, MP, Strange, BA, Duncan, JS, Dolan, RJ.Memory fMRI in left hippocampal sclerosis: optimizing the approach to predicting postsurgical memory. Neurology. 2006;66(5): 699705.
78Powell, HW, Richardson, MP, Symms, MR, et al.Preoperative fMRI predicts memory decline following anterior temporal lobe resection. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008;79(6):68693.
79Cheung, MC, Chan, AS, Lam, JM, Chan, YL.Pre- and postoperative fMRI and clinical memory performance in temporal lobe epilepsy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2009;80(10):1099106.
80Trenerry, MR, Jack, CR Jr., Ivnik, RJ, et al.MRI hippocampal volumes and memory function before and after temporal lobectomy. Neurology. 1993;43(9):18005.
81Bonelli, SB, Powell, RH, Yogarajah, M, et al.Imaging memory in temporal lobe epilepsy: predicting the effects of temporal lobe resection. Brain. 2010;133(Pt 4):118699.
82Labudda, K, Mertens, M, Aengenendt, J, Ebner, A, Woermann, FG.Presurgical language fMRI activation correlates with postsurgical verbal memory decline in left-sided temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsy Res. 2010;92(2-3):25861.
83Atri, A, O’Brien, JL, Sreenivasan, A, et al.Test-retest reliability of memory task functional magnetic resonance imaging in Alzheimer disease clinical trials. Arch Neurol. 2011;68(5): 599606.
84Clement, F, Belleville, S.Test-retest reliability of fMRI verbal episodic memory paradigms in healthy older adults and in persons with mild cognitive impairment. Hum Brain Mapp. 2009;30(12):403347.
85Yendiki, A, Greve, DN, Wallace, S, et al.Multi-site characterization of an fMRI working memory paradigm: reliability of activation indices. Neuroimage. 2010;53(1):11931.
86De Tiege, X, Connelly, A, Liegeois, F, et al.Influence of motor functional magnetic resonance imaging on the surgical management of children and adolescents with symptomatic focal epilepsy. Neurosurgery. 2009;64(5):85664; discussion 864.
87Lee, CC, Ward, HA, Sharbrough, FW, et al.Assessment of functional MR imaging in neurosurgical planning. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1999;20(8):151119.
88Meier, JD, Aflalo, TN, Kastner, S, Graziano, MS.Complex organization of human primary motor cortex: a high-resolution fMRI study. J Neurophysiol. 2008;100(4):180012.
89Yoo, SS, Wei, X, Dickey, CC, Guttmann, CR, Panych, LP.Long-term reproducibility analysis of fMRI using hand motor task. Int J Neurosci. 2005;115(1):5577.
90Gountouna, VE, Job, DE, McIntosh, AM, et al.Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) reproducibility and variance components across visits and scanning sites with a finger tapping task. Neuroimage. 2010;49(1):55260.
91Rao, SM, Bandettini, PA, Binder, JR, et al.Relationship between finger movement rate and functional magnetic resonance signal change in human primary motor cortex. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1996;16(6):12504.
92Mehta, AD, Klein, G.Clinical utility of functional magnetic resonance imaging for brain mapping in epilepsy surgery. Epilepsy Res. 2010;89(1):12632.
93Majos, A, Tybor, K, Stefanczyk, L, Goraj, B.Cortical mapping by functional magnetic resonance imaging in patients with brain tumors. Eur Radiol. 2005;15(6):114858.
94Graveline, CJ, Mikulis, DJ, Crawley, AP, Hwang, PA.Regionalized sensorimotor plasticity after hemispherectomy fMRI evaluation. Pediatr Neurol. 1998;19(5):33742.
95de Bode, S, Mathern, GW, Bookheimer, S, Dobkin, B.Locomotor training remodels fMRI sensorimotor cortical activations in children after cerebral hemispherectomy. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2007;21(6):497508.
96McFadzean, RM, Condon, BC, Barr, DB.Functional magnetic resonance imaging in the visual system. J Neuroophthalmol. 1999;19(3):186200.
97Masuoka, LK, Anderson, AW, Gore, JC, McCarthy, G, Spencer, DD, Novotny, EJ.Functional magnetic resonance imaging identifies abnormal visual cortical function in patients with occipital lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia. 1999;40(9):124853.
98Polonara, G, Salvolini, S, Fabri, M, et al.Unilateral visual loss due to ischaemic injury in the right calcarine region: a functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tension imaging follow-up study. Int Ophthalmol. 2011;31(2):12934.
99Chen, Z, Ni, P, Lin, Y, et al.Visual pathway lesion and its development during hyperbaric oxygen treatment: a bold- fMRI and DTI study. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2010;31(5):105460.
100Seghier, ML, Lazeyras, F, Zimine, S, Saudan-Frei, S, Safran, AB, Huppi, PS.Visual recovery after perinatal stroke evidenced by functional and diffusion MRI: case report. BMC Neurol. 2005; 5:17.
101Berg, AT, Vickrey, BG, Langfitt, JT, et al.The multicenter study of epilepsy surgery: recruitment and selection for surgery. Epilepsia. 2003;44(11):142533.
102Zijlmans, M, Huiskamp, G, Hersevoort, M, Seppenwoolde, JH, van Huffelen, AC, Leijten, FS.EEG-fMRI in the preoperative workup for epilepsy surgery. Brain. 2007;130(Pt 9):234353.
103Ives, JR, Warach, S, Schmitt, F, Edelman, RR, Schomer, DL.Monitoring the patient’s EEG during echo planar MRI. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1993;87(6):41720.
104Bagshaw, AP, Aghakhani, Y, Benar, CG, et al.EEG-fMRI of focal epileptic spikes: analysis with multiple haemodynamic functions and comparison with gadolinium-enhanced MR angiograms. Hum Brain Mapp. 2004;22(3):17992.
105Benar, CG, Grova, C, Kobayashi, E, et al.EEG-fMRI of epileptic spikes: concordance with EEG source localization and intracranial EEG. Neuroimage. 2006;30(4):116170.
106Federico, P, Archer, JS, Abbott, DF, Jackson, GD.Cortical/subcortical BOLD changes associated with epileptic discharges: an EEG-fMRI study at 3 T. Neurology. 2005;64(7):112530.
107Gotman, J.Epileptic networks studied with EEG-fMRI. Epilepsia. 2008;49 Suppl 3:4251.
108Vulliemoz, S, Lemieux, L, Daunizeau, J, Michel, CM, Duncan, JS.The combination of EEG source imaging and EEG-correlated functional MRI to map epileptic networks. Epilepsia. 2010;51 (4):491505.
109Gholipour, T, Moeller, F, Pittau, F, Dubeau, F, Gotman, J.Reproducibility of interictal EEG-fMRI results in patients with epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2011;52(3):43342.
110Cunningham, CJ, Zaamout Mel, F, Goodyear, B, Federico, P.Simultaneous EEG-fMRI in human epilepsy. Can J Neurol Sci. 2008;35(4):42035.
111Moeller, F, Tyvaert, L, Nguyen, DK, et al.EEG-fMRI: adding to standard evaluations of patients with nonlesional frontal lobe epilepsy. Neurology. 2009;73(23):202330.
112Li, Q, Luo, C, Yang, T, et al.EEG-fMRI study on the interictal and ictal generalized spike-wave discharges in patients with childhood absence epilepsy. Epilepsy Res. 2009;87(2-3):1608.
113Liu, Y, Yang, T, Liao, W, et al.EEG-fMRI study of the ictal and interictal epileptic activity in patients with eyelid myoclonia with absences. Epilepsia. 2008;49(12):207886.
114Thornton, R, Laufs, H, Rodionov, R, et al.EEG correlated functional MRI and postoperative outcome in focal epilepsy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2010;81(8):9227.
115Shmuel, A, Augath, M, Oeltermann, A, Logothetis, NK.Negative functional MRI response correlates with decreases in neuronal activity in monkey visual area V1. Nat Neurosci. 2006;9(4): 56977.
116Biswal, B, Yetkin, FZ, Haughton, VM, Hyde, JS.Functional connectivity in the motor cortex of resting human brain using echo-planar MRI. Magn Reson Med. 1995;34(4):53741.
117Morgan, VL, Gore, JC, Abou-Khalil, B.Functional epileptic network in left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy detected using resting fMRI. Epilepsy Res.88(2-3):16878.
118Pereira, FR, Alessio, A, Sercheli, MS, et al.Asymmetrical hippocampal connectivity in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: evidence from resting state fMRI. BMC Neurosci. 2010 Jun 2;11:66.
119Bettus, G, Guedj, E, Joyeux, F, et al.Decreased basal fMRI functional connectivity in epileptogenic networks and contralateral compensatory mechanisms. Hum Brain Mapp. 2009;30(5):158091.
120Bettus, G, Bartolomei, F, Confort-Gouny, S, et al.Role of resting state functional connectivity MRI in presurgical investigation of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2010;81(10):114754.
121Moeller, F, Maneshi, M, Pittau, F, et al.Functional connectivity in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2011;52(3):51522.
122Bai, X, Guo, J, Killory, B, et al.Resting functional connectivity between the hemispheres in childhood absence epilepsy. Neurology. 2011;76(23):19607.
123Raichle, ME, MacLeod, AM, Snyder, AZ, Powers, WJ, Gusnard, DA, Shulman, GL.A default mode of brain function. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2001;98(2):67682.
124Broyd, SJ, Demanuele, C, Debener, S, Helps, SK, James, CJ, Sonuga-Barke, EJ.Default-mode brain dysfunction in mental disorders: a systematic review. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2009;33(3):27996.
125Karmonik, C, Dulay, M, Verma, A, Yen, C, Grossman, RG.Brain activation in complex partial seizures during switching from a the goal-directed task to a resting state: comparison of fMRI maps to the default mode network. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2010;2010:56858.
126Luo, C, Li, Q, Lai, Y, et al.Altered functional connectivity in default mode network in absence epilepsy: a resting-state fMRI study. Hum Brain Mapp. 2011;32(3):43849.
127Petitmengin, C, Baulac, M, Navarro, V.Seizure anticipation: are neurophenomenological approaches able to detect preictal symptoms? Epilepsy Behav. 2006;9(2):298306.
128Federico, P, Abbott, DF, Briellmann, RS, Harvey, AS, Jackson, GD.Functional MRI of the pre-ictal state. Brain. 2005;128(Pt 8):181117.
129Ebersole, JS.Defining epileptogenic foci: past, present, future. J Clin Neurophysiol. 1997;14(6):47083.
130Cunningham, CJ, Boucousis, SM, Goodyear, BG, Federico, P.Safety and feasibility of using implanted depth electrodes for intracranial EEG-fMRI: a phantom study (abstract). American Epilepsy Society Annual Meeting. 2007;Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
131Vulliemoz, S, Carmichael, DW, Rosenkranz, K, et al.Simultaneous intracranial EEG and fMRI of interictal epileptic discharges in humans. Neuroimage. 2011;54(1):18290.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed