Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The Weighting of Cues to Upright Following Stroke With and Without a History of Pushing

  • Lindsey E. Fraser (a1) (a2) (a3), Avril Mansfield (a1) (a2) (a4) (a5), Laurence R. Harris (a3), Daniel M. Merino (a1) (a2), Svetlana Knorr (a1) and Jennifer L. Campos (a1) (a2) (a6) (a3)...

Abstract

Objective: Perceived upright depends on three main factors: vision, graviception, and the internal representation of the long axis of the body. We assessed the relative contributions of these factors in individuals with sub-acute and chronic stroke and controls using a novel tool; the Oriented Character Recognition Test (OCHART). We also considered whether individuals who displayed active pushing or had a history of pushing behaviours had different weightings than those with no signs of pushing. Method: Three participants experienced a stroke <3 months before the experiment: one with active pushing. In total, 14 participants experienced a stroke >6 months prior: eight with a history of pushing. In total, 12 participants served as healthy aged-matched controls. Visual and graviceptive cues were dissociated by orienting the visual background left, right, or upright relative to the body, or by orienting the body left, right, or upright relative to gravity. A three-vector model was used to quantify the weightings of vision, graviception, and the body to the perceptual upright. Results: The control group showed weightings of 13% vision, 25% graviception, and 62% body. Some individuals with stroke showed a similar pattern; others, particularly those with recent stroke, showed different patterns, for example, being unaffected by one of the three factors. The participant with active pushing behaviour displayed an ipsilesional perceptual bias (>30°) and was not affected by visual cues to upright. Conclusion: The results of OCHART may be used to quantify the weightings of multisensory inputs in individuals post-stroke and may help characterize perceptual sources of pushing behaviours.

Le poids des repères impliqués dans la perception de la verticalité chez des patients atteints d’un AVC ayant ou non des antécédents de latéropulsion. Objectif: La perception de la verticalité dépend de trois principaux facteurs: la vision, la perception de la gravité (graviception) et la représentation interne de l’axe longitudinal du corps. Nous avons cherché à évaluer l’impact relatif de ces facteurs chez des individus atteints d’AVC subaigus et chroniques et des sujets d’un groupe témoin en faisant appel à un outil innovateur: le Oriented Character Recognition Test (OCHART). Nous avons aussi cherché à savoir si les patients montrant des signes de latéropulsion active ou ayant des antécédents de latéropulsion accordaient un poids différent aux repères de la perception de la verticalité, et ce, en comparaison avec ceux ne montrant aucun signe de latéropulsion. Méthodes: Trois participants avaient été atteints d’un AVC moins de 3 mois avant la réalisation de cette expérience, dont un montrant des signes de latéropulsion active. Quatorze d’entre eux avaient été atteints d’un AVC plus de 6 mois avant cette expérience, dont huit ayant des antécédents de latéropulsion. Au total, douze participants en santé ont été jumelés selon l’âge et ont servi de témoins. Les repères visuels et graviceptuels avaient été dissociés en orientant l’arrière-plan visuel vers la gauche, la droite ou le haut par rapport aux corps des participants; ou bien en orientant leurs corps vers la gauche, la droite ou le haut par rapport à la gravité. Un modèle doté de trois vecteurs a également été utilisé pour quantifier le poids de la vision, de la graviception et du corps dans la perception de la verticalité. Résultats: Les sujets du groupe témoin ont montré un poids de 13%, 25% et 62% en ce qui regarde respectivement la vision, la graviception et le corps. Certains patients atteints d’AVC ont montré un profil similaire ; d’autres, particulièrement ceux récemment victimes d’un AVC, ont présenté des profils différents, n’étant pas, par exemple, affectés par un de ces trois facteurs. Le participant montrant des signes de latéropulsion active a présenté quant à lui un biais perceptuel ipsilésionnel (>30°) et n’a pas été affecté par les repères visuels de la perception de la verticalité. Conclusion: Il est possible d’utiliser les résultats de l’OCHART pour quantifier, à la suite d’un AVC, le poids respectif des inputs multi-sensoriels chez des individus. Cet outil pourrait également permettre de mieux caractériser les causes perceptuelles liées à la latéropulsion.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The Weighting of Cues to Upright Following Stroke With and Without a History of Pushing
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The Weighting of Cues to Upright Following Stroke With and Without a History of Pushing
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The Weighting of Cues to Upright Following Stroke With and Without a History of Pushing
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to: Jennifer L. Campos, PhD, CEAL Chief Scientist, Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, UHN; Assistant Professor, Psychology, University of Toronto, 550 University Ave., Toronto, ON M5G 2A2, Canada. Email: Jennifer.Campos@uhn.ca

References

Hide All
1 Dyde, RT, Jenkin, MR, Harris, LR. The subjective visual vertical and the perceptual upright. Exp Brain Res. 2006;173:612-622.
2 Mittelstaedt, H. Somatic graviception. Biol Psychol. 1996;42:53-74.
3 Mittelstaedt, H. A new solution to the problem of the subjective vertical. Naturwissenschaften. 1983;70:272-281.
4 Johannsen, L, Fruhmann Berger, M, Karnath, HO. Subjective visual vertical (SVV) determined in a representative sample of 15 patients with pusher syndrome. J Neurol. 2006;253:1367-1369.
5 Mansfield, A, Fraser, L, Rajachandrakumar, R, et al. Is perception of vertical impaired in individuals with chronic stroke with a history of “pushing”? Neurosci Lett. 2015;590:172-177.
6 Snowdon, N, Scott, O. Perception of vertical and postural control following stroke: a clinical study. Physiotherapy. 2005;91:165-170.
7 Pérennou, DA, Mazibrada, G, Chauvineau, V, et al. Lateropulsion, pushing and verticality perception in hemisphere stroke: a causal relationship? Brain. 2008;131:2401-2413.
8 Punt, TD, Riddoch, MJ. Towards a theoretical understanding of pushing behaviour in stroke patients. Neuropsychol Rehabil. 2002;12:455-472.
9 Clemens, IAH, De Vrijer, M, Selen, LPJ, et al. Multisensory processing in spatial orientation: an inverse probabilistic approach. J Neurosci. 2011;31:5365-5377.
10 Yelnik, AP, Lebreton, FO, Bonan, I V., et al. Perception of verticality after recent cerebral hemispheric stroke. Stroke. 2002;33:2247-2253.
11 Karnath, H-O, Ferber, S, Dichgans, J. The origin of contraversive pushing evidence for a second graviceptive system in humans. Neurology. 2000;55:1298-1304.
12 Dearing, RR, Harris, LR. The contribution of different parts of the visual field to the perception of upright. Vision Res. 2011;51:2207-2215.
13 Haji-Khamneh, B, Harris, LR. How long do intrinsic and extrinsic visual cues take to exert their effect on the perceptual upright? Vision Res. 2009;49:2131-2139.
14 Haji-Khamneh, B, Harris, LR. How different types of scenes affect the subjective visual vertical (SVV) and the perceptual upright (PU). Vision Res. 2010;50:1720-1727.
15 Jenkin, MR, Dyde, RT, Jenkin, HL, et al. Perceptual upright: the relative effectiveness of dynamic and static images under different gravity states. Seeing Perceiving. 2011;24:53-64.
16 Harris, LR, Herpers, R, Hofhammer, T, et al. How much gravity is needed to establish the perceptual upright? PLoS One. 2014;9:e106207.
17 Barnett-Cowan, M, Dyde, RT, Thompson, C, et al. Multisensory determinants of orientation perception: task-specific sex differences. Eur J Neurosci. 2010;31:1899-1907.
18 Harris, LR, Jenkin, M, Jenkin, H, et al. The effect of long-term exposure to microgravity on the perception of upright. NPJ Microgravity. 2017;3:3.
19 Danells, CJ, Black, SE, Gladstone, DJ, et al. Poststroke “pushing”: natural history and relationship to motor and functional recovery. Stroke. 2004;35:2873-2878.
20 Karnath, H-O, Broetz, D. Understanding and treating “pusher syndrome”. Phys Ther. 2003;83:1119-1125.
21 Barra, J, Oujamaa, L, Chauvineau, V, et al. Asymmetric standing posture after stroke is related to a biased egocentric coordinate system. Neurology. 2009;72:1582-1587.
22 Barra, J, Chauvineau, V, Ohlmann, T, et al. Perception of longitudinal body axis in patients with stroke: a pilot study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007;78:43-48.
23 Karnath, HO, Broetz, D, Götz, A. Clinical symptoms, origin, and therapy of the “pusher syndrome”. Nervenarzt. 2001;72:86-92.
24 Baccini, M, Paci, M, Rinaldi, LA. The Scale for Contraversive Pushing: a reliability and validity study. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2006;20:468-472.
25 Leibovitch, FS, Vasquez, BP, Ebert, PL, et al. A short bedside battery for visuoconstructive hemispatial neglect: Sunnybrook Neglect Assessment Procedure (SNAP). J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2012;34:359-368.
26 Steffen, TM, Hacker, TA, Mollinger, L. Age-and gender-related test performance in community-dwelling elderly people: six-minute walk test, Berg Balance Scale, timed up & go test, and gait speeds. Phys Ther. 2002;82:128.
27 Berg, K, Wood-Dauphine, S, Williams, JI, et al. Measuring balance in the elderly: preliminary development of an instrument. Physiother Can. 1989;41:304-311.
28 Goldstein, LB, Bertels, C, Davis, JN. Interrater reliability of the NIH stroke scale. Arch Neurol. 1989;46:660-662.
29 Watson, AB, Pelli, DG. QUEST: a Bayesian adaptive psychometric method. Percept Psychophys. 1983;33:113-120.
30 Press, WH, Teukolsky, SA, Vetterling, WT, et al. Numerical recipies in C. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press; 1992.
31 Bonan, IV, Colle, FM, Guichard, JP, et al. Reliance on visual information after stroke. Part I: balance on dynamic posturography. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004;85:268-273.
32 Barnett-Cowan, M, Harris, LR. Perceived self-orientation in allocentric and egocentric space: effects of visual and physical tilt on saccadic and tactile measures. Brain Res. 2008;1242:231-243.
33 Barnett-Cowan, M, Jenkin, HL, Dyde, RT, et al. Asymmetrical representation of body orientation. J Vis. 2013;13:1-9.
34 Berg, K, Wood-Dauphinee, S, Williams, JI. The balance scale: reliability assessment with elderly residents and patients with an acute stroke. Scand J Rehabil Med. 1995;27:27-36.

Keywords

The Weighting of Cues to Upright Following Stroke With and Without a History of Pushing

  • Lindsey E. Fraser (a1) (a2) (a3), Avril Mansfield (a1) (a2) (a4) (a5), Laurence R. Harris (a3), Daniel M. Merino (a1) (a2), Svetlana Knorr (a1) and Jennifer L. Campos (a1) (a2) (a6) (a3)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed