Skip to main content
×
×
Home

The Political Socialization of Adolescents in Canada: Differential Effects of Civic Education on Visible Minorities

  • Ellen Claes (a1), Marc Hooghe (a1) and Dietlind Stolle (a2)
Abstract

Abstract. It is assumed that civic education has persistent effects on political attitudes and behaviours of young citizens. There is no consensus, however, on what kind of efforts have the strongest effects on specific outcomes, like political knowledge and intended political participation. In some of the older literature, it has been shown that effects of civic education are stronger for children from a visible minority background. This article takes up these questions using a dataset with a sample of 15–17-year olds from Canada (n = 3,334). The results show that active efforts for civic education can make a difference. Especially community service, a rather new form of civic education, fosters political knowledge and conventional future participation. However, in Canada, adolescents from a visible minority background do not benefit disproportionately from civic education efforts.

Résumé. On soutient que l'éducation à la citoyenneté amène des effets positifs durables sur les attitudes et les comportements politiques des jeunes. Toutefois, il n'existe pas de consensus concernant les efforts spécifiques les plus fructueux pour stimuler les connaissances et la participation politiques. Dans cet article nous examinons premièrement l'ampleur des effets de l'éducation à la citoyenneté. Deuxièmement, nous examinons la thèse selon laquelle ce sont les minorités visibles qui bénéficient le plus de ces efforts – position défendue dans une partie de la littérature plus ancienne sur le sujet. Ces deux questions sont étudiées quantitativement en utilisant un groupe témoin de jeunes Canadiens de 15 à 17 ans (n = 3334). Les résultats révèlent que les efforts actifs dans le domaine de l'éducation à la citoyenneté ont un effet sur les attitudes et les comportements politiques. Le service communautaire, entre autres, une nouvelle forme d'éducation à la citoyenneté, sensibilise les jeunes à la politique et favorise leur participation conventionnelle future. Nous ne trouvons pas, en revanche, d'effet différentiel notable chez les adolescents des minorités visibles.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Ellen Claes, Department of Political Science, Catholic University of Leuven, Parkstraat 45, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium, Ellen.Claes@soc.kuleuven.be.
Marc Hooghe, Department of Political Science, Catholic University of Leuven, Parkstraat 45, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium, Marc.Hooghe@soc.kuleuven.be.
Dietlind Stolle, Department of Political Science, McGill University, 855 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T7, Canada, Dietlind.Stolle@mcgill.ca.
References
Hide All
Amadeo Jo-Ann, Torney-Purta Judith, Lehmann Rainer, Husfeldt Vera and Nikolova Roumiana. 2002. Civic Knowledge and Engagement. An IEA Study of Upper Secondary Students in Sixteen Countries. Amsterdam: IEA.
Anderson Christopher and Black Jerome. 2008. “The Political Integration of Newcomers, Minorities, and the Canadian-Born Perspectives on Naturalization, Participation, and Representation.” In Immigration and Integration in Canada in the Twenty-first Century, ed. Biles John, Burstein Meyer and Frideres James. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.
Baker Myriam, Sigmon Jane and Nugent M. Elaine. 2001. Truancy Reduction: Keeping Students in School. Washington DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
Bas L.E. and Casper L.M.. 1999. Are There Differences in Registration and Voting Behavior between Naturalized and Native-born Americans? Washington DC: Census Bureau.
Black Jerome and Erickson Lynda. 2006. “Ethno-racial Origins of Candidates and Electoral Performance: Evidence from Canada.” Party Politics 12 (4): 541–61.
Bloemraad Irene. 2006. Becoming a Citizen: Incorporating Immigrants and Refugees in the United States and Canada. London: Routledge.
Brayboy Bryan, Castagno Angelina and Maughan Emma. 2007. “Equality and Justice for All? Examining Race in Education Scholarship.” Review of Research in Education 31: 159–94.
Campbell David E. 2001. “Making Democratic Education Work.” In Charters, Vouchers, and Public Education, ed. Peterson Paul E. and Campbell David E.. Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Campbell David E. 2007. “Sticking Together: Classroom Diversity and Civic Education.” American Politics Research 35 (1): 5778.
Campbell David E. and Wolbrecht Christina. 2006. “See Jane Run: Women Politicians as Role Models for Adolescents.” Journal of Politics 68 (2): 233–47.
Chui Tina, Curtis James and Lambert Ronald. 1991. “Immigrant Background and Political Participation: Examining Generational Patterns.” Canadian Journal of Sociology 16 (4): 375–96.
Coleman James and Hoffer Thomas. 1987. Public and Private High Schools: The Impact of Communities. New York: Basic Books.
Curtis James, Bear Douglas, Grabb Edward and Parks Thomas. 2003. “Estimation des tendances de l'engagement dans les associations volontaire au cours des dernières décennies au Québec et au Canada anglais.” Sociologie et Société 35: 115–42.
Delli Carpini M.X. and Keeter Scott. 1996. What Americans Know About Politics and Why It Matters. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Dewey John. 1916. Democracy and Education. Norwood: Norwood Press.
Dewey John. 1936. The School and Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Downey Douglas. 2008. “Black/White Differences in School Performance. The Oppositional Culture Explanation.” Annual Review of Sociology 34: 107–26.
Downey Douglas, von Hippel Paul and Broh Beckett. 2004. “Are Schools the Great Equalizer? Cognitive Inequality during the Summer Months and the School Year.” American Sociological Review 69: 613–35.
Dudley Robert and Gitelson Alan. 2002. “Political Literacy, Civic Education, and Civic Engagement: A Return to Political Socialization?Applied Developmental Science 6 (4): 175–82.
Flanagan Constance. 2003. “Developmental Roots of Political Engagement.” Political Science and Politics 36(2): 257–61.
Frenette Marc and Morissette René. 2005. “Will They Ever Converge? Earnings of Immigrant and Canadian-born Workers over the Last Two Decades.” International Migration Review 39 (1): 228–57.
Galston William. 2001. “Political Knowledge, Political Engagement, and Civic Education.” Annual Review of Political Science 4: 217–34.
Galston William. 2007. “Civic Knowledge, Civic Education, and Civic Engagement: A Summary of Recent Research.” International Journal of Public Administration 30 (6–7): 623–42.
Gauthier Madeleine. 2003. “The Inadequacy of Concepts: The Rise of Youth Interest in Civic Participation in Quebec.” Journal of Youth Studies 6 (3): 265–76.
Gauthier Madeleine and Gravel P.-L.. 2003. “La Participation des jeunes à l'espace public au Québec, de l'associationnisme à la mobilization.” In La jeunesse au Québec, ed. Gauthier Madeleine. Sainte-Foy QC: Éditions de l'IQRC.
Hahn Carole L. 2003. “Democratic Values and Citizen Action: a View from US Ninth Graders.” International Journal of Educational Research 39(6): 633642.
Hess Robert D. and Torney Judith. 1967. The Development of Political Attitudes in Children. Chicago: Aldine.
Hillygus D. Sunshine. 2005. “The Missing Link: Exploring the Relationship between Higher Education and Political Engagement.” Political Behavior 27 (1): 2547.
Holland Lauren. 2006. “Teaching and Learning in Diversity Classes: The Significance of Classroom Climate and Teacher Credibility.” Journal of Political Science Education 2 (2): 187203.
Hooghe Marc. 2002. “Watching Television and Civic Engagement: Disentangling the Effects of Time, Programs, and Stations.” Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics 7 (2): 84104.
Hooghe Marc and Stolle Dietlind. 2004. “Good Girls Go to the Polling Booth, Bad Boys Go Everywhere: Gender Differences in Anticipated Political Participation among American Fourteen-Year-Olds.” Women and Politics 26 (3–4): 123.
Howe Paul. 2006. “Political Knowledge and Electoral Participation in the Netherlands: Comparisons with the Canadian Case.” International Political Science Review 27 (2): 137–66.
Hox Joop. 2002. Multilevel Analysis: Techniques and Applications. Mahwah: Erlbaum.
Hwang Monica, Andersen Robert and Grabb Edward. 2007. “Voluntary Association Activity in Quebec and English Canada. Assessing the Effects of Region and Language.” Canadian Journal of Political Science 40 (1): 209–32.
Jennings M. Kent and Niemi Richard. 1974. The Political Character of Adolescence. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Kerr David. 2003. Developing Effective Citizenship Education in England: Using the IEA Civic Education Study to Inform Policy, Practice and Research. Slough: National Foundation for Educational Research.
Langton Kenneth and Jennings M. Kent. 1968. “Political Socialization and the High School Civics Curriculum.” American Political Science Review 62 (3): 862–67.
Matthews Kim 2006. “Perceiving Discrimination: Psychological and Sociopolitical Barriers.” Journal of International Migration and Integration 7 (3): 367–87.
Metz Edward, McLellan Jeff and Youniss James. 2003. “Types of Voluntary Service and Adolescents' Civic Development.” Journal of Adolescent Research 18 (2): 188203.
Milner Henry. 2001. “Social Capital, Civic Literacy and Political Participation: Explaining Differences in Voter Turnout.” In Challenges to Democracy: Ideas, Involvement and Institutions, ed. Dowding Keith, Hughes John and Margetts Helen. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
Ministère de L'éducation, du Loisir et du Sport. 2007. Programme de formation de l'école québécoise: domaine de l'univers social. Québec: Gouvernement du Québec.
Ministry of Education. 2005. The Ontario Curriculum Grades 11 and 12: Canadian and World Studies. Toronto: Ministry of Education.
Morgan William and Streb Matthew. 2001. “Building Citizenship. How Student Voice in Service-Learning Develops Civic Values.” Social Science Quarterly 82 (1): 154–69.
Niemi Richard and Junn Jane. 1998. Civic Education. What Makes Students Learn. New Haven: Yale University Press.
OECD. 2006. Where Immigrant Students Succeed. Paris: OECD.
Popkin Samuel and Dimock Michael. 2000. “Knowledge, Trust and International Reasoning.” In Elements of Reason. Cognition, Choice and the Bounds of Rationality, ed. Lupia A., Popkin S. and McCubbins M.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Putnam Robert. 2000. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Reimers Fernando, ed. 2002. Distintas Escuales, Diferentes Oportunidades. Los Retors para la Igualdad de Oportunidades en Latinoamérica. Madrid: La Muralla.
Reitz J. G. and Banerjee R.. 2007. “Racial Inequality, Social Cohesion, and Policy Issues in Canada.” In Belonging? Diversity, Recognition and Shared Citizenship in Canada, ed. Banting K., Courchene Thomas J. and Seidle F. Leslie. Montreal: Institute for Research on Public Policy.
Rubenson Daniel, Blais André, Fournier Patrick, Gidengil Elisabeth and Nevitte Neil. 2004. “Accounting for the Age Gap in Turnout.” Acta Politica 39 (4): 407–21.
Sapiro Virginia. 2004. “Not Your Parents' Political Socialization: Introduction for a New Generation.” Annual Review of Political Science 7: 123.
Smith Elizabeth. 1999. “The Effects of Investments in the Social Capital of Youth on Political and Civic Behavior in Young Adulthood.” Political Psychology 20(3): 553–80.
Snijders Tom and Bosker Roel. 1999. Multilevel Analysis: An Introduction to Basic and Advanced Multilevel Modeling. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage.
Stolle Dietlind, Harell Allison and Mahéo Valérie-Anne. 2006. Dataset of the McGill Youth Survey 2006. Montreal: McGill University, Department of Political Science.
Torney-Purta Judith, Barber Carolyn and Wilkenfeld Britt. 2007. “Latino Adolescents' Civic Development in the United States: Research Results from the IEA Civic Education Study.” Journal of Youth and Adolescence 36 (2): 111–25.
Torney-Purta Judith, Lehmann Rainer, Oswald Hans and Schulz Wolfram. 2001. Citizenship and Education in Twenty-Eight Countries: Civic Knowledge and Engagement at Age Fourteen. Amsterdam: IEA.
Van Deth Jan, Maraffi Marco, Newton Kenneth and Whiteley Paul. 1999. Social Capital and European Democracy. New York: Routledge.
Verba Sidney, Schlozman Kay Lehman and Brady Henry. 1995. Voice and Equality: Civic Voluntarism in American Politics. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.
Walsh Catherine E. 1987. “Schooling and the Civic Exclusion of Latinos: Toward a Discourse of Dissonance.” Journal of Education 169 (2): 115–31.
Wattenberg Martin. 2007. Is Voting for Young People? New York: Pearson Longman.
Westheimer Joel and Kahne Joseph. 2004a. “Educating the ‘Good’ Citizen: Political Choices and Pedagogical Goals.” PS: Political Science and Politics 37 (2): 241–47.
Westheimer Joel and Kahne Joseph. 2004b. “What Kind of Citizen? The Politics of Educating for Democracy.” American Educational Research Journal 41 (2): 237–69.
White Stephen, Nevitte Neil, Blais André, Gidengil Elisabeth and Fournier Patrick. 2008. “The Political Resocialization of Immigrants. Resistance or Lifelong Learning?Political Research Quarterly 61 (2): 268–81.
Wößmann Ludger and Peterson Paul, ed. 2007. Schools and the Equal Opportunity Problem. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.
Youniss James, McLellan Jeffrey, Su Yang and Yates Miranda. 1999. “The Role of Community Service in Identity Development: Normative, Unconventional, and Deviant Orientations.” Journal of Adolescent Research 14 (2): 248–61.
Zukin Cliff, Keeter Scott, Andolina Molly, Jenkins Krista and Carpini Michael X. Delli. 2006. A New Engagement? Political Participation, Civic Life, and the Changing American Citizen. New York: Oxford University Press.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Canadian Journal of Political Science/Revue canadienne de science politique
  • ISSN: 0008-4239
  • EISSN: 1744-9324
  • URL: /core/journals/canadian-journal-of-political-science-revue-canadienne-de-science-politique
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 10
Total number of PDF views: 78 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 381 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 16th January 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.