Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-888d5979f-7wfd5 Total loading time: 0.254 Render date: 2021-10-25T23:31:11.759Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Reliability, Validity and Reference Values of the Zarit Burden Interview for Assessing Informal Caregivers of Community-Dwelling Older Persons with Dementia*

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 November 2010

Réjean Hébert
Affiliation:
Sherbrooke Geriatric University Institute
Gina Bravo
Affiliation:
Sherbrooke Geriatric University Institute
Michel Préville
Affiliation:
Sherbrooke Geriatric University Institute

Abstract

Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) is the most widely used instrument for assessing the burden experienced by the caregivers of persons with dementia. As part of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging, the 22-item ZBI was administered to a representative sample of 312 informal caregivers of community-dwelling subjects with dementia. The mean score was 22.4 out of 88 (sd: 16.2) and the median score was 18.5, which is far lower than those reported in previous studies using this instrument with convenience samples. There was no significant difference in the burden score according to the age, gender, living arrangement, marital status or employment status of the caregiver. The ZBI score was more strongly correlated to the depressive mood of the caregivers (r = 0.59) and the behaviour problems of the care recipients (r = 0.64) than their cognitive (r = 0.32) and functional (r = 0.31) status. Following a factor analysis, a 12-item short version of the instrument is proposed with two factors: personal strain (3 items) and role strain (9 items).

Résumé

Le Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) est devenu l'outil d'évaluation le plus courant pour déterminer le fardeau éprouvés par les soignants qui s'occupent de personnes atteintes de démence. Dans le cadre de l'Étude sur la santé et le vieillissement au Canada, on a administré le ZBI de 22 items à un échantillonnage représentatif de 312 soignants naturels s'occupant de malades atteintes de démence vivant à domicile. Le résultat moyen a atteint 22.4 sur 88 (écart-type: 16.2) et le résultat médian était de 18.5, ce qui est beaucoup plus faible que les résultats des études précédentes effectuées au moyen du même outil et d'échantillons de commodité. On n'a pas signalé de différences importantes du fardeau en fonction de l'âge, du sexe, des conditions de vie, de la situation matrimoniale ou professionnelle du soignant. Le résultat du ZBI était par contre plus étroitement relié à l'humeur dépressive des soignants (r = 0,59) et aux problèmes de comportement des malades (r = 0,64) qu'à leur état cognitif (r = 0.32) et à leurs capacités fonctionnelles (r = 0,31). À la suite d'une analyse factorielle, on propose une version abrégée du test en 12 items et deux facteurs: l'astreinte personnelle (3 points) et l'astreinte du rôle (9 points).

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Canadian Association on Gerontology 2000

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

American Psychiatric Association (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed., rev.). Washington: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
Arai, Y., Kudo, K., Hosokawa, T., Washio, M., Miura, H., & Hisamichi, S. (1997). Reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 51, 281287.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baumgarten, M. (1989). The health of persons giving care to the demented elderly: a critical review of the literature. Journal of Clininical Epidemiology, 42, 11371148.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baumgarten, M., Battista, R.N., Infante-Rivard, C., Hanley, J., Becker, R., & Gauthier, S. (1992). The psychological and physical health of family members caring for an elderly person with dementia. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 45(1), 6170.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baumgarten, M., Becker, R., & Gauthier, S. (1990). Validity and reliability of the Dementia Behavior Disturbance Scale. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 38(3), 221226.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bentler, P.M., & Bonnett, D.G. (1980). Significance test and goodness-of-fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychological Bulletin, 88, 588600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bollen, K.A. (1989). Structural equations with latent variables. New York: John Wiley & Sons.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, L.J., Potter, J.F., & Foster, B.G. (1990). Caregiver burden should be evaluated during geriatric assessment. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 38, 455460.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Canadian Study of Health and Aging Working Group (1994a). Canadian Study of Health and Aging: study methods and prevalence of dementia. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 150(6), 899913.Google Scholar
Canadian Study of Health and Aging Working Group (1994b). Patterns of caring for people with dementia in Canada. Canadian Journal on Aging, 13(4), 470487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carmines, E.G., & McIver, J.P. (1981). Analyzing models with unobserved variables: Analysis of covariance structures. In Bohmstedt, G.W. and Borgatta, E.F. (Eds.), Social measurement: Current issues (pp. 65115). Beverly Hills. CA: Sage.Google Scholar
Cohen, R.F., O'Boyle, C.A., Swanwick, G.R.J., & Coakley, D. (1999). Measuring the impact on relatives of caring for people with Alzheimer's disease: quality of life, burden and well-being. Psychology and Health, 14, 253261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Deimling, G.T., & Bass, D.M. (1986). Symptoms of mental impairment among elderly adults and their effects on family caregivers. Journal of Gerontology, 41(6), 778784.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Demers, A., & Lavoie, J.-P. (1996). Effect of support groups on family caregivers to the frail elderly. Canadian Journal on Aging, 15(1), 129144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Derogatis, L.R., Lipman, R.S., Covi, L., Richels, K., & Uhlenhuth, E.R. (1970). Dimensions of outpatient neurotic pathology: comparison of a clinical versus an empirical assessment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 34, 164171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dura, J.R., & Kiecolt-Glaser, J.K. (1990). Sample bias in caregiving research. Journal of Gerontology (Psychological Sciences), 45(5), P200–P204.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fillenbaum, G.G. (1988). Multidimensional functional assessment of older adults: the Duke Older Americans Resources and Services Procedures. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Fitting, M., Rabins, P., Lucas, M.J., & Eastham, J. (1986). Caregivers for dementing patients: a comparison of husbands and wives. The Gerontologist, 26, 248252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frane, J. (1990). Description and estimation of missing data. BMDP Statistical Software Manual: Volume 2. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Gallagher, D., Rappaport, M., Benedict, A., Lovett, S., Silven, D., & Kraemer, H. (1985, November). Reliability of selected interview and self-report measures with family caregivers. Paper presented at the 38th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, New Orleans.Google Scholar
Gendron, C., Poitras, L., Dastoor, D.P., & Pérodeau, G. (1996). Cognitive-behavioral group intervention for spousal caregivers: findings and clinical considerations. Clinical Gerontologist, 17, 319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
George, L.K., & Gwyther, L.P. (1986). Caregiver well-being: a multidimensional examination of family caregivers of demented adults. The Gerontologist, 26, 253259.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grafström, M., Fratiglioni, L., Sandman, P.-O., & Winblad, B. (1992). Health and social consequences for relatives of demented and non-demented elderly. A population-based study. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 45(8), 861870.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harper, S., & Lund, D.A. (1990). Wives, husbands, and daughters caring for institutionalized and noninstitutionalized dementia patients: toward a model of caregiver burden. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 30(4), 241262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hébert, R., Bravo, G., & Girouard, D. (1992). Validation de l'adaptation française du Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS). Revue de gériatrie, 17, 443450.Google Scholar
Hébert, R., Bravo, G., & Girouard, D. (1993). Fidélité de la traduction française de trois instruments d'évaluation des aidants naturels de malades déments. Canadian Journal on Aging, 12(3), 324337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hébert, R., Leclerc, G., Bravo, G., Girouard, D., & Lefrançois, R. (1994). Efficacy of a support group programme for care-givers of demented patients in the community: a randomised controlled trial. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 18, 114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jöreskog, K.G., & Sörbom, D. (1993). LISREL VIII: User's reference guide. Moores-ville, IN: Scientific Software Inc.Google Scholar
Jutras, S., & Veilleux, F. (1991). Gender roles and care giving to the elderly: An empirical study. Sex Roles, 25(1/2), 118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kahan, J., Kemp, B., Staples, F.R., & Brummel-Smith, K. (1985). Decreasing the burden in families caring for a relative with dementing illness: a controlled study. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 33, 664670.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Knight, B.G., Fox, L.S., & Chou, C.P. (in press). Factor structure of the Burden Interview. Journal of Clinical Geropsychology.Google Scholar
Lee, Y.-R., & Sung, K.-T. (1998). Cultural influences on caregiving burden: cases of Koreans and Americans. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 46(2), 125141.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Majerovitz, S.D. (1995). Role of family adaptability in the psychological adjustment of spouse caregivers to patients with dementia. Psychology and Aging, 10, 447457.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pearson, J., Verma, S., & Nellett, C. (1988). Elderly psychiatric patient status and caregiver perceptions as predictors of caregiver burden. The Gerontologist, 28(1), 7983.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pratt, C., Schmall, V., & Wright, S. (1986). Family caregivers and dementia, Social Casework: the Journal of Contemporary Social Work, 60, 119124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Radloff, L.S. (1977). The CES-D scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Radloff, L.S., & Teri, L. (1986). Use of the CES-D scale with older adults. In Brink, T.L. (Ed.). Clinical gerontology: A guide to assessment and intervention. New York: Haworth Press.Google Scholar
Rankin, E.D., Haut, M.W., Keefover, R.W., & Franzen, M.D. (1994). The Establishment of Clinical Cutoffs in Measuring Caregiver Burden in Dementia. The Gerontologist, 34(6), 828832.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scharlach, A.E. (1987). Relieving feelings of strain among women and elderly mothers. Psychology and Aging, 2, 913.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schultz, R., O'Brien, A.T., Bookwala, J., & Fleissner, K. (1995). Psychiatric and physical morbidity effects of dementia caregiving: Prevalence, correlates, and causes. The Gerontologist, 35(6), 771791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schulz, R., Visintainer, P., & Williamson, G.M. (1990). Psychiatric and physical morbidity effects of caregiving. Journal of Gerontology, 45(5), P181–P191.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scott, J.P., Roberto, K.A., & Hutton, J.T. (1986). Families of Alzheimer's victims: Family support to the caregivers. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 34, 348354.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Seltzer, B., Vasterling, J.J., Yoder, J., & Thompson, K.A. (1997). Awareness of deficit in Alzheimer's disease: relation to caregiver burden. The Gerontologist, 37, 2024.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stephens, M.A.P., & Kenney, J.M. (1989). Caregiving stress instruments: assessment of content and measurement quality. Gerontology Review, 2(1), 4054.Google Scholar
Teng, E.L., & Chui, H.C. (1987). The modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) Examination. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 48, 314318.Google ScholarPubMed
Thompson, E.H., & Doll, W. (1982). The burden of families coping with the mentally ill: an invisible crisis. Family Relations, 31, 379388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Toseland, R.W., Rossiter, C.M., & Labrecque, M.S. (1989). The effectiveness of peer-led and professionally led groups to support family caregivers. The Gerontologist, 29, 465471.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vitaliano, P.P., Young, H.M., & Russo, J. (1991). Burden: a review of measures used among caregivers of individuals with dementia. The Gerontologist, 31(1), 6775.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wheaton, B., Muthén, B., Alwin, D., & Summers, G. (1977). Assessing reliability and stability in panel models. In Heise, D.R. (Ed.), Sociological methodology (pp. 84136). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
Whitlatch, C.J., Zarit, S.H., & von Eye, A. (1991). Efficacy of interventions with caregivers: a reanalysis. The Gerontologist, 31, 914.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wullschleger, K.S., Lund, D.A., Caserta, M.S., & Wright, S.D. (1996). Anxiety about aging: a neglected dimension of caregivers' experiences. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 26, 318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zarit, S., Anthony, C., & Boutselis, M. (1987). Interventions with caregivers of dementia patients: A comparison of two approaches. Psychology and Aging, 2, 225234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zarit, S.H., Orr, N.K, & Zarit, J.M. (1985). The hidden victims of Alzheimer's disease: families under stress. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
Zarit, S.H., Reever, K.E., & Bach-Peterson J. (1980). Relatives of impaired elderly: correlates of feelings of burden. The Gerontologist, 20, 649655.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zarit, S.H., Todd, P.A., & Zarit, J.M. (1986): Subjective burden of husbands and wives as caregivers: A longitudinal study. The Gerontologist, 26, 260266.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zarit, S.H., & Zarit, J.M. (1987). Instructions for the Burden Interview. Technical Document, University Park, PA: Pensylvania State University.Google Scholar
263
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Reliability, Validity and Reference Values of the Zarit Burden Interview for Assessing Informal Caregivers of Community-Dwelling Older Persons with Dementia*
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Reliability, Validity and Reference Values of the Zarit Burden Interview for Assessing Informal Caregivers of Community-Dwelling Older Persons with Dementia*
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Reliability, Validity and Reference Values of the Zarit Burden Interview for Assessing Informal Caregivers of Community-Dwelling Older Persons with Dementia*
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *