Skip to main content
×
×
Home

A Literature Review of Homelessness and Aging: Suggestions for a Policy and Practice-Relevant Research Agenda

  • Amanda Grenier (a1) (a2), Rachel Barken (a2) (a3), Tamara Sussman (a4), David Rothwell (a4), Valérie Bourgeois-Guérin (a5) and Jean-Pierre Lavoie (a4)...
Abstract

Homelessness among older people is a growing concern across Canada and is expected to rise with demographic change (Crane & Warnes, 2010; Culhane, Metraux, Byrne, Stino, & Bainbridge, 2013). Yet current knowledge, policies, and practices on homelessness largely focus on younger populations. Likewise, research and policies on aging typically overlook homelessness. Responses to homelessness among older people must address complex needs related to health, income security, and housing. Based on a comprehensive literature review, this article outlines the existing and needed research with regards to homelessness among older people. We clarify the intersections of aging and homelessness; review the relevant statistics, including estimated prevalence; discuss pathways and variations in experience; and identify gaps in knowledge. We conclude with a call for an inclusive research agenda that will help build policies and practices to reduce and ultimately to eliminate homelessness among older people in Canada.

Le sans-abrisme chez les personnes âgées est une préoccupation croissante à travers le Canada et devrait augmenter avec le changement démographique (Crane & Warnes, 2010; Culhane, Métraux, Byrne, Stino, et Bainbridge, 2013). Pourtant, les connaissances actuelles, les politiques et les pratiques concernant le sans-abrisme ont tendance largement de se concentrer sur des populations plus jeunes. De même, la recherche et les politiques sur le vieillissement en général négligent le sans-abrisme. Les réponses au problème de sans-abrisme chez les personnes âgées doivent répondre aux besoins complexes liés à la santé, la sécurité du revenu et le logement. Basé sur un examen exhaustif de la littérature, cet article présente les domaines de recherche afin d'éclairer les politiques, les stratégies et les services pour les divers groupes des aînés sans-abri. Nous clarifions les intersections du vieillissement et du sans-abrisme; examinons les statistiques pertinentes, y compris la prévalence estimée; discutons des voies et des variations de l'expérience; et determinons les lacunes dans les connaissances. Nous concluons par un appel à un programme de recherche inclusive qui aidera à créér des politiques et des pratiques visant à réduire et finalement à éliminer le sans-abrisme chez les personnes âgées au Canada.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      A Literature Review of Homelessness and Aging: Suggestions for a Policy and Practice-Relevant Research Agenda
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      A Literature Review of Homelessness and Aging: Suggestions for a Policy and Practice-Relevant Research Agenda
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      A Literature Review of Homelessness and Aging: Suggestions for a Policy and Practice-Relevant Research Agenda
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
La correspondance et les demenades de tire-à-part doivent être adressées à: / Correspondence and requests for offprints should be sent to: Amanda Grenier, Ph.D. Department of Health, Aging, and Society McMaster University Kenneth Taylor Hall, Room 228 1280 Main Street West Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M4 (grenier@mcmaster.ca )
References
Hide All
Abbott, P., & Sapsford, R. (2005). Living on the margins: Older people, place and social exclusion. Policy Studies, 26(1), 2946.
Abramovich, A. (2013). No fixed address: Young, queer, and restless. In Gaetz, S., O’Grady, B., Buccieri, K., Karabanow, J., & Marsolais, A. (Eds.), Youth homelessness in Canada: Implications for policy and practice (pp. 387403). Toronto, ON: Canadian Homelessness – Research Network, The Homeless Hub.
Addis, S., Davies, M., Greene, G., MacBride-Stewart, S., & Shepherd, M. (2009). The health, social care and housing needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender older people: A review of the literature. Health & Social Care in the Community, 17(6), 647658.
Aubry, T., Farrell, S., Hwang, S. W., & Calhoun, M. (2013). Identifying the patterns of emergency shelter stays of single individuals in Canadian cities of different sizes. Housing Studies, 28(6), 910927.
Barak, Y., & Cohen, A. (2003). Characterizing the elderly homeless: A 10-year study in Israel. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 37(2), 147155.
Berry, B. (2007). A repeated observation approach for estimating the street homeless population. Evaluation Review, 31, 166199.
Beynon, C. M. (2009). Drug use and ageing: Older people do take drugs! Age and Ageing, 38(1), 810.
Bhui, K., Shanahan, L., & Harding, G. (2006). Homelessness and mental illness: A literature review and a qualitative study of perceptions of the adequacy of care. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 52(2), 152165.
Blazer, D. G., & Wu, L. T. (2009). The epidemiology of at-risk and binge drinking among middle-aged and elderly community adults: National survey on drug use and health. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 166(10), 11621169.
Brandolini, A., Magri, S., & Smeeding, T. M. (2010). Asset-based measurement of poverty. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 29(2), 267284.
Brotman, S., Ferrer, I., Sussman, T., Ryan, B., & Richard, B. (2014). Access and equity in the design and delivery of health and social care to LGBTQ seniors: A Canadian perspective. In Orel, N., & Fruhauf, C. (Eds.), The lives of LGBTQ older adults: Understanding challenges and resilience (pp. 111140). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Brown, R. T., Kiely, D. K., Bharel, M., & Mitchell, S. L. (2012). Geriatric syndromes in older homeless adults. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 27(1), 1622.
Browne, A., & Bassuk, S. S. (1997). Intimate violence in the lives of homeless and poor housed women: Prevalence and patterns in an ethnically diverse sample. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 67(2), 261278.
Burns, V., Grenier, A., Lavoie, J. P., Rothwell, D., & Sussman, T. (2012). Les personnes âgées itinérantes – invisibles et exclues. Une analyse de trois stratégies pour contrer l’itinérance. Frontières, 25(1), 3156.
Byrne, T., Munley, E. A., Fargo, J. D., Montgomery, A. E., & Culhane, D. P. (2012). New perspectives on community-level determinants of homelessness. Journal of Urban Affairs, 35(5) 607625.
Canadian Homelessness Research Network. (2012). Canadian definition of homelessness. Retrieved from www.homelesshub.ca/CHRNhomelessdefinition
Caton, C. L. M., Dominguez, B., Schanzer, B., Hasin, D. S., Shrout, P. E., Felix, A., et al. (2005). Risk factors for long-term homelessness: Findings from a longitudinal study of first-time homeless single adults. American Journal of Public Health, 95(10), 17531759.
CBC News. (2014, February 27). Quebec unveils policy on homelessness. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/montreal/quebec-unveils-policy-on-homelessness-1.2554663
City of Toronto (2013). Street Needs Assessment. Toronto, ON. Retrieved from City of Toronto website: http://www.toronto.ca/legdocs/mmis/2013/cd/bgrd/backgroundfile-61365.pdf
Cohen, C. I. (1999). Aging and homelessness. The Gerontologist, 39(1), 514.
Cohen, C. I., Onserud, H., & Monaco, C. (1992). Project rescue: Serving the homeless and marginally housed elderly. The Gerontologist, 32(4), 466471.
Corliss, H. L., Goodenow, C. S., Nichols, L., & Austin, S. B. (2011). High burden of homelessness among sexual-minority adolescents: Findings from a representative Massachusetts high school sample. American Journal of Public Health, 101(9), 1683.
Crane, M. (1999). Understanding older homeless people: Their circumstances, problems and needs. Buckingham, England: Open University Press.
Crane, M., Byrne, K., Fu, R., Lipmann, B., Mirabelli, F., Rosa-Bartelink, A., et al. (2005). The causes of homelessness in later life: Findings from a 3-nation study. The Journals of Gerontology, 60B(3), S152S159.
Crane, M., & Warnes, A. (2000). Evictions and prolonged homelessness. Housing Studies, 15(5), 757773.
Crane, M., & Warnes, A. (2001). Older people and homelessness: Prevalence and causes. Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation, 16(4), 114.
Crane, M., & Warnes, A. (2005). Responding to the needs of older homeless people. Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research, 18(2), 137152.
Crane, M., & Warnes, A. (2007). The outcomes of rehousing older homeless people: A longitudinal study. Ageing and Society, 27(6), 891918.
Crane, M., & Warnes, A. M. (2010). Homelessness among older people and service responses. Reviews in Clinical Gerontology, 20(4), 354363.
Culhane, D. P., & Metraux, S. (2008). Rearranging the deck chairs or reallocating the lifeboats? Homelessness assistance and its alternatives. Journal of the American Planning Association, 74(1), 111121.
Culhane, D. P., Metraux, S., Byrne, T., Stino, M., & Bainbridge, J. (2013). The age structure of contemporary homelessness: Evidence and implications for public policy. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 13(1), 228244.
Dennis, C. B., McCallion, P., & Ferretti, L. A. (2012). Understanding implementation of best practices for working with the older homeless through the lens of self-determination theory. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 55(4), 352366.
Dietz, T., & Wright, J. D. (2005). Victimization of the elderly homeless. Care Management Journals, 6(1), 1521.
Dietz, T.L. (2009). Drug and alcohol use among homeless older adults: Predictors of reported current and lifetime substance misuse problems in a national sample. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 28(2), 235255.
Echenberg, H., & Jensen, H. (2008). Defining and enumerating homelessness in Canada. PRB-08-30-E. Ottawa, ON: Library of Parliament, Social Affairs Division. Retrieved from http://www.parl.gc.ca/content/lop/researchpublications/prb0830-e.htm
Edmonston, B., & Fong, E. (Eds.). (2011). The changing Canadian population. Kingston, ON: McGill-Queen’s University Press.
Employment and Social Development Canada. (2014). Homelessness strategy. Retrieved from http://www.esdc.gc.ca.libaccess.lib.mcmaster.ca/eng/communities/homelessness/index.shtml
Fiedler, R., Schuurman, N., & Hyndman, J. (2006). Hidden homelessness: An indicator-based approach for examining the geographies of recent immigrants at-risk of homelessness in Greater Vancouver. Cities, 23(3), 205216.
Gaetz, S., Donaldson, J., Richter, T., & Gulliver, T. (2013). The state of homelessness in Canada 2013. Toronto, ON: Canadian Homelessness Research Network Press. Retrieved from http://www.homelesshub.ca/(S(dp2ng045tmqvvifvve3eob3v))/Library/The- State-of-Homelessness-in-Canada-2013–55941.aspx
Gaetz, S. (2006). Safe streets for whom? Homeless youth, social exclusion, and criminal victimization. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 46(4), 423456.
Garibaldi, B., Conde-Martel, A., & O’Toole, T. P. (2005). Self-reported comorbidities, perceived needs, and sources for usual care for older and younger homeless adults. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 20(8), 726730.
Goering, P., Veldhuizen, S., Watson, A., Adair, C., Kopp, B., Latimer, E., et al. (2014). National at home/Chez Soi final report. Calgary, AB: Mental Health Commission of Canada. Retrieved from http://www.mentalhealthcommission.ca/English
Gonyea, J. G., Mills-Dick, K., & Bachman, S. S. (2010). The complexities of elder homelessness, a shifting political landscape and emerging community responses. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 53(7), 575590.
Gouvernement du Québec. (2014). Ensemble, pour éviter la rue et en sortir: Politique Nationale de lute á l’itinérance. Québec. Retrieved from the Gouvernement du Québec website: http://publications.msss.gouv.qc.ca/acrobat/f/documentation/2013/13-846-03F.pdf
Greater Vancouver Shelter Strategy Society. (2013). Sheltering homeless seniors literature review. Retrieved from the Greater Vancouver Shelter Strategy website: http://www.gvss.ca/Other-Docs.html
Greenwood, R. M., Schaefer-McDaniel, N. J., Winkel, G., & Tsemberis, S. J. (2005). Decreasing psychiatric symptoms by increasing choice in services for adults with histories of homelessness. American Journal of Community Psychology, 36(3–4), 223238.
Grossman, S. F., & Lundy, M. (2003). Use of domestic violence services across race and ethnicity by women aged 55 and older: The Illinois experience. Violence Against Women, 9(12), 14421452.
Hecht, L., & Coyle, B. (2001). Elderly homeless: A comparison of older and younger adult emergency shelter seekers in Bakersfield, California. The American Behavioral Scientist, 45(1), 6679.
Hibbs, J. R., Benner, L., Klugman, L., Spencer, R., Macchia, I., Mellinger, A. K., et al. (1994). Mortality in a cohort of homeless adults in Philadelphia. The New England Journal of Medicine, 331(5), 304309.
Horn, A. (2008). Medical care for the homeless elderly. Care Management Journals, 9(1), 2530.
Hulchanski, J. D. (2000). A new Canadian pastime? Counting homeless people. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto. Retrieved from the University of Toronto website: http://www.urbancenter.utoronto.ca/pdfs/researchassociates/Hulch_CountingHomelessPeople.pdf
Hwang, S. W. (2001). Homelessness and health. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 164(2), 229233.
Hwang, S. W., Lebow, J. M., Bierer, M. F., O’Connell, J. J., Orav, E.J., & Brennan, T. A. (1998). Risk factors for death in homeless adults in Boston. Archives of Internal Medicine, 158(13), 14541460.
Johnsen, S., Cloke, P., & May, J. (2005). Transitory Spaces of Care: Serving Homeless People on the Street. Health and Place, 11(4), 323336.
Kellogg, F. R., & Horn, A. (2012). The elderly homeless: A study comparing older and younger homeless persons, with three case histories. Care Management Journals, 13(4), 238245.
Khandor, E., & Mason, K. (2008). Research Bulletin # 3: Homelessness and crack use. Toronto, ON: The Street Health Report, 2007.
Kim, M. M., Ford, J. D., Howard, D. L., & Bradford, D. W. (2010). Assessing trauma, substance abuse, and mental health in a sample of homeless men. Health and Social Work, 35(1), 3948.
Klodawsky, F. (2009). Home spaces and rights to the city: Thinking social justice for chronically homeless women. Urban geography, 30(6), 591610.
Koegel, P., Melamid, E., & Burnam, M. A. (1995). Childhood risk factors for homelessness among homeless adults. American Journal of Public Health, 85(12), 16421649.
Kosor, A. J., & Kendal-Wilson, L. (2002). Older homeless women: Reframing the stereotype of the bag lady. Affilia, 17(3), 354370.
Kuhn, R., & Culhane, D. P. (1998). Applying cluster analysis to test a typology of homelessness by pattern of shelter utilization: Results from the analysis of administrative data. American Journal of Community Psychology, 26(2), 207232.
Kushel, M. B., Evans, J. L., Perry, S., Robertson, M. J., & Moss, A. R. (2003). No door to lock: Victimization among homeless and marginally housed persons. Archives of Internal Medicine, 163(20), 24922499.
Laird, G. (2007). Homelessness in a growth economy: Canada’s 21st century paradox. Calgary, AB: Sheldon Chumir Foundation for Ethics in Leadership.
Lange, L. (2010). Elderly people of Aboriginal origin in Winnipeg: Their struggle to secure safe and affordable housing (Unpublished master’s thesis). Winnipeg, MB: University of Manitoba.
Lee, B. A, & Schreck, C. J. (2005). Danger on the streets: Marginality and victimization among homeless people. American Behavioral Scientist, 48(8), 10551081.
Lee, B. A., Tyler, K. A., & Wright, J. D. (2010). The new homelessness revisited. Annual Review of Sociology, 36, 501.
Link, B. G., Susser, E., Stueve, A., Phelan, J., Moore, R. E., & Struening, E. (1994). Lifetime and five-year prevalence of homelessness in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 84(12), 19071912.
Lipmann, B. (2009). Elderly homeless men and women: Aged care’s forgotten people. Australian Social Work, 62(2), 272286.
Lynch, J. (2001). The age-orientation of social policy regimes in OECD countries. Journal of Social Policy, 30(3), 411436.
Martins, D. C. (2008). Experiences of homeless people in the health care delivery system: A descriptive phenomenological study. Public Health Nursing, 25(5), 420.
McDonald, L., Dergal, J., & Cleghorn, L. (2004). Homeless older adults research project: Executive summary. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto.
McDonald, L., Dergal, J., & Cleghorn, L. (2007). Living on the margins: Older homeless adults in Toronto. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 49(1–2), 1946.
McDonald, L., Donahue, P., Janes, J. & Cleghorn, L. (2006). In from the streets: The health and well being of formerly homeless older adults. Report for the National Research Program of the National Homelessness Initiative, Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRSDC). Toronto, ON: University of Toronto. Retrieved from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration website: http://homeless.samhsa.gov/ResourceFiles/NRP_027_EN_InFromtheStreets__The_Health_and_Well_Being.pdf
McGhie, L., Grenier, A., & Barken, R. (2013). Literature review on housing options for older homeless people. Hamilton, ON: Gilbrea Centre for Studies on Aging, McMaster University.
Metraux, S., & Culhane, D. P. (2006). Recent incarceration history among a sheltered homeless population. Crime and Delinquency, 52(3), 504517.
Morris, A., Judd, B., & Kavanagh, K. (2005). Marginality amidst plenty: Pathways into homelessness for older Australians. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 40(2), 241251.
Morrison, D. S. (2009). Homelessness as an independent risk factor for mortality: Results from a retrospective cohort study. International Journal of Epidemiology, 38(3), 877883.
Mott, S. (2012). Modelling patterns of shelter use at the Old Brewery Mission: Describing program populations, and applying a typology of homelessness. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Montreal, QC: McGill University.
Mott, S., Moore, M., & Rothwell, D. (2012). Addressing homelessness in Canada: Implications for intervention strategies and program design. Montreal, QC: Centre for Research on Children and Families, McGill University.
North, C., Smith, E., & Spitznagel, E. L. (1994). Violence and the homeless: An epidemiologic study of victimization and aggression. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 7(1), 95110.
O’Connell, J. J., Roncarati, J. S., Reilly, E. C., Kane, C. A., Morrison, S. K., Swain, S. E., & Jones, K. L. (2004). Old and sleeping rough: Elderly homeless persons on the streets of Boston, MA. Care Management Journals, 5(2), 101106.
Patrick, C. (2014). Aboriginal homelessness in Canada: A literature review. Toronto, ON: Canadian Homelessness Research Network Press. Retrieved from http://www.homelesshub.ca/sites/default/files/AboriginalLiteratureReview.pdf
Peressini, T. (2007). Perceived reasons for homelessness in Canada: Testing the heterogeneity hypothesis. Canadian Journal of Urban Research, 16(1), 112126.
Ploeg, J., Hayward, L., Woodward, C., & Johnston, R. (2008). A case study of a Canadian homelessness intervention programme for elderly people. Health and Social Care in the Community, 16(6), 593605.
Power, R., & Hunter, G. (2001). Developing a strategy for community-based health promotion targeting homeless populations. Health Education Research, 16(5), 593602.
Proehl, R. A. (2007). Social justice, respect, and meaning-making: Keys to working with the homeless elderly population. Health and Social Work, 32(4), 301307.
Quine, S., Kendig, H., Russell, C., & Touchard, D. (2004). Health promotion for socially disadvantaged groups: The case of homeless older men in Australia. Health Promotion International, 19(2), 157165.
Rahder, B. (2006). The crisis of women’s homelessness in Canada: Summary of the CERA report. Women and Environments International Magazine, 70/71, 3839.
Rank, M. R., & Williams, J. H. (2010). A life course approach to understanding poverty among older American adults. Families in Society, 91(4), 337341.
Rich, A. R., & Clark, C. (2005). Gender differences in response to homelessness services. Evaluation and Program Planning, 28(1), 6981.
Rosario, M., Schrimshaw, E.W., & Hunter, J. (2012). Risk factors for homelessness among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths: A developmental milestone approach. Children and Youth Services Review , 34(1), 186193.
Rothwell, D. W., & Haveman, R. (2013). Definition and measurement of asset poverty in Canada (SSRN Working Paper No. ID 2367057). Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network. Retrieved from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2367057
Rothwell, D. W., & Mott, S. (2013, June). Profiles and perceptions: Analysis of treatment first transitional housing clients. Poster presented at the International Homelessness Research Conference, Philadelphia, PA.
Schanzer, B., Dominguez, B., Shrout, P. E., & Caton, C. L. M. (2007). Homelessness, health status, and health care use. American Journal of Public Health, 97(3), 464469.
Serge, L., & Gnaedinger, N. (2003). Housing options for elderly or chronically ill shelter users. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation. Retrieved from http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2011/schl-cmhc/nh18-1/NH18-1-14-2003-eng.pdf
Shinn, M., Gottlieb, J., Wett, J. L., Bahl, A., Cohen, A., & Baron Ellis, D. (2007). Predictors of homelessness among older adults in New York City: Disability, economic, human and social capital and stressful events. Journal of Health Psychology, 12(5), 696708.
Shlay, A. B., & Rossi, P. H. (1992). Social science research and contemporary studies of homelessness. Annual Review of Sociology, 18, 129160.
Skaburskis, A. (2004). Decomposing Canada’s growing housing affordability problem: Do city differences matter? Urban Studies, 41(1), 117149.
Social Planning and Research Council of BC. (2005). On our streets and in our shelters: Results from the 2005 Greater Vancouver homeless count. Vancouver, BC: Author. Retrieved from Metro Vancouver website: http://www.metrovancouver.org/services/regional-planning/homelessness/HomelessnessPublications/HomelessCount2005.pdf
Springer, J., Webber, S., & Lum, J.M. (2011). Working poor immigrants and housing insecurity. Toronto, ON: CERIS – The Ontario Metropolis Centre. Retrieved from http://www.ceris.metropolis.net
Statistics Canada. (2001). Collective dwellings. 2001 Census: Analysis series. Ottawa, ON: Author. Retrieved from http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/english/census01/Products/Analytic/companion/coll/contents.cfm
Statistics Canada (2012). Collective dwellings. 2011 Census reference material: Census dictionary. Ottawa, ON: Author. Retrieved from http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2011/ ref/dict/dwelling-logements002-eng.cfm
Stein, J. A., Leslie, M. B., & Nyamathi, A. (2002). Relative contributions of parent substance use and childhood maltreatment to chronic homelessness, depression, and substance abuse problems among homeless women: Mediating roles of self-esteem and abuse in adulthood. Child Abuse and Neglect, 26(10), 10111027.
Stergiopoulos, V., & Herrmann, N. (2003). Old and homeless: A review and survey of older adults who use shelters in an urban setting. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry / La Revue canadienne de psychiatrie, 48(6), 374380.
Stuart, H., & Arboleda-Flórez, J. (2000). “Homeless shelter users in the postdeinstitutionalization era”: Reply. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry / La Revue canadienne de psychiatrie, 45(9), 845.
Toro, P. A. (2007). Toward an international understanding of homelessness. Journal of Social Issues, 63(3), 461481.
Trypuc, B., & Robinson, J. (2009). Homelessness in Canada: A funder’s primer on understanding the tragedy on Canada’s streets. King City, ON: Charity Intelligence Canada.
Tully, C. T., & Jacobson, S. (1994). The homeless elderly: America’s forgotten population. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 22(3–4), 6181.
United Nations Organization. (2005). Report on adequate housing (delivered by Miloon Kothari). 61st session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations Organization.
Wakabayashi, C., & Donato, K. M. (2006). Does caregiving increase poverty among women in later life? Evidence from the health and retirement survey. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 47(3), 258274.
Waldbrook, N. (2013). Formerly homeless older women’s experiences with health, housing, and aging. Journal of Women and Aging, 25(4), 337357.
Walsh, C., Hewson, J., Dooley, D., & Pauls, K. (2013, October). Housing insecurity and homelessness: Understanding unmet needs of low income pre-seniors . Paper presented at the 42nd Annual Scientific and Educational Meeting of the Canadian Association on Gerontology, Halifax, NS.
Wenzel, S. L., Leake, B. D., & Gelberg, L. (2001). Risk factors for major violence among homeless women. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 16(8), 739752.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Canadian Journal on Aging / La Revue canadienne du vieillissement
  • ISSN: 0714-9808
  • EISSN: 1710-1107
  • URL: /core/journals/canadian-journal-on-aging-la-revue-canadienne-du-vieillissement
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed