This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
1.S Greengross , E Murphy , L Quam , P Rochon . Aging: a subject that must be at the top of world agendas. BMJ 1997;315:1028–9.
2.J Avorn . Medication use and the elderly: current status and opportunities. Health Affairs Spring 1995;276–86.
3.DL Sackett , WMC Rosenberg , JAM Gray , RB Haynes , WS Richardson . Evidence based medicine: what it is and what it isn't. It's about integrating individual clinical expertise and the best external evidence. BMJ 1996;312:71–2.
4.B Sibbald , M Roland . Why are randomised controlled trials important? BMJ 1998;316:201.
5.Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. Evidence-Based Medicine. A new approach to teaching the practice of medicine. JAMA 1992;268:2420–5.
6.A Levin . Evidence-based medicine gaining supporters. Ann Intern Med 1998;128:334–6.
7.BG Charlton . Randomized clinical trials: the worst kind of epidemiology? Nature Medicine 1995;1:1101–2.
8.G Taubes . Looking for the evidence in medicine. Science 1996;272:22–4.
9.AR Feinstein , RI Horwitz . Problems in the evidence of evidence-based medicine. Am J Med 1997;103:529–35.
10.A Maynard . Evidence-based medicine: an incomplete method for informing treatment choices. Lancet 1997;349:126–8.
11.I Kerridge , M Lowe , D Henry . Ethics and evidence based medicine. BMJ 1998;316:1151–3.
12.CD Naylor . Grey zone of clinical practice: some limits to evidence-based medicine. Lancet 1995;345:840–2.
14.LS Schneider , JT Olin , SZ Lyness , HC Chui . Eligibility of Alzheimer's disease clinic patients for clinical trials. J Am Geriatr Soc 1997;45:923–8.
15.J Green , N Britten . Qualitative research and evidence based medicine. BMJ 1998;316:1230–2.
16.JH Gurwitz , NF Col , J Avorn . The exclusion of the elderly and women from clinical trials in acute myocardial infarction. JAMA 1992;268:1417–22.
17.J Avorn . Including elderly people in clinical trials, BMJ 1997;315:1033–4.
18.G Bugeja , A Kumar , AK Banerjee . Exclusion of elderly people from clinical research: a descriptive study of published reports. BMJ 1997;315:1059.
19.M Lye . Access to advances in cardiology. Lancet 1997;350:1162–3.
20.JG Evans . Evidence-based and evidence-biased medicine. Age-Ageing 1995;24:461–3.
21.N Black . Developing high quality clinical databases: the key to a new research paradigm. BMJ 1997;315:381–2.
22.J Hornberger , E Wrone . When to base clinical policies on observational versus randomized trial data. Ann intern Med 1997;127:697–703.
23.RI Horwitz , CM Viscoli , JD Clemens , RT Sadock . Developing improved observational methods for evaluating therapeutic effectiveness. Am J Med 1990;89:630–8.
24.N Black . Why we need observational studies to evaluate the effectiveness of health care. BMJ 1996;312:1215–8.
25.AM Walker . Common language. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Safety 1996;5:415–8.
26.EA Engels , MR Spitz . PACE-setting research. Lancet 1997;350:677–8.
27.MH Beers , JG Ouslander , SG Fingold , et al. Inappropriate medication prescribing in skilled-nursing facilities. Ann Intern Med 1992;117:684–9.
28.SM Willcox , DU Himmelstein , S Woolhandler . Inappropriate drug prescribing for the community-dwelling elderly. JAMA 1994;272:292–6.
30.J Avorn , JH Gurwitz . Drug use in the nursing home. Ann Intern Med 1995;123:195–204.
31.MH Beers . Explicit criteria for determining potentially inappropriate medication use by the elderly. An update. Arch Intern Med 1997;157:1531–6.
32.R Bernabei , G Gambassi , V Mor . The SAGE database: introducing functional outcomes in geriatric pharmaco-epidemiology. J Am Geriatr Soc 1998;46:250–2.
33.R Bernabei , G Gambassi , K Lapane , et al. Characteristics of the SAGE database: a new resource for research on outcomes in long-term care. J Gerontol Med Sci 1999;54:M25–33.
34.JN Morris , C Hawes , BE Fries et al. Designing the national resident assessment instrument for nursing homes. Gerontologist 1990;30:293–7.
35.G Gambassi , F Landi , L Peng , et al. Validity of diagnostic and drug data in standardized nursing home resident assessments: potential for geriatric pharmacoepidemiology. Med Care 1998;36:167–79.
36.R Bernabei , G Gambassi , K Lapane , et al. Management of pain in elderly cancer patients. JAMA 1998;279:1877–82.
37.G Gambassi , K Lapane , A Sgadari , et al. Prevalence, clinical correlates and treatment of hypertension in institutionalized elderly. Arch Intern Med 1998;158:2377–85.
38.F Landi , G Gambassi , K Lapane , et al. Comorbidity and drug use in cognitively impaired elderly living in long-term care. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 1998;9:347–56.
41.JN Morris , S Nonemaker , K Murphy , et al. A commitment to change: revision of the HCFA's RAI. J Am Geriatr Soc 1997;45:1011–6.
42.A Sgadari , JN Morris , BE Fries , et al. Effort to establish the reliability of the RAI. Age Ageing 1997;26:27–30.
43.C Hawes , CD Phillips , V Mor , et al. The OBRA-87 nursing home regulations and implementation of the Resident Assessment Instrument: effects on process quality. J Am Geriatr Soc 1997;45:977–85.
44.BE Fries , C Hawes , JN Morris , CD Phillips , V Mor , PS Park . Effect of the national Resident Assessment Instrument on selected health conditions and problems. J Am Geriatr Soc 1997;45:994–1001.
45.V Mor , O Intrator , BE Fries , et al. Changes in hospitalization associated with introducing the resident assessment instrument. J Am Geriatr Soc 1997;45:1002–10.
46.C Phillips , JN Morris , C Hawes , et al. Association of the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI) with changes in function, cognition, and psychosocial status. J Am Geriatr Soc 1997;45:986–93.
47.JN Morris , BE Fries , DR Mehr et al. MDS Cognitive Performance Scale. J Gerontol 1994;49:M174–82.
48.V Mor , K Branco , J Fleishman , et al. The structure of social engagement among nursing home residents. J Gerontol 1995;50B:P1–8.
49.JE Voelkl , BE Fries , AT Galecki . Predictors of nursing home resident's participation in activity programs. Gerontologist 1995;35:44–51.
51.BC Williams , Y Li , BE Fries , RL Warren . Predicting patient scores between the Functional Independence measure and the Minimum Data Set: development and performance of a FIM-MDS “crosswalk”. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1997;78:48–54.
53.NM Resnick , GH Brandeis , MM Baumann , JN Morris . Evaluating a national assessment strategy for urinary incontinence in nursing home residents: reliability of the Minimum Data Set and validity of the Resident Assessment Protocol. Neurourol Urodyn 1996;15:583–98.
54.TR Fried , V Mor . Frailty and hospitalization of long-term stay nursing home residents. J Am Geriatr Soc 1997;45:265–9.
55.SL Hartmaier , PD Sloane , HA Guess , GG Koch . The MDS cognition scale: a valid instrument for identifying and staging nursing home residents with dementia using the Minimum Data Set. J Am Geriatr Soc 1994;42:1173–9.
57.K Frederiksen , P Tariot , Jonghe E De . Minimum Data Set Plus (MDS+) scores compared with scores from five rating scales. J Am Geriatr Soc 1996;44:305–9.
58.BE Fries , DP Schneider , WJ Foley , M Gavazzi , R Burke , E Cornelius . Refining a case-mix measure for nursing homes: resource utilization groups (RUG-III). Med Care 1994;32:668–85.
59.BE Fries , DR Mehr , D Schneider , WJ Foley , R Burke . Mental dysfunction and resource use in nursing homes. Med Care 1993;31:898–920.
62.JS Zinn , V Mor . Nursing home special care units: distribution by type, state and facility characteristics. Gerontologist 1994;34:371–7.
65.RS Stafford , D Saglam , D Blumenthal . National patterns of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use in congestive heart failure. Arch Intern Med 1997;157:2460–4.
66.MM McDermott , J Feinglass , P Lee , et al. Heart failure between 1986 and 1994: temporal trends in drug-prescribing practices, hospital readmissions, and survival at an academic medical center. Am Heart J 1997;134:901–9.
67.MW Rich , K Brooks , P Luther . Temporal trends in pharmacotherapy for congestive heart failure at an academic medical center: 1990–1995. Am Heart J 1998:135:367–72.
68.The CONSENSUS Trial Study Group. Effects of enalapril on mortality in severe congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med 1987;316:1429–35.
69.SOLVD Investigators. Effect of enalapril on survival in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fractions and congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med 1991;325:293–302.
70.R Garg , S Yusuf . Overview of randomized trials of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure. JAMA 1995:273:1450–6.
72.PC Deedwania . Underutilization of evidence-based therapy in heart failure. An opportunity to deal a winning hand with ace up your sleeve. Arch Intern Med 1997;157:2409–12.
73.JE Wennberg , JL Freeman , RM Shelton , et al. Hospital use and mortality among Medicare beneficiaries in Boston and New Haven. N Engl J Med 1989:321:1168–73.
75.EF Philbin , C Andreaou , TA Rocco , LJ Lynch , SL Baker . Patterns of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use in congestive heart failure in two community hospitals. Am J Cardiol 1996;77:832–8.
76.VS Raleigh . The demographic timebomb. BMJ 1997;315:442–3.
77.DA Redelmeier , SH Tan , GL Booth . The treatment of unrelated disorders in patients with chronic medical diseases. N Engl J Med 1998;338:1516–20.
78.RL Kane . Improving the quality of long-term care. JAMA 1995;273:1376–80.
80.RS Epstein , LM Sherwood . From outcomes research to disease management: a guide for the perplexed. Ann Intern Med 1996;124:832–7.
82.CD Phillips , PD Sloane , C Hawes , et al. Effects of residence in Alzheimer disease special care units on functional outcomes. JAMA 1997;278:1340–4.
84.DR Berlowitz , GH Brandeis , MA Moskowitz . Using administrative databases to evaluate long-term care. J Am Geriatr Soc 1997;45:618–23.
85.EH Bradley , R Besdine . Outcomes-based quality improvement: reducing the data collection burden. J Am Geriatr Soc 1998;46:534–5.
86.JA Teresi , D Holmes . Should MDS data be used for research? Gerontologist 1992;32:148–9.
87.JG Ouslander . Maximizing the Minimum Data Set. J Am Geriatr Soc 1994;42:1212–3.
88.D Black , C Bowman . Community institutional care for frail elderly people. BMJ 1997;315:441–2.
89.M Schroll . Effects of systematic geriatric assessment. Lancet 1997;350:604–5.
90.K Steel . Research on aging: an agenda for all nations individually and collectively. JAMA 1997;278:1374–5.
91.BE Fries , M Schroll , C Hawes , R Gilgen , PV Jonsson , P Park . Approaching cross-national comparisons of nursing home residents. Age Ageing 1997;26(suppl. 2):13–8.
92.CD Phillips , C Hawes , V Mor , BE Fries , JN Morris , ME Nennstiel . Facility and area variation affecting the use of physical restraints in nursing homes. Med Care 1996;34:1149–62.
93.CA Gatsonis , AM Epstein , JP Newhouse , SL Normand , BJ McNeil . Variations in the utilization of coronary angiography for elderly patients with an acute myocardial infarction. Med Care 1995;33:625–42.