Several years ago, while going through the Mochizuki Collection in the sub-basement of Keiō University Library, I came across a small book bearing the title Hunan tzu-chih yün-tung shih (shang) [History of the Hunan Self-government Movement, Part I (Shanghai, December 1920)] by a Fukienese journalist with the curiously Taoist name of Wang Wu-wei. The book turned out to contain four hitherto unexamined and uncollected articles by Mao Tse-tung, written during September 1920, and a lengthy proposal written by Mao and others in early October. Asa whole the book throws considerable light on an important phase of the search by enlightened members of the Chinese polity for a way out of the twin dilemmas of warlordism and foreign penetration. Mao's articles show the 26-year-old teacher, far from being the obscure figure many have thought, as already something of a primus inter pares, a notable thinker and respected leader in the context of a rather chaotic and creative situation. Although I wrote a short introduction (in Japanese) and republished these pieces (in Chinese) in Hogaku Kenkyu, the journal of the Keio University Faculty of Law, neither is readily available to western audiences. What follows is a completely new introduction, together with translations of the five documents in question.