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The Origin and Characteristics of Evangelical Protestantism in Korea at the Turn of the Twentieth Century

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 May 2008


One peculiar phenomenon in the Korean Protestant churches today is that most churches, regardless of their size and denomination, assert that they are “evangelical.” By claiming to be evangelical, they want to display not simply their conservative theological stance but also continuity with their tradition. Self-acclaimed evangelical churches generally believe that the early Korean church in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was also evangelical, and hence they are its true heirs. Moreover, in the mind of the self-consciously evangelical Korean Christians, “Puritanism” is something to be admired, a lost glory of which evangelicalism is the closest contemporary replica. A few progressive churches would distance themselves from this general tendency, but these churches are more often than not far smaller and less appealing to the average Christian. World-class megachurches and nearly all rank-and-file churches in Korea are “evangelical” churches. The matter in Korean Protestantism is more who is “really” evangelical rather than a competition between evangelicals and non-evangelicals.

Research Article
Copyright © American Society of Church History 2008

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1 Rob Moll, “Missions Incredible,” Christianity Today (March 2006): 28–34. According to Moll, Korea sends more missionaries out than any other country except the United States, but it is likely that Korea will soon take the lead.

2 William R. Hutchison, Errand to the World: American Protestant Thought and Foreign Missions (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993), 128.

3 On American missionaries' middle-class background and values, see Dae Young Ryu, “Understanding Early American Missionaries in Korea (1884–1910): Capitalist Middle-Class Values and the Weber Thesis,” Archives de Sciences Sociales des Religions 113 (janvier–mars 2001): 93–117.

4 Harry A. Rhodes, History of the Korea Mission Presbyterian Church, U.S.A., 1884–1934 (Seoul: Chosen Mission, Presbyterian Church, U.S.A., 1934), 625–632; Sophie Montgomery Crane, comp., Missionary Directory (Atlanta: Division of International Mission, Presbyterian Church [U.S.A.], 1987), 59–77; J. S. Ryang, ed., Southern Methodism in Korea: Thirtieth Anniversary (Seoul: Board of Missions, Korea Annual Conference, Methodist Episcopal Church, South, [1929]), 9–13; Seung Tae Kim and Hye Jin Park, Naehan Seongyosa Chongram, 1884–1894 [A Directory of Protestant Missionaries to Korea] (Seoul: Institute for Korean Church History, 1994).

6 Arthur J. Brown, The Mastery of the Far East: The Story of Korea's Transformation and Japan's Rise to Supremacy in the Orient (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1919), 547–549.

7 “Editorial,” Korea Mission Field [hereafter KMF] (March 1908): 41.

8 The Constitution of the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.): Part I, Book of Confessions (Louisville, Ky.: Office of the General Assembly, 2002), 160–163.

9 The Book of Discipline of the United Methodist Church (Nashville, Tenn.: United Methodist Publishing House, 2000), 52–55.

10 Deok-Joo Rhie and Yee-Jei Cho, eds., Hanguk Grisdoindeului Sinanggobaek [Confessions of Korean Christians] (Seoul: Handeul, 1997), 52–55 cf. “The Westminster Confession of Faith. a.d. 1647,” in The Creeds of Christendom with a History and Critical Notes, Vol. III, eds. Philip Schaff and David S. Schaff (Grand Rapids, Mich., 1998), 600–673; Yi and Jo, 46–51 cf. “Methodist Articles of Religion. a.d. 1784,” Schaff and Schaff, 807–813. See also Deok Ju Yi, “Chogi naehan seongyosadeuleui sinanggwa sinhak [Faith and Theology of Early Korea Missionaries],” Hangukgidokgyowa Yeoksa [History and Christianity in Korea, hereafter HGY] 6 (February 1997): 55–56.

11 Schaff and Schaff, 827–828.

12 George Heber Jones, The Korea Mission of the Methodist Episcopal Church (New York: Board of Foreign Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 1910), 45.

13 S. F. Moore, “An Epoch-Making Conference in Korea,” Missionary Review of the World [hereafter MRW] 18:9 (September 1905): 689–692; “Movement for Church Union in Korea,” MRW 18:10 (October 1905): 795; S. F. Moore, “Steps toward Missionary Union in Korea,” MRW 18:12 (December 1905): 903; W. L. Swallen to Brown, 10 October 1905, Board of Foreign Missions, Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A, Missions Correspondence and Reports, Microfilm Series, Korea, Department of History, Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania [hereafter NPR].

14 “Minutes of the First Annual Meeting of the General Council of Evangelical Missions in Korea,” enclosed in Swallen to Brown, 10 October 1905, NPR.

15 All western names in the text, unless otherwise noted, are the missionaries of American foreign mission boards.

16 Charles A. Clark, “Fifty Years of Mission Organization, Principles and Practice,” in The Fiftieth Anniversary Celebration of the Korea Mission of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., eds. Harry A. Rhodes and Richard H. Baird (Seoul: n.p., 1934), 56.

17 Brown, Mastery, 540.

18 Ninde to Secretaries, 6 January 1895, Missionary Collection, General Commission on Archives and History of the United Methodist Church, Madison, N.J. [hereafter MR]; also see Appenzeller to Leonard, June 16 1891, MR; Harris to Leonard, 1 January 1905, MR.

19 Brown, Mastery, 540; for a similar observation, see George W. Gilmore, Korea From Its Capital, with a Chapter on Missions (Philadelphia: Presbyterian Board of Publication, 1892), 107–108; William F. Sands, Undiplomatic Memories (Seoul: Royal Asiatic Society, 1977 [1930]), 94–95.

20 According to Hutchison's seminal thesis, the surge of overseas missions in the late nineteenth century was the globalized version of the Puritan “errand into the wilderness”: See Hutchison, Errand, 1–14, 91–124.

21 On the impact of extraterritorial privileges on Korean-missionary relations and missionary activities, see Dae Young Ryu, “Treaties, Extraterritorial Rights, and American Protestant Missions in Late Joseon Korea,” Korea Journal 43:1 (Spring 2003): 174–203.

22 Arthur J. Brown, “A Reading Journey through Korea,” Chautauquan 41 (1905): 494.

23 George H. Jones, “The Missionary and the Native Community” (Lecture IX), George Heber Jones Papers, Missionary Research Library Collection, Union Theological Seminary Library Archives, New York [hereafter Jones Papers].

24 C. A. Clark, “Organization,” 67; S. L. Roberts, “Fifty Years of Christian Training in Korea,” Rhodes and Baird, 107, quoting the 1891 “Rules and By-Laws of the Mission”; Lillias H. Underwood, Fifteen Years Among the Top-Knots (New York: American Tract Society, 1904), 238; Lillias H. Underwood, With Tommy Tompkins in Korea (New York: Fleming H. Revell, [1905]), 161.

25 C. A. Clark, “Organization,” 57; L. Underwood, Top-Knots, 37, 196; Eugene Bell, “First Fruits at Mokpo,” Missionary 33 (October 1900): 468; Graham Lee, “Native Christians Taught to Work,” The Assembly Herald (May 1900): 578; C. C. Vinton, “Korea the Strategic Mission,” The Assembly Herald (November 1900): 872; Wade Koons to Brown, 4 February 1908, NPR.

26 “Juil Jikineun ron,” [On observing Sunday] Grisdosinmun, 7 May 1897.

27 “Juileul maddanghi jikyoya ham,” [Sunday should be kept] Sinhakwolbo (August 1903): 322–323; see also “Juil jikim,” [Keeping Sunday] Sinhakwolbo (December 1900): 10–13; “Juileun uriui ansikil,” [Sunday is our Sabbath] Sinhakwolbo ([May] 1909): 487–510.

28 “Dr. Johnson's Itinerating Trip, Taiku, Korea, Dec. 13, 1906,” Henry M. Bruen, 40 Years in Korea (Seoul: Institute for Korean Church History, 1998) [hereafter Bruen], 116.

29 26 September 1897, Diary, Horace N. Allen Papers, Rare Books and Manuscripts Division, New York Public Library, New York [hereafter Allen Papers]; 5 October 1897, Mutel Jugyo Ilgi (Seoul: Research Foundation of Korean Church History, 1986–1933) [Journal of Bishop Mutel].

30 Annie Baird to “Gussie,” 6 March 1890, 12 April 1894; Annie Baird to “Folks,” 12 November 1900, Annie L. A. Baird Papers, Department of History, Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania [hereafter Baird Papers].

31 Appenzeller to Bunker, 16 April 1898, Henry Gerhard Appenzeller Papers, Missionary Research Library Collection, Union Theological Seminary Library Archives, New York [hereafter Appenzeller Papers].

32 Daniel L. Gifford, “Ancestral Worship as Practiced in Korea,” Korean Repository [hereafter KR] (1892): 171–172, 176; John F. Genso, “Sacrificial Foods,” KMF (September 1909): 159; James S. Gale, “The Korean Gentleman,” KR (January 1898): 5.

33 J. Z. Moore, “Sacrificing to the Dead,” Korea Methodist (December 1904): 15; Gifford, 176; Gale, 5; William M. Clark, “Animism in Korea,” KMF (April 1925): 79.

34 For decisions of the Presbyterian and Methodist authorities, see Gyung-bae Min, Hanguk Gidokgyo Sahoeundongsa [History of Social Christianity in Korea] (Seoul: Korean Christian Press, 1990), 83–84.

35 “Suleui keun gwangye,” [Liquor's great consequences] Sinhakwolbo [Theological Monthly, hereafter SW] (December 1903): 515–520.

36 A report of W. D. Reynolds describing the opening of Mokpo and Gwangju stations, John Fairman Preston Papers, Department of History, Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), Montreat, North Carolina [hereafter Preston Papers]; C. A. Clark, “Organization,” 57; C. A. Clark, The Korean Church and the Nevius Methods (New York: Fleming H. Revell, [1930]), 97.

37 See Sung-deuk Oak, “Chogi hanguk bukgamligyoeui seongyo sinhakgwa jeongchaek [Franklin Ohlinger and Methodist Evangelical Mission Theology in Korea, 1885–1894],” HGY 11 (October 1999): 14, 33.

38 Appenzeller, “The Christian Soldier” [sermon], Appenzeller Papers.

39 Annual Report, Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church (1892), 287.

40 Official Minutes of the Nineteenth Annual Meeting Korea Missions, Methodist Episcopal Church, Seoul, Korea, 1903, 62.

41 See, for instance, James S. Dennis, Christian Missions and Social Progress, 3 vols. (New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1897–1906); Robert E. Speer, Missionary Principles and Practice: A Discussion of Christian Missions and of Some Criticisms Upon Them (New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1902).

42 Appenzeller to Leonard, 5 January 1891, MR; cf. Adams to Brown, 17 July 1910, NPR; Ross to Brown, 27 December 1904, NPR.

43 3 May 1901, Mattie Wilcox Noble, The Journals of Mattie Wilcox Noble, 1892–1934 (Seoul: Institute for Korean Church History, 1994); “Daehan hyongjeege seongpumeul jusim,” [Korean brothers received sacred ministry] SW (June 1901): 265–267.

44 Arthur J. Brown, “Report of a Visitation of the Korea Mission of the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A.” (New York, Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., 1902), 13–14.

45 1 June, Yun Chi-ho Ilgi [Diary of Yun Chi Ho], 8 vols. (Seoul: Guksa Pyeonchan Wiwonhoe, 1973–1986) [hereafter Yun Diary]. Also see C. F. Reid, The Touch of Christ: A Tale of Missions (Nashville, Tenn.: Board of Missions, Methodist Episcopal Church, South, n.d.), 26, also 31–32.

46 Daniel L. Gifford, Every-Day Life in Korea (New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1898), 67.

47 L. Underwood, Top-Knots, 27.

48 Horace N. Allen, Things Korean: A Collection of Sketches and Anecdotes, Missionary and Diplomatic (New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1908), 116–117.

49 Samuel A. Moffett, “Fifty Years of Missionary Life in Korea,” Rhodes and Baird, 37.

50 Homer B. Hulbert, “Preface,” The Passing of Korea (New York: Doubleday, 1906). For more on the Koreans' respect for foreigners, see Foote to Secretary of State, 23 and 26 May 1883, Dispatches from United States Ministers to Korea, 1883–1905, File Microcopies of Records in the National Archives, Washington, D.C. [hereafter DD]; Appenzeller to Maclay, Aug. n.d., 1885, MR; Margaret Best to Ellinwood, 4 October 1897, NPR; James S. Gale, Korean Sketches (New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1898), 241; Horace N. Allen, Korea: Fact and Fancy (Seoul: Methodist Publishing House, 1904), 12; Horace N. Allen, Things Korean, 131; George H. Jones, Korea, The Land, People and Customs (New York: Jennings and Graham, 1907), 30–31; Horace G. Underwood, The Call of Korea, Political-Social-Religious (New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1908), 149; Fred C. Bohm and Robert R. Swartout, eds., Naval Surgeon in Yi Korea: The Journal of George W. Woods (Berkeley: Institute of East Asian Studies, 1984), 68.

51 James S. Gale, Korea in Transition (New York: Young People's Missionary Movement of the United States and Canada, 1909), 140; also see Gifford, Every-Day Life, 66–67; Allen, Things Korean, 84; Sands, 86.

52 George Heber Jones, Korea Mission of the Methodist Episcopal Church (New York: Board of Foreign Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 1910), 14.

53 Gale, Korea in Transition, 45–46.

54 Samuel A. Moffett, “Fifty Years,” in Rhodes and Baird, 43.

55 Ibid., 44.

56 Graham Lee, “A Rigorous Moral Standard,” KMF (September 1906): 210; S. N. Wellbon, “Pai Chun Believers,” Korea Field (August 1902): 52.

57 Sung Deuk Oak, “Hanguk jangrogyoeui chogi seongyojeongchaek (1884–1903) [Early Mission Policies of the Korean Presbyterian Church (1884–1903),” HGY 9 (September 1998): 146.

58 Samuel A. Moffett, “Missionary Life,” 43; Swallen to Ellinwood, 24 September 1895, NPR; also, James S. Gale, Korea in Transition, 69; James S. Gale, Korean Sketches, 213.

59 For an example of a China missionary's position, see J. C. Gibson [The English Presbyterian Mission in China], to D. L. Gifford, 13 August 1895, Preston Papers; cf. Gifford to the Presbyterian Council, 5 September 1895, Preston Papers; L. George Paik, The History of Protestant Missions in Korea, 1832–1910 (Py'ong Yang, Korea: Union Christian College, 1929), 210.

60 For typical arguments on the issue, see the following articles: W. L. Swallen, “Polygamy and the Church,” KR 2 (August 1895): 289–294; William M. Baird, “Should Polygamists Be Admitted to the Christian Church? I.,” KR 3 (July 1896): 288–292; William M. Baird, “Should Polygamists Be Admitted to the Christian Church? II.,” KR 3 (August 1896): 323–333; William M. Baird, “Should Polygamists Be Admitted to the Christian Church? III.,” KR 3 (September 1896): 350–360; “Polygamists in the Church,” KR 3 (September 1896): 373–374; Moffett's letter to the editor, KR 3 (October 1896): 459. For the discussion among the Presbyterians, see Gifford to Ellinwood, 26 January and 5 December 1895, 12 February 1896; cf. J. E. Adams to Ellinwood, 1 January 1896; Swallen to Ellinwood, 24 September 1895; L. Underwood to Ellinwood, 22 April 1896, NPR; Samuel A. Moffett, “Missionary Life,” 39; Mrs. H. Miller, “A Christian Concubine,” KMF (July 1906): 170.

61 See, for instance, “Mitji anneun jawa honinhaji mal il,” [Don't marry unbelievers] SW (November 1904): 425–426; Gyeong-Ro Yun, “1900nyeondae chogi jangrogyohoeui chiriwa chochanggi gyoineui sahoe gyeongjejeok seonghyang,” [Disciplinary measures of the early Presbyterian church in the 1900s and the socioeconomic tendency of the Christians] HGY 1 (1991): 92–95.

62 L. Underwood, Top-Knots, 233–234.

63 Moffett to Ellinwood, 9 November 1892, NPR.

64 See, for instance, William M. Junkin, “The Gospel at Kunsan,” Missionary 33 (November 1900): 509; Moffett to Ellinwood, 9 November 1892, NPR.

65 See Dae Young Ryu, Chogi Miguk Seongyosa Yeongu, 1882–1910 [Early American Protestant missionaries in Korea, 1882–1910] (Seoul: Institute for Korean Church History, 2003).

66 For various motives to join the church, see Allen to Hay, 3 July 1901, DD; Ohlinger to Leonard, n.d., 1889, MR; Allen to Ellinwood, 10 July 1898, NPR; Gale, Korean Sketches, 246–247; 15 January 1898, Yun Diary; Hunt to Brown, 1 February 1909, NPR; L. Underwood, Top-Knots, 84–86; Sands, 96; Allen, Things Korean, 181; F. S. Miller to Brown, 22 October 1905, NPR; Morgan to Root, 16 November 1905, DD.

67 James S. Gale, The Vanguard: A Tale of Korea (New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1904), 86, 127.

68 Franklin Ohlinger, “Report of the Seoul Circuit, Korea M. E. Mission, To the Annual Meeting, Held Aug. 1–9, 1893,” quoted in Oak, “Chogi,” 32.

69 Isabella B. Bishop, Korea and Her Neighbors: A Narrative of Travel with an Account of the Recent Vicissitude and Present Condition of the Country (New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1898), 349–350.

70 Annie Baird to “Gussie,” 12 April 1894; Annie Baird to “Folks,” 12 November 1900, Baird Papers.

71 Lewis B. Tate, Missionary 31 (September 1898): 391.

72 William M. Junkin, “Opening of Kunsan Station,” Preston Papers.

73 William Reynolds, “Enemies of the Cross in Korea,” Missionary 32 (October 1899): 459–461.

74 Appenzeller to Leonard, 5 January 1891, MR.

75 L. Underwood, Top-Knots, 216; H. Underwood, Call of Korea, 139.

76 An indication of the role Korea missionaries played in the SVM meetings is their speeches at the quadrennial international conventions of the SVM. See F. Ohlinger, “Future of the Korean Field,” The Student Missionary Enterprise (Boston: Press of T. O. Metcalf & Co., 1894), 265–266; H. G. Underwood, “The Unevangelized Millions in Korea,” World-wide Evangelization, the Urgent Business of the Church (New York: Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Mission, 1902), 93–95; C. F. Reid, “The Political Situation in Korea,” ibid., 385–387; Graham Lee, “Missionary Methods in Korea,” ibid., 395–396; H. G. Underwood, “The Need for Workers in Korea,” ibid., 403–406; Eugene Bell, “The Need in Southern Korea,” ibid., 406–407; W. B. Hunt, “The Essential for Korea's Uplifting,” Students and the Modern Missionary Crusade (New York: Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions, 1906), 407–408; Lulu E. Frey, “Woman's Work in Korea,” ibid., 408–410; W. B. Swearer, “Korean Opportunities and Needs,” ibid., 411–413; Robert Grierson, “Medical Missions in Korea,” ibid., 515–518; H. Rosewell Bates, “Korean Missions from the Viewpoint of a Traveler,” Students and the Present Missionary Crisis (New York: Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions, 1910), 299–301; Arthur J. Brown, “The Present Missionary Situation in Korea,” ibid., 301–303; John Z. Moore, “Why We Should Help Korea Now,” ibid., 303–307; George Heber Jones, “Evidences of the Present-Day Work of the Holy Spirit in Korea,” ibid., 307–313. Also see Lee to Ellinwood, 26 December 1902, NPR; Cyril Ross to Brown, 29 January 1906, NPR; Brown to E. H. Miller, 10 December 1908, NPR; Brown to Moffett, December 10, 11, 1908, NPR; L. Underwood, Underwood of Korea (New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1918), 113–114.

77 Ryu, “Understanding Early American Missionaries in Korea,” 97.

78 “Appendix A: List of Sailed Volunteers,” Students and the Present Missionary Crisis: Addresses Delivered before the Sixth International Convention of the Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions, Rochester, New York, December 29, 1909 to January 2, 1910, 513–532 (1910 was the first time that the SVM gave the list of the sailed volunteers in the report of its quadrennial international conventions) and the sources of Table 1.

79 See William D. Reynolds, “How the Mission Was Begun,” Preston Papers; William D. Reynolds, “Founding of the Southern Presbyterian Missions,” Preston Papers; William D. Reynolds, “Early History of the Southern Presbyterian Mission,” Preston Papers; [William D. Reynolds], “Recollections of Early Beginnings,” Preston Papers; Reynolds and Junkin, “Why We Wish to Go to Korea,” Missionary 25 (February 1892): 49–52; L. Underwood, Underwood of Korea, 109–110; Anabel Major Nisbet, Day In and Day Out in Korea (Richmond: Presbyterian Committee of Publication, [1920]), 98–99; Rhodes, History, 17–20; G. Thompson Brown, Mission to Korea (n.p.; Board of World Missions, Presbyterian Church U.S., [1962]), 69–78.

80 Michael T. Parker, “The Kingdom of Character: The Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions (1886–1926)” (Ph.D. diss., University of Maryland, College Park, 1994), 154–167.

81 A most comprehensive treatment of the importance of the scriptures in early Korean Christianity is provided by Mahn-Yol Yi and Sung Deuk Oak, Daehanseongseogonghoesa [History of the Korean Bible Society], vol. 1 (Seoul: Korean Bible Society, 1993) and Dae Young Ryu, Mahn-Yol Yi, and Sung Deuk Oak, Daehanseongseogonghoesa, vol. 2 (Seoul: Korean Bible Society, 1994). For a good survey of the Bible's influence on the Korean church, see George H. Jones, “The Transformation of a Nation,” Jones Papers; Report, British and Foreign Bible Society (1901), 290.

82 “Matters of Moment,” Bible in the World (March 1907): 70; ibid. (September 1909): 263; G. T. B. Davis, “Five Hundred Miles' Pilgrimage for a Bible,” Bible in the World (October 1910): 301.

83 George T. B. Davis, Korea for Christ (New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1910), 39.

84 Nisbet, 98–99; Rhodes, History, passim, especially 159–160, 188–190, 253–255; Ryu, et al., 390–392.

85 On the relationship between the middle-class holiness movement and the SVM, see Parker, 155–167.

86 W. G. Cram, “Revival Fires,” KMF (December 1905): 33.

87 J. R. Moose, “A Great Awakening,” KMF (January 1906): 52.

88 [George Heber Jones and W. Arthur Noble], “The Religious Awakening of Korea: An Account of the Revival in the Korean Churches in 1907,” ([New York]: Board of Foreign Missions, Methodist Episcopal Church, 1908), 7.

89 Ibid., 8.

90 Brown, Mastery, 543–544; also, Rhodes, History, 280–285.

91 [Annie] Baird, “Further Visitation of Grace in Peng Yang, Korea,” 2, NPR.

92 W. G. Cram, “The Revival in Songdo,” KMF (June 1906): 113.

93 [Jones and Noble], 7.

94 John Z. Moore, “The Great Revival Year,” KMF (August 1907): 118. Also see Edith F. McRae, “For Thine is the Power,” KMF (February 1906): 74; William A. Noble, “Korean Decadence,” KMF (July 1906): 176; John Z. Moore, “The Fullness of the Gospel,” KMF (December 1907): 178.

95 Mrs. H. G. Underwood, “Concrete Christianity in Korea,” Missionary 42 (April 1909): 161.

96 At Mokpo station of the southern Presbyterian mission, located at an extreme southern limit of the peninsula, for instance, there were no communicants, 3 catechumens, and 60 attendants in 1904. The statistics in 1909 show that the numbers increased to 273, 380, and 1,400 in each category. See Nisbet, 79–89.

97 Moffett to Brown, 3 March 1908, NPR; Gale, Korea in Transition, 185–186, 215–218; Rhodes, History, 284; S. Latourette, A History of Christian Missions in China (New York: Macmillan, 1929), 574–582.

98 J. Tremayne Copplestone, History of Methodist Missions, vol. 4, Twentieth-Century Perspectives: The Methodist Episcopal Church, 1896–1939 (New York: Board of Global Ministries, United Methodist Church, 1973), 741.

99 Quoted from Missionary 41 (October 1908): 476.

100 Horace N. Allen, “Missionaries and the Far Eastern Question,” enclosed in Allen to Secretary of State, 15 September 1900, DD.

101 Rhodes, History, 546–547; G. T. Brown, 688–689; Charles D. Stokes, “History of Methodist Missions in Korea, 1885–1930” (Ph.D. diss., Yale University, 1947), “Appendix,” x–xiii.

102 Charles H. Irvin to Ellinwood, 8 April 1895, NPR. Also see, Baird to Ellinwood, 29 August 1894, NPR, C. E. Kearns to Brown, 4 April 1904, NPR; Beck to Leonard, 7 March 1904, MR; Brown, Mastery, 354.