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    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    PEKAROFSKI, MICHAEL 2012. The Passing of Jay Gatsby: Class and Anti-Semitism in Fitzgerald's 1920s America. The F. Scott Fitzgerald Review, Vol. 10, Issue. 1, p. 52.

    Neal, Lynn S. 2010. Intolerance and American Religious History. Religion Compass, Vol. 4, Issue. 2, p. 114.


Christianizing the Klan: Alma White, Branford Clarke, and the Art of Religious Intolerance


According to the biblical book of Daniel chapter 3, King Nebuchadnezzar, who ruled the Babylonian Empire where the Jews lived in exile, commissioned the building of a ninety-foot golden image and commanded the people to worship it. Refusal to comply meant one's death in a fiery furnace. While most obeyed the king's dictate, the story recounts how Shadrach, Meschach, and Abednego, Jews who worked for the king, refused to worship the image and remained loyal to their God. In response, the king bade his men to stoke the furnace and burn the defiant rebels. To the king's amazement, the trio appeared unscathed amid the red-hot flames, and he glimpsed a mysterious fourth figure with them. Seeing this, the king called the men to come out of the furnace and they emerged unharmed, protected, according to the text, by the fourth figure, an angel. The story depicts Shadrach, Meschach, and Abednego as heroes who withstood the forces of evil and witnessed the power of their God. It speaks to the fidelity of these men and to the intolerant nature of Nebuchadnezzar's faith. While this passage and its lessons may be familiar to many, in the 1920s they gained additional meanings that provide us with important insights into the workings of religious intolerance in the United States.

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Louis P. Masur , “‘Pictures Have Now Become a Necessity’: The Use of Images in American History Textbooks,” The Journal of American History 84:4 (March 1998): 1410

Thomas Milton Kemnitz , “The Cartoon as a Historical Source,” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 4:1 (Summer 1973): 8193

Paul L. Murphy , “Sources and Nature of Intolerance in the 1920s,” Journal of American History 51:1 (June 1964): 61

Helen Goodman , “Women Illustrators of the Golden Age of American Illustration,” Woman's Art Journal 8:1 (Spring–Summer 1987): 13

Mark A. Noll , “The Bible in America,” Journal of Biblical Literature 106:3 (September 1987): 501

Sally M. Promey , “The ‘Return’ of Religion in the Scholarship of American Art,” The Art Bulletin 85:3 (September 2003): 581603

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Church History
  • ISSN: 0009-6407
  • EISSN: 1755-2613
  • URL: /core/journals/church-history
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