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A More Brotherly Song, a Less Passionate Passion: Abstraction and Ecumenism in the Translation of the Hymn “O Sacred Head Now Wounded” from Bloodier Antecedents

  • George Faithful
Abstract

When nineteenth-century American Presbyterian pastor James Waddel Alexander wrote the lyrics of the hymn “O Sacred Head Now Wounded,” he created what has become the most popular of numerous English translations of seventeenth-century German Lutheran pastor Paul Gerhardt's hymn “O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden.” That text was, in turn, a translation of part of an anonymous thirteenth-century cycle of passion poems, one dedicated to each of Christ's wounds. From the medieval original through Gerhardt to Alexander, each subsequent translation has diminished its depictions of blood and rendered its narrator's interaction with the crucified body of Christ less passionate, dictated by the theological needs and aesthetic sensibilities of the translator's religious tradition. At the same time, both Gerhardt and Alexander included significant elements from the original that were anomalous in their own contexts. The inclusion of a medieval poem in the worship of seventeenth-century Lutherans and nineteenth-century Presbyterians may reveal an ecumenical bent on their part, albeit with clear limits. A comparison of the various versions of the hymn demonstrates the complex interrelationship between an original text and translations of it, some of which may properly be called versions of it and some of which may have become something altogether different.

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1 Eliot, Marc, Paul Simon: A Life (Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley and Sons, 2010), 130; Paul Simon, “American Tune,” http://www.paulsimon.com/us/music/there-goes-rhymin-simon/american-tune.

2 LP catalog number: 26654; See What Tomorrow Brings, http://www.peterpaulandmary.com/music/f-06.htm.

3 Glazer, Tom, ed., Songs of Peace, Freedom, and Protest (New York: D. McKay Co., 1970), 21. Cf. “Because All Men Are Brothers,” http://www.folkarchive.de/because.html.

4 Becker, Hansjakob et al. , eds., Geistliches Wunderhorn: Grosse deutsche Kirchenlieder (Munich: C. H. Beck, 2001), 276; J. S. Bach, Matthäus-Passion, orchestra, soloists, and chorus dir. Ton Koopman, notes by Denis Herlin, Erato DDD 2292 45814 2.

5 McKim, Linda Jo H., The Presbyterian Hymnal Companion (Louisville, K.Y.: Westminster John Knox, 1993), 8889.

6 “Ad Pedes,” “Ad Genua,” “Ad Manus,” “Ad Latus,” “Ad Pectus,” “Ad Cor,” “Ad Faciem.” Author's translation, as in all subsequent. The version of the Latin text I have used here and throughout is that of Mabillon, D. Joannis and Migne, Jacques-Paul, eds., S. Bernardi Abbatis Primi Clarae-Vallensis Opera Omnia. Voulumen Tertium. Patrologiae Cursus Completus. Series Latina (Paris: Ramos, 1862), 184:13191324. Although not a critical edition, this most closely approximates the version of the text that Gerhardt translated.

Typical of this genre of liturgical literature, monks could pray a different part each day of the week. Gealy in Bucke, Companion to the Hymnal: A Handbook to the United Methodist Book of Hymns (Nashville: Abingdon, 1982), 332.

7 Catholic University of America, “A Medieval Priest-Poet of the Sacred Heart,The Ecclesiastical Review, vol. 64 (Philadelphia: Dolphin, 1921), 3436; Gealy, Fred D. in Bucke, Emory Stevens, ed., Companion to the Hymnal: A Handbook to the United Methodist Book of Hymns (Nashville: Abingdon, 1982), 332; Lehnertz, Marlies, “Vom hochmittelalterlichen katholischen Hymnus zum barocken evangelischen Kirchenlied: Paul Gerhardts ‘O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden’ und seine lateinische Vorlage, das ‘Salve caput cruentatum’ Arnulfs von Löwen” in Liturgie und Dichtung: Ein interdisziplinäres Kompendium, eds. Becker, Hansjakob and Kaczynski, Reiner (St. Otttilien Erzabei, Germany: EOS Verlag, 1983), 1:755756.

8 “in tuo lavans sanguine.” Mabillon and Migne, S. Bernardi, 1319–13120.

9 “Sanguis tuus abundanter / fusus, fluit incessanter.” Mabillon and Migne, S. Bernardi, 1319–13120.

10 “Sanguis fluens hic per totum.” Mabillon and Migne, S. Bernardi, 1319–1320.

11 “tot guttis decurrentibus.” Mabillon and Migne, S. Bernardi, 1321–1322.

12 “rosis novis adimplete.” Mabillon and Migne, S. Bernardi, 1321–1322.

13 “cruore purpuratas.” Mabillon and Migne, S. Bernardi, 1321–1322.

14 “in quo latet mel dulcoris, / [ . . . . ] / ex quo scatet fons cruoris.” Mabillon and Migne, S. Bernardi, 1321–1322.

15 “Odor tuus super vinum, / virus pellens serpentinum.” Mabillon and Migne, S. Bernardi, 1321–1322. This is unsurprising, given that many medieval thinkers perceived a correlation between venom and stench, as in the case of the mythical basilisk. Rose, Carol, Giants, Monsters, and Dragons: An Encyclopedia of Folklore, Legend, and Myth (New York: W. W. Norton, 2001), 41; Glick, Thomas F., Livesey, Stenen John, and Wallis, Faith, Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopedia (New York: Routledge, 2005), 407.

16 “quo amore vincebaris, / quo dolore torquebaris, / cum te totum exhaurires.” Mabillon and Migne, S. Bernardi, 1321–1322.

17 “qui praesto es amantibus.” Mabillon and Migne, S. Bernardi, 1321–1322.

18 “o quam dulcis sapor iste! / qui te gustat, Jesu Christe, / tuo victus a dulcore, / mori posset prae amore, / te unum amans unice.” Mabillon and Migne, S. Bernardi, 1321–1322.

19 “Plagas tuas rubicundas, / et fixuras tam profundas, / cordi meo fac inscribi.” Mabillon and Migne, S. Bernardi, 1319–1320.

20 “amatori.” Mabillon and Migne, S. Bernardi, 1321–1322.

21 “In hac cruce te cruentum, / [ . . . ] / ut requiram, me impelle.” Mabillon and Migne, S. Bernardi, 1321–1322.

22 “Per medullam cordis mei, / peccatoris atque rei, / tuus amor transferatur, / quo cor totum rapiatur / languens amoris vulnere.” Mabillon and Migne, S. Bernardi, 1323–1324.

23 “cruentatum,” “conquassatum, vulneratum,” “sputis illita.” Mabillon and Migne, S. Bernardi, 1323–1324.

24 Mabillon and Migne, S. Bernardi, 1323–1324.

25 “attritus aegra macie.” Mabillon and Migne, S. Bernardi, 1323–1324.

26 “Omnis vigor atque viror.” Mabillon and Migne, S. Bernardi, 1323–1324.

27 Dronke, Peter, The Medieval Poet and His World (Rome: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, 1984), 8385.

28 Becker et al., Geistliches Wunderhorn, 283.

29 “cujus sumpsi mel ex ore, / haustum lactis cum dulcore, / prae omnibus deliciis.” Mabillon and Migne, S. Bernardi, 1323–1324.

30 “tuum caput hic inclina, / in meis pausa brachiis.” Mabillon and Migne, S. Bernardi, 1323–1324.

31 “Tuae sanctae passion / me gauderem interponi, / in hac cruce tecum mori.” Mabillon and Migne, S. Bernardi, 1323–1324.

32 “amator amplectende.” Mabillon and Migne, S. Bernardi, 1323–1324.

33 Bynum, Caroline Walker, Wonderful Blood: Theology and Practice in Late Medieval Northern Germany and Beyond (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007), 121; Bildhauer, Bettina, Medieval Blood (Cardiff, Wales: University of Wales Press, 2006), 14.

34 Armstrong, Regis J. and Brady, Ignatius C., eds., Francis and Clare: The Complete Works (New York: Paulist, 1982), 63, 70; Thornton, John F. and Varenne, Susan B., Honey and Salt: Selected Spiritual Writings of Saint Bernard of Clairvaux (New York: Vintage, 2007), 1417. Cf. Sheldrake, Philip, ed., The New Westminster Dictionary of Christian Spirituality (Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox, 2005), s.v. “Bridal Mysticism (Brautmystic).”

35 Becker et al., Geistliches Wunderhorn, 278.

36 Evans, G. R., ed., The Medieval Theologians: An Introduction to the Theology of the Medieval Period (Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 2001), 7374, 86–89, 193, 219; Stone, Darwell, A History of the Doctrine of the Holy Eucharist (Eugene, Ore.: Wipf and Stock, 2006), 1:313; Aquinas, Thomas, Summa Theologiae (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 58:5359 (Summa Part III, Question 75, Article 1).

While older research has often assumed that the eucharistic controversies of the eleventh century built on those that supposedly occurred in the ninth, particularly surrounding the writings of Paschasius Ratbertus, some recent scholarship has questioned whether there was, in fact, a controversy at all. Bouhot, Jean-Paul, Ratramne de Corbie: Histoire littéraire et controversies doctrinales (Paris: Études Augustiniennes, 1976); Timothy R. LeCroy, “The Role of Corpus in the Eucharistic Theology of Paschasius Radbertus” (Ph.D. diss., Saint Louis University, 2012).

37 Aquinas, Summa Theologiae, 59:11.

38 Ibid., 59:81 (III, 80, 11).

39 Ibid., 59:77 ( III, 80, 10); Dudley, Martin R., “Sacramental Liturgies in the Middle Ages,” in The Liturgy of the Medieval Church, eds. Heffernan, Thomas J. and Matter, E. Ann (Kalamazoo, Mich.: Medieval Institute Publications, 2001), 227228.

40 Bynum, Wonderful Blood, 87. See also Jungmann, Joseph, The Mass of the Roman Rite: Its Origins and Development (New York: Benzinger, 1951, 1955), 1:119–121, 2:206–212.

41 Ibid., 86–96, 138–141, 174, 246–247; Evans, The Medieval Theologians, 178–180, 193, 219, cf. 74–75, 81, 87.

42 Lehnertz, Marlies, “Vom hochmittelalterlichen katholischen Hymnus zum barocken evangelischen Kirchenlied: Paul Gerhardts ‘O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden’ und seine lateinische Vorlage, des ‘Salve caput cruentatum’ Arnulfs von Löwen” in Liturgie und Dichtung: Ein interdisziplinäres Kompendium I, Historische Präsentation, eds. Becker, H. and Kaczynski, R., eds (Erzabtei St. Ottilien, Germany: EOS, 1983), 755756. Cf. Axmacher, Elke, “O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden” in Liederkunde zum Evangelischen Gesangbuch, Hahn, Gerhard and Henkys, Jürgen (Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2004), 10:4149.

43 “Ist jemals ein wahrer, gottesfürchtiger und frommer Mönch gewesen, so war es St. Bernhard, den ich alleinviel höher halte, denn alle Mönche und Pfaffen auf dem ganzen Erdboden, und ich zwar seines gleichen auch sonst niemals weder gelesen noch gehört habe.” Author's translation, as in all subsequent. In Goltz, G[eorg] F[riedrich] G[ottlob], Ausführliche Erklärung einiger der vorzüglichsten evangelischen Kirchenlieder für Schule und Haus (Berlin: Th. Sherk, 1843), 129.

44 Reynolds, William Jensen, A Survey of Christian Hymnody (New York: Hold, Rinehard and Winston, 1963), 23.

45 Gross, Sven, Gott und das Leid in den Liedern Paul Gerhardts (Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2001), 240243. The later body parts in the order presented in the Latin poem and in Gerhardt's translation were among the first to be adapted: “To the Chest,” “Gegrüsset seist du, Gott mein Heil” in 1666 (Zahn, Johannes, Die Melodien der deutschen evangelischen Kirchenlider, Bd. 6 [Gütersloh, Germany: C. Bertelsmann, 1893], 226); “To the Heart,” “O Herz des Königs aller Welt” in 1666 (Gerhardt, Paul and Langbecker, Emanuel Christian Gottlieb, Leben und Lieder von Paulus Gerhardt [Berlin, Germany: E. C. G. Langbecker, 1841], 307). The earliest body parts in the order of the Latin poem were among the last to be adapted as hymns: “To the Feet, ” “Sei mir tausendmal gegrüsset” in 1759 (Vollständiges Marburger Gesang-Buch: zur Uebung der Gottseligkeit, in 615 christlichen und trostreichen Psalmen und Gesängen . . . . Martin Luthers (Neue und von Druckfehlern sorgfältig gereinigte Ausg.) [Philidelphia: Carl Cist, 1799], 196; “To the Hands,” “Sei wohl gegrüsset, guter Hirt” in 1759 (Vollständiges Marburger Gesang-Buch, 197); “To the Side,” “Ich grüsse dich, du frömmster Mann” in 1725 (Geistreiches neu vermehrtes berauisches Gesangbuch [Gera, Germany: Gottfried Wintern, 1725], 169). Georg Philipp Telemann adapted one stanza of “To the Knees,” “Gegrüsset seist du, meine Kron,” in 1746 as a chorale in one of his several passions based on the Gospel of Matthew (Telemann Matthäus-Passion 1746, orchestra and chorus dir. Hermann Max, Capriccio—Delta Music DDD 10 854).

46 Sheldrake, The New Westminster Dictionary of Christian Spirituality, s.v. “Lutheran Spirituality.”

47 “Ich umfange, herz und küsse / Der gekränkten Wunden Zahl / Und die purpurroten Flüsse, / Deine Füss' und Nägelmal.” Gerhardt, Paul, Dichtungen und Schriften (Munich: P. Müller, 1957), 59. Cf. Gerhardt, Dichtungen und Schriften, 61.

48 “Die Rosen, die / Ich mein allhie, / Sind deine Mal und Plagen, / Die dir am End / In deine Händ.” Gerhardt, Dichtungen und Schriften, 62.

49 “Du zahlst mit beiden Händen dar / Die edlen roten Gulden.” Gerhardt, Dichtungen und Schriften, 62.

50 “Du meines Heilands Seite, / Du edler Quell, aus welchem fleusst / Das Blut, das so viel Leute / Von ihren Sünden wäschet.” Gerhardt, Dichtungen und Schriften, 64.

51 Gerhardt, Dichtungen und Schriften, 64–65.

52 “ut te quaeram mente pura, / sit haec mea prima cura.” Mabillon and Migne, S. Bernardi, 1321–1322.

53 “So wirst du, Schönster, meinen Sinn / [. . .] ergötzen.” Gerhardt, Dichtungen und Schriften, 62.

54 “deines Kreuzes Herzeleid / Will ich in mein Herz schreiben.” Gerhardt, Dichtungen und Schriften, 62.

55 “Lass deine Flamm und starke Glut / Durch all mein Herze, Geist und Mut / Mit allen Kräften dringen.” Gerhardt, Dichtungen und Schriften, 68.

56 “Verwund auch mich, o süsses Heil, / Und triff mein Herz mit deinem Pfeil, / Wie du verwundet worden.” Gerhardt, Dichtungen und Schriften, 69.

57 Luther, Martin, Lull, Timothy F., and Russell, William R., Martin Luther's Basic Theological Writings (Minneapolis, Minn.: Fortress, 2005), 19.

58 “der du selbst gebüsset / Das, womit ich dich betrübt.” Gerhardt, Dichtungen und Schriften, 59.

59 “Verleihe du nur Kraft und Macht, / Damit, was ich bei mir bedacht, / Ich mög ins Werk auch setzen.” Gerhardt, Dichtungen und Schriften, 62.

60 “non est labor, nec gravabor / sed sanabor et mundabor, / cum te complexus fuero.” Mabillon and Migne, S. Bernardi, 1321–1322.

61 “Du weites Tor der Gnaden.” Gerhardt, Dichtungen und Schriften, 64.

62 Gerhardt, Dichtungen und Schriften, 69.

63 Ibid., 69–70.

64 “Wie bist du so bespeit! ” Gerhardt, Dichtungen und Schriften, 70.

65 “Wie bist du so erbleichet! ” Gerhardt, Dichtungen und Schriften, 70.

66 Becker et al., Geistliches Wunderhorn, 283.

67 “Himmelslust.” Gerhardt, Dichtungen und Schriften, 71.

68 “mütterlich,” Axmacher in Hahn and Henkys, Liederkunde zum Evangelischen Gesangbuch, 10:44.

69 Hewitt, Theodore Brown, Paul Gerhardt as a Hymn Writer and his Influence on English Hymnody (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Christian Classics Ethereal Library, [1918]), 152.

70 von Bassewitz, Gert and Bunners, Christian, Auf Paul Gerhardts Spuren (Hamburg: Ellert & Richter, 1997), 67.

71 Bunners, Christian, “Paul Gerhardt (1607–1676),” in Lindberg, Carter, ed., The Pietist Theologians: An Introduction to Theology in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries (Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 2005), 6883.

72 Lund, Eric, ed., Seventeenth-Century Lutheran Meditations and Hymns (New York: Paulist, 2011), 1213.

73 Ibid., 13. For example, in Johann Gerhard's explanation of the ends of the eucharist, he cited Athanasius, Augustine, Chrysostom, Cyprian, Ambrose, John of Damascus, Hilary of Poitiers, Cyril of Alexandria, Cyril of Jerusalem, Ignatius of Antioch, and Irenaeus, among others, in addition to Luther, Melanchthon, Chemnitz, and Balthasar Mentzer the Elder. Gerhard, Johann, Locorum Theologicorum, ed. Cotta, Johann Friderich (Tubingen: Johann Georg Cotta, 1769), 10:363371.

74 Hesselbacher, Karl, Paul Gerhardt: Sein Leben—seine Lieder (Neukirchen-Vluyn, Germany: Aussat, 1997), 8199.

75 Formula of Concord, Solid Declaration, article VII, paragraph 35. Kolb, Robert and Wengert, Timothy J., eds., The Book of Concord: The Confessions of the Evangelical Lutheran Church (Minneapolis, Minn.: Fortress, 2000), 467. Cf. Luther, Martin, Luther's Small Catechism with Explanation (St. Louis, Mo.: Concordia, 1991), 231.

76 Luther, Luther's Small Catechism with Explanation, 29.

77 “Cum enim ipsius Filii Dei promprium corpus in mortem pro nobis traditum, et ipsius proprium sanguinem in ara cruces pro peccatis nostris effusum in sacra coena accipiamus, ex eo facile adparet, Omnia, quaecunque Christus traditione sui corporis et effusione sui sanguinis promeruit, in salutari hujus sacramenti usu nobis adplicari, conferri et obsignari” (§ CCXI). Gerhard, Locorum Theologicorum, 10:364.

78 § CCXIII. Gerhard, Locorum Theologicorum, 10:371.

79 Braaten, Carl E., Principles of Lutheran Theology (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1983), 91–92.

80 Erb, Jörg, Paul Gerhard und seine Lieder (Lahr, Germany: St.-Johannis-Druckerei, 1994), 99.

81 Becker et al., Geistliches Wunderhorn, 277.

82 Ibid., 276.

83 Bunners, Christian, Paul Gerhardt: Weg—Werk—Wirkung (Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2006), 216.

84 For the medieval Latin source text for Figure 1, see: Mabillon, D. Joannis and Migne, Jacques-Paul, eds., Patrologiae Latinae (Paris: Ramos, 1862), 184:13191324. For the German source text, see: Gerhardt, Paul, Geistliche Lieder (Berlin: Mylius'schen Buchhandlung, 1838), 2830. For the Alexander English translation, see: Alexander, James Waddell, The Breaking Crucible: And other Translations of German Hymns (New York: Randolph, 1861), 710.

85 Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910 edition, s.v. “Alexander, Joseph Addison.”

86 Alexander, James W., Forty Years' Familiar Letters, ed. Hall, John (New York: Charles Scribner & Co., 1870), 121, 116, 115, v-vi.

87 Ibid., 151. Hall points to Schaff's inclusion of Alexander's translation in his 1859 Mercersburg Review, but it had actually already appeared in Schaff's 1849 Deutsche Kirchenfreund. Duffield, Samuel Willoughby, English Hymns: Their Authors and History (New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1886), 430.

88 Alexander, James Waddell, The Breaking Crucible: And other Translations of German Hymns (New York: Randolph, 1861), 710.

89 Ibid., 7.

90 Ibid., 7–8.

91 Ibid., 8–9.

92 I am indebted to Ansgar Franz for making this point regarding Gerhardt in Becker et al., Geistliches Wunderhorn, 284–285, 290; Alexander, The Breaking Crucible, 9.

93 Ibid., 9–10.

94 Cameron, Euan, The European Reformation (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), 188194.

95 Chapter XXIX, 7. The Westminster Confession of Faith (Lawrenceville, Georgia: The Committee for Christian Education & Publications, Presbyterian Church in America, 1990), 93.

96 Lane, Belden C., Ravished by Beauty: The Surprising Legacy of Reformed Spirituality (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), 24, 100, 113114.

97 Calvin, John, Institutes of the Christian Religion (Louisville, Ky.: Westminster John Knox, 1960), 464, 494; Berkhof, Louis, Systematic Theology (Edinburgh, Scotland: The Banner of Truth Trust, 2000), 357, 362, 401, 406.

98 Lane, Ravished by Beauty, 192.

99 Marsden, George M., The Evangelical Mind and the New School Presbyterian Experience: A Case Study of Thought and Theology in Nineteenth-Century America (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1970), 3158.

100 Ibid.

101 Blumhofer, Edith L. and Noll, Mark A., eds., Singing the Lord's Song in a Strange Land: Hymnody in the History of North American Protestantism (Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press, 2004), 45.

102 Extracts from the Minutes of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, A.D. 1802 (Philadelphia, Pa.: R. Aitken, 1802), 6; Foote, Henry Wilder, Three Centuries of American Hymnody (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1940), 210.

103 Foote, Three Centuries of American Hymnody, 210.

104 Committee for Christian Education and Publications, ed., The Westminster Confession of Faith (Lawrenceville, Georgia: Stated Clerk of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in America, 1990), 68.

105 Marsden, The Evangelical, x.

106 Moore, William E. and Roberts, William H., eds., The Presbyterian Digest of 1907: A Compend of the Acts, Decisions, and Deliverances of the General Presbytery, General Synod, and General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, 1706–1906 (Philadelphia, Pa.: Presbyterian Board of Publication and Sabbath-School Work, 1907), vi; Foote, Three Centuries of American Hymnody, 210–11.

107 Foote, Three Centuries of American Hymnody, 210–11.

108 Duffield, Samuel Willoughby, The Latin Hyman-Writers and Their Hymns (New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1889), 193; Brawley, Benjamin, History of the English Hymn (New York: Abingdon, 1932), 27.

109 Leavitt, Joshua, ed., The Christian Lyre (Boston: Crocker and Brewster, 1839), 197.

110 Reynolds, William Jensen, A Survey of Christian Hymnody (New York: Hold, Rinehard and Winston, 1963), 92. Cf. Bucke, Emory Stevens, ed., Companion to the Hymnal: A Handbook to the United Methodist Book of Hymns (Nashville, Ky.: Abingdon, 1982), 333.

111 Hatch, Nathan O., The Democratization of American Christianity (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1989), 146161.

112 Hewitt, Paul Gerhardt as a Hymn Writer and His Influence on English Hymnody, 156.

113 Howard, I. E., arr., Hymns for Christians (London: Groombridge and Sons, c.1853), 90–91; Kelly, John, trans., Paul Gerhardt's Spiritual Songs (London: Alexander Strahan, 1867), 5962.

114 Savile, Bourchier Wrey, ed., Lyra Sacra: Being a Collection of Hymns Ancient and Modern, Odes and Fragments of Sacred Poetry (London: Longman, Gree, Longman, and Robert, 1861), 2223; Routley, Erik and Richardson, Paul A., eds., A Panorama of Christian Hymnody (Chicago: GIA, 2005), 194.

115 Hewitt, Paul Gerhardt as a Hymn Writer, 155.

116 Schaff, Philip and Gilman, Arthur, eds., A Library of Religious Poetry: A Collection of the Best Poems of All Ages and Tongues, with Biographical and Literary Notes (New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1885), 745746.

117 Münsterberg, Margarete, trans. and ed., A Harvest of German Verse (New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1916), 23.

118 Bunsen, Christian Karl Josias and Leighton, John, eds., Lyra Germanica: Hymns for the Sundays and Chief Festivals of the Christian Year, trans. Winkworth, Catherine (Boston: E. P. Dutton, 1862), 80; Hewitt, Paul Gerhardt as a Hymn Writer, 154.

119 Free Church of Scotland, General Assembly, Free Church Hymn Book (Edinburgh: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1882), 191193; Hewitt, Paul Gerhardt as a Hymn Writer, 154.

120 Higginson, J. Vincent, Handbook for American Catholic Hymnals (n.p.: The Hymn Society of America, 1976), 29; Curtin, Richard B. et al. , eds., The Catholic Hymnal and Service Book, Pew Edition (New York: Benziger, 1966), 28; The Pius X Hymnal (Boston: McLaughlin and Reilly, 1953), 233; Montani, Nicola A., ed., The St. Gregory Hymnal (Philadelphia: St. Gregory Guild, 1947), 29; The Basilian Fathers, ed., The New Saint Basil Hymnal (Cincinnati: Ralph Jusko, 1958), 41; The Basilian Fathers, ed., The “Gloria” Hymn-Book (New York: Benziger Brothers, 1933), 22; Young, J. B., ed., The Roman Hymnal: A Complete Manual of English Hymns and Latin Chants (New York: Fr. Pustet and Co., 1884), 168169; The Marist Brothers, American Catholic Hymnal (New York: P. J. Kennedy and Sons, 1914), 63; Montani, Nicola A., ed., The St. Gregory Hymnal and Catholic Choir Book (Philadelphia, Pa.: The St. Gregory Guild, 1922), 22; Our Parish Prays and Sings Hymnbook (Collegeville, Minn.: The Liturgical Press, 1971), 64.

121 Miles, Alfred Henry, ed., The Poets and the Poetry of the Nineteenth Century (London: George Routledge and Sons, 1907), 12:355; Schaff and Gilman, eds., A Library of Religious Poetry, 746.

122 Routley, Erik, ed., A Panorama of Christian Hymnody (Chicago: GIA, 2005), 194.

123 The Hymnal 1940 (New York: The Church Hymnary Corporation, 1940), #75; Hymnbook 1982 (New York: The Church Hymnal Corporation, 1985), #168, #169; The New English Hymnal (Norwich, U.K.: The Canterbury Press, 1986), #90.

124 Bucke, ed., Companion to the Hymnal, 333; The Armed Forces Chaplains Board, Book of Worship for United States Forces (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1974), #289; Bennet, Clifford A. and Hume, Paul, eds., Hymnal of Christian Unity (Toledo, Oh.: Gregorian Institute of America, 1964), #27; Rowthorn, Jeffrey and Schulz-Widmar, Russel, eds., A New Hymnal for Colleges and Schools (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1992), #259–260; Greater Commission Publications, The Trinity Hymnal (Suwanee, Ga.: Greater Commission Publications, 1990), #247; Fettke, Tom et al. , eds., The Hymnal for Worship and Celebration (Waco, Tex.: Word Music, 1986), #178. Even the Christian Lyre omitted verses 3 and 4, and offered a slightly different version of verse 9. Joshua Leavitt, ed., The Christian Lyre, #197.

125 The Service of Song for Baptist Churches (New York: Sheldon, 1875), #253; Free Will Baptist Hymn Book (Nashville, Tenn.: National Association of Free Will Baptists), #151; Baptist Hymnal (Nashville, Tenn.: Convention, 1975), #105; Townsend, A. M., ed., The Baptist Standard Hymnal (Nashville, Tenn.: Sunday School Publishing Board, 1973), #94, #95; The New Broadman Hymnal (Nashville, Tenn.: Broadman, 1977), #105; The New National Baptist Hymnal (Nashville, Tennessee: National Baptist Publishing Board, 1977), #73. The hymn is noticeably absent from Boyd, R. H., ed., The National Baptist Hymn Book (Nashville, Tenn.: National Baptist Publishing Board, 1905).

126 A.M.E. Hymnal (N.P.: The A.M.E. Sunday School Union, 1954), #113; The A.M.E.C. Bicentennial Hymnal (Nashville, Tenn.: The African Methodist Episcopal Church, 1984), #133; The Mennonite Hymnal (Scottdale, Pa.: Herald, 1969), #159; The Presbyterian Hymnal (Louisville, Ky.: Westminster John Knox, 1990), #98; Orthodox Presbyterian Church and Presbyterian Church in America, Trinity Hymnal (Suwanee, Ga.: Great Commission, 2004), #247; The Seventh-Day Adventist Hymnal (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald, 1985), #156; Psalter Hymnal (Grand Rapids, Mich.: CRC Publications, 1987), #383; The Hymnal: Containing Complete Orders of Worship (St. Louis, Mo.: Eden, 1941), #142; International Conference Hymnal (Wheaton, Ill.: World Evangelical Fellowship, 1986), #55; Christian Youth Hymnal (Philadelphia, Pa.: Muhlenberg, 1948), 2829; The Armed Forces Chaplains Board, Book of Worship for United States Forces, #296; Tom Fettke et al., The Hymnal for Worship and Celebration, #178; The Worshipping Church: A Hymnal (Carol Stream, Ill.: Hope, 1990), #221; Rowthorn and Schulz-Widmar, A New Hymnal for Colleges and Schools, #259, #260; Howard, Alton H., ed., Sons of Faith and Praise (West Monroe, La.: Howard, 1998), #318.

127 Chalice Hymnal (St. Louis, Mo.: Chalice, 2007), #202; The Covenant Hymnal (Chicago: Covenant, 1973), #197; Hymnal of the Methodist Episcopal Church (New York: Eaton and Mains, 1878), #222; Hymns and Psalms: A Methodist and Ecumenical Hymn Book (London: Methodist Publishing House, 1983), #176; The United Methodist Hymnal (Nashville, Tenn.: The United Methodist Publishing House, 1989), #286.

128 Hymnal and Liturgies of the Moravian Church (Elk Grove, Ill.: The Provincial Synods of the Moravian Church in America, 1969), #124; Moravian Book of Worship (Bethlehem, Pa.: Moravian Church in America, 1992), #345.

129 The United Lutheran Church in America, Common Service Book of the Lutheran Church (Philadelphia, Pa.: The Board of Publications of the United Lutheran Church in America, 1918), #99; The Evangelical Lutheran Augustana Synod, The Hymnal and Order of Service (Rock Island, Ill.: Augustana Book Concern, 1930), 113114; The Evangelical Lutheran Synodical Conference of North America, The Lutheran Hymnal (St. Louis, Mo.: Concordia, 1941), #172; The Commission on the Liturgy and the Commission on the Hymnal, Service Book and Hymnal of the Lutheran Church in America (Minneapolis, Minn.: Augsburg, 1958), #88; Inter-Lutheran Commission on Worship, Lutheran Book of Worship (Minneapolis, Minn.: Augsburg, 1978), #116, #117; The Commission on Worship of the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod, Lutheran Worship (St. Louis, Mo.: Concordia, 1982), #113.

130 Long, Edwin McKean, Illustrated History of Hymns and Their Authors (Philadelphia: Joseph F. Jaggers, 1875), 498; Bedell, Edwin A., ed., The Church Hymnary: A Collection of Hymns and Tunes for Public Worship (New York: Maynard, Merrill, & Co., 1899), 206; Costen, Melva Wilson, In Spirit and in Truth: The Music of African American Worship (Louisville, Ky.: Westminster John Knox, 2004), 81; McNeil, W. K., ed., Encyclopedia of American Gospel Music (New York: Routledge, 2005), 188; The Seventh-Day Adventist Hymnal (Unknown: Review and Herald, 2006), 294; Cox, James William, The Minister's Manual (San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1994), 8; cf. Fettke, The Hymnal for Worship and Celebration, 190–196.

131 Kuryluk, Ewa, Veronica and Her Cloth: History, Symbolism, and Structure of a “True” Image (Cambridge, Mass.: Basil Blackwell, 1991), 1–2, 130142.

132 Hewitt, Paul Gerhardt as a Hymn Writer, 154.

133 World Evangelical Fellowship, International Conference Hymnal, #55d; “Historia,” Fundación Federico Fliedner, http://www.fliedner.es/index.php/fff/es/fundacion_historia.

134 Guàrdia, Jordi, Lligadas, Josep, and Viñas, Albert Taulé, eds., Cantoral de Misa Dominical (Barcelona, Spain: Centre de Pastoral Litúrgica, 2006), #338, p. 436.

135 World Evangelical Fellowship, International Conference Hymnal, #55c.

136 Hymns of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (Salt Lake City, Utah: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, 1985), #197; Davidson, Karen Lynn, Our Latter-Day Hymns: Their Stories and the Messages (Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret, 1988), 210.

The author would especially like to thank Clarence H. Miller and Alden Bass of Saint Louis University for their assistance in his preparation of this article.

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Church History
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