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Presbyterianism and the American Revolution in the Middle Colonies1

  • Joseph S. Tiedemann (a1)


After the Revolution, Thomas Jones, an embittered loyalist exile, identified the culprits he deemed responsible for the rebellion in New York: the Whig “triumvirate” of Presbyterians—William Livingston, William Smith, and John Morin Scott. Jones averred that in the Independent Reflector (1752–53) and Watch Tower (1754–55), which they authored, “the established Church was abused, Monarchy derided, Episcopacy reprobated, and republicanism held up, as the best existing form of government.” The three wrote “with a rancor, a malevolence, and an acrimony, not to be equaled but by the descendants of those presbyterian and repulblican fanatics, whose ancestors had in the preceding century brought their Sovereign to the block, subverted the best constitution in the world, and upon its ruins erected presbyterianism, republicanism, and hypocrisy.”



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2. Jones, Thomas, History of New York during the Revolutionary War and of the Leading Events in Other Colonies at the Period, ed. Edward Floyd De, Lancey, 2 vols. (New York: New York Times and Arno, 1968), 1:5, 13, 2021, 46, 149; 2:291, n. 1; the quote is on page 6. For the Whig “triumvirate,” see Dillon, Dorothy R., The New York Triumvirate: A Study of the Legal and Political Careers of William Livingston, John Morin Scott, and William Smith, Jr. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1949).

3. Galloway, Joseph, Historical and Political Reflections on the Rise and Progress of the American Rebellion, ed. Merrill, Jensen (New York: Johnson Reprint, 1972), 66, 54, 47, 15.

4. Witherspoon, John, The dominion of Providence over the passions of men. A sermon preached at Princeton, on the 17th of May, 1776. Being the general fast appointed by the Congress …. To which is added, an address to the natives of Scotland residing in America (Philadelphia, 1776), Early American Imprints, 1639–1800, ed. American Antiquarian Society (New York: Readex Microprint, 19811982), No. 15224 (hereafter cited as Early American Imprints); the quotes are from pages 40, 51, 55, 60. For John Witherspoon's participation in the Revolution, see Green, Ashbel, The Life of the Reverend John Witherspoon: with a Brief Revieiw of His Writings: and a Summary Estimate of His Character and Talents, ed. Henry Lyttleton, Savage (n.p., 1973), chap. 6; Collins, Varnum Lansing, President Witherspoon (New York: Arno, 1969), chaps. 5, 6.

5. Butler, Jon, Awash in a Sea of Faith: Christianizing the American People (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1990), 194224 (the quotes are from pages 195, 196); and Butler, , Becoming America: The Revolution before 1776 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2000), 242–45. Miller, Howard, The Revolutionary College: American Presbyterian Higher Education, 1707–1837 (New York: New York University Press, 1976), xix. Jonathan Clark denies that the Revolution “was solely a product of secular and constitutional impulses”; Clark, Jonathan, “The American Revolution: A War of Religion?History Today 39 (12 1989): 1016; the quote is on page 10. Clark, J. C. D., The Language of Liberty: Political Discourse and Social Dynamics in the Anglo-American World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).

6. Trinterud, Leonard J., The Forming of an American Tradition: A Re-examination of Colonial Presbyterianism (Philadelphia, Penn.: Westminster, 1949), 122–34; Kammen, Michael, Colonial New York: A History (New York: Scribner, 1975), 238; Leyburn, James G., “Presbyterian Immigrants and the Revolution,” Journal of Presbyterian History 54 (spring 1976): 917; Bonomi, Patricia U., Under the Cope of Heaven: Religion, Society, and Politics in Colonial America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 134; and Butler, , Religion in Colonial America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 54. Stark, Rodney and Finke, Roger, “American Religion in 1776: A Statistical Portrait,” Sociological Analysis 49 (03 1988): 47.

7. The quote is from Noll, Mark A., The Old Religion in a New World: The History of North American Christianity (Grand Rapids, Mich.: William B. Eerdmans, 2002), 51. Noll, , Protestants in America (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 52; Bonomi, , Cope of Heaven, 139–49; Handy, Robert T., “John Rodgers, 1727–1811: ‘A Life of Usefulness on Earth’,” Journal of Presbyterian History 34 (summer 1956): 71; and Nybakken, Elizabeth I., “New Light on the Old Side: Irish Influences on Colonial Presbyterianism,” Journal of American History 68 (03 1982): 813–32.

8. Livingston, William and others, The Independent Reflector, ed. Klein, Milton M. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1963), 3637, 44 (hereafter cited as Independent Reflector); Buxbaum, Melvin H., Benjamin Franklin and the Zealous Presbyterians (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1975), 183; and Myles Cooper to Jonathan Boucher, 22 March 1770, George Washington Papers at the Library of Congress, 1741–99. ( (Aug. 23, 2004).

9. Watch-Tower, , New York Mercury, 7 04–15 07 1753; Bridenbaugh, Carl, Mitre and Sceptre: Transatlantic Faiths, Ideas, Personalities, and Politics, 1689–1775 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1962), 164; and Tiedemann, Joseph S., Reluctant Revolutionaries: New York City and the Road to Independence (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1997), 3537.

10. Bockelman, Wayne L. and Ireland, Owen S., “The Internal Revolution in Pennsylvania: An Ethnic-Religious Interpretation,” Pennsylvania History 41 (04 1974): 125–59; the quotes are on pages 125, 156. Foster, Joseph S., In Pursuit of Equal Liberty: George Bryan and the Revolution in Pennsylvania (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1994), 3557; Buxbaum, , Franklin and Presbyterians, 160–63; and Bonomi, , Cope of Heaven, 168–71. For the role Pennsylvania Presbyterians played in the Revolution, see Ousterhout, Anne M., A State Divided: Opposition in Pennsylvania to the American Revolution (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1987), 310. For an alternate perspective on Pennsylvania Presbyterians, see Tully, Alan W., “Ethnicity, Religion, and Politics in Early America,” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 107 (10 1983): 491536.

11. Kemmerer, Donald L., Path to Freedom: The Struggle for Self-Government in Colonial Neiv Jersey (Cos Cob, Conn.: J. E. Edwards, 1968), 196202; Pomfret, John E., Colonial New Jersey: A History (New York: Scribner, 1973), 158–59, 161–63; and Murray, Nicholas, Notes Historical and Biographical Concerning Elizabeth-town, Its Eminent Men, Churches, and Ministers (New York: Columbia University Press, 1941), 112.

12. Olson, Alison B., “The Founding of Princeton University: Religion and Politics in Eighteenth-Century New Jersey,” New Jersey History 87 (fall 1969): 133–50; Wertenbaker, Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, 1746–1896 (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1946), 2527. Interestingly, Thomas Bradbury Chandler, a prominent Church-of-England and crown apologist, was pastor of the Elizabethtown Anglican Church; McLachlan, James, Princetonians, 1748–1768: A Biographical Dictionary (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1976), 261.

13. William Franklin to Benjamin Franklin, 7 September 1765, Tl/442, 345–46, Public Records Office, Great Britain. New England Congregationalists and Middle-Colony Presbyterians were close in theology but unlike in organization. If a church-going New England Congregationalist family migrated to the Middle Colonies, it would likely worship in a Presbyterian Church. Consequently, the terms used to refer to these two groups were imprecise and inconsistent. New England Congregationalists were often called “Independents,” “Presbyterians,” or “Dissenters”; and Middle-Colony Presbyterians, “Independents” or “Dissenters.” Depending upon context, the term “Independent” might refer to a Dissenter, a Congregationalist, or a Presbyterian.

14. Hughes, John to Franklin, Benjamin, [8–17 September 1765], in The Papers of Benjamin Franklin, ed. Labaree, Leonard W. and Willcox, William B., 29 vols. (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1959–), 12:264–65.

15. “Z” to Printer, New York Gazette and Weekly Mercury, 25 April 1768. The quote is from Trinterud, Forming an American Tradition, 240. Cadwallader Colden to Lord Hillsborough, 21 February 1770, in The Colden Letter Books, 2 vols., New-York Historical Society, Collections, vols. 9–10 (New York: Printed for the Society, 1877–78), 2:211. Clergy of New York and New Jersey to Hillsborough, 12 October 1771, in Documents of the American Revolution, 1770–1783 (Colonial Office Series), ed. Davies, K. G., 25 vols. (Shannon: Irish University Press, 1972–), 3:210.

16. Extract of a Letter from New York, 31 May 1774, New York Journal, 25 August 1774 (Supplement). [Thomas Bradbury Chandler], A friendly address to all reasonable Americans … (New-York, 1774), Early American Imprints, No. 13224; the quote is on page 32. Rivington's Gazette, 9 March 1775. Hancock, Harold, “The Kent County Loyalists,” Delaware History 6 (03 1954): 122–23. Charles Inglis to Dr. Hind, 31 October 1776, in The Documentary History of the State of New York, ed. O'Callaghan, Edmund B., 4 vols. (Albany, N.Y.: Weed, Parsons, 1850), 3:1051. The last quote is from Leyburn, James G., The Scotch Irish: A Social History (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1962), 305.

17. Ambrose Searle to Dartmouth, 8 November 1776, 25 April 1777, in Facsimiles of Manuscripts in European Archives Relating to America, 1773–1783, ed. Stevens, B. F., 25 vols. (London: Malby and Sons, 18891898), 24: Nos. 2045, 2057.

18. Synod of New York and Philadelphia, A pastoral letter from the Synod of New-York and Philadelphia … to be read … on Thursday June 29, 1775, being the day of the general fast (New-York, 1775), Early American Imprints, No. 14410; the quotes are on pages 5–7. For a contrary interpretation of this address, see Butler, , Awash in a Sea of Faith, 203–4. John Adams to Abigail Adams, 11 June 1775; North Carolina Delegates to Presbyterian Ministers of Philadelphia, [3–8? July 1775], in Letters of Delegates to Congress, 1774–1789, ed. Smith, Paul H. and others, 26 vols. (Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 19761992), 1:575–76, 479; hereafter cited as Letters of Delegates.

19. Carmichael, John, A self-defensive war lawful, proved in a sermon, preached at Lancaster, before Captain Ross's company of militia, in the Presbyterian Church, on … June 4th, 1775 (Philadelphia, 1775), Early American Imprints, No. 13862; the quotes are on pages 5, 12. Montgomery, Joseph, A sermon, preached at Christiana Bridge and Newcastle, the 20th of July, 1775. Being the day appointed by the Continental Congress, as a day of fasting … (Philadelphia, 1775), Early American Imprints, No. 14261; the quotes are on pages 10–11, 26–27. For Samuel Blair, Carmichael, Montgomery, William Woodhull, and John Rosbrugh respectively, see McLachlan, , Princetonians, 305, 264–66, 144–47, 475–76, 358. Ketteltas, Abraham, God arising and pleading his people's cause; or The American war in favor of liberty … shewn to be the cause of God: in a sermon preached October 5th, 1777 … in the Presbyterian church in Newbury-Port (Newburyport, 1777), Early American Imprints, No. 15378, 30.

20. An Address of the Presbyterian ministers, of the city of Philadelphia, to the ministers and Presbyterian congregations … in North-Carolina (Philadelphia, 1775), Early American Imprints, No. 14411; the quote is on page 3; North Carolina Delegates to the Presbyterian Ministers of Philadelphia, [3–8? July 1775], Joseph Hewes to Samuel Johnson, 8 July 1775, in Letters of Delegates, 1:575, 613. In North Carolina, the Highlanders typically became Loyalists; and the Scots Irish, Patriots; Leyburn, Scotch Irish, 252–54.

21. McLachlan, , Princetonians, 196, 250; Trinterud, , Forming an American Tradition, 244–45; and Letters of Delegates, 2:461, n. 2; 3:28.

22. The first, second, and fourth John Witherspoon quotes are from Witherspoon, , Dominion of Providence, 44, 60, 67; “Aristides,” Pennsylvania Packet, 13 May 1776. A Friend of American Liberty [Jacob Green], Observations: On the Reconciliation of Great-Britain and the Colonies (New-York, 1776), Early American Imprints, No. 14790; Noll, Mark A., “Observations on the Reconciliation of Politics and Religion in Revolutionary New Jersey: The Case of Jacob Greene,” Journal of Presbyterian History 54 (summer 1976): 217–37; and Gerlach, Larry R., Prologue to Independence: New Jersey in the Coming of the American Revolution (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1976), 324–35, 331, 340. Peter, Force, ed., American Archives … A Documentary History of … the North American Colonies, 5th ser., 3 vols. (New York: Johnson Reprint, 1972), 2:931, 964.

23. Trinterud, , Forming an American Tradition, 242. DeLevie, Dagobert, “Patriotic Activity of Calvinists and Lutheran Clergymen during the American Revolution,” Lutheran Quarterly 8 (11 1956): 319–40; the quote is on page 327. Munroe, John A., History of Delaware (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1993), 61. Also see Kramer, Leonard J., “Presbyterians Approach the American Revolution,” Journal of the Presbyterian Historical Society 31 (03 1953): 7186, 167–80; Kramer, , “Muskets in the Pulpit, 1776–1783,” Journal of the Presbyterian Historical Society 31,32 (12 1953, 03 1954): 229–44, 3752; Baker, Donald, “Charles Wesley and the American War for Independence,” Methodist History 5 (10 1966): 537; and Gerlach, , Prologue to Independence, 354.

24. Tiedemann, Joseph S., “Response to Revolution: Queens County, New York, during the Era of the American Revolution” (Ph.D. diss., City University of New York, 1977), 4553, 236–42. Powell, Jonathan, “Presbyterian Loyalists: A ‘Chain of Interest’ in Philadelphia,” journal of Presbyterian history 57 (summer 1979): 135–60; the quote is on page 152. Ousterhout, State Divided, 310. The first Jon Butler quote is from Butler, Religion in Colonial America, 125; the second, from Butler, Awash in a Sea of Faith, 203.

25. Heimert, Alan, Religion and the American Mind, from the Great Awakening to the Revolution (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1966); the quotes are on pages ix, viii.

26. Nybakken, Elizabeth I., ed., The Centinel: Warnings of a Revolution (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1980), 2023; the quote is on page 22. Miller, Kerby A. and others, Irish Immigrants in the Land of Canaan: Letters and Memoirs from Colonial and Revolutionary America, 1675–1815 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), 510–21. For Bryan's career, see Foster, , In Pursuit of Equal Liberty.

27. Jones, History, ed. De Lancey, 1:4.

28. Milton Klein's quotes are from Independent Reflector, 290–91, n. 3; 403, n. 2. Mulder, John M., “William Livingston: Propagandist against Episcopacy,journal of Presbyterian History 54 (spring 1976): 83104; the quote is on pages 8384.

29. The first two quotes are from Smith, William Jr., The History of the Province of New York, ed. Michael, Kammen, 2 vols. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1972), 1:xxx, xvii; the last, from Smith, William Jr., Historical Memoirs of William Smith, Historian of the Province of New York, Member of the Governor's Council, and Late Chief justice of That Province under the Crown, Chief Justice of Quebec, ed. Sabine, William H. W., 2 vols. (New York: New York Times and Arnos, 1969), 2:278.

30. Smith, Memoirs, ed. Sabine, 1:1; Mulder, , “William Livingston,” 8485; Jones, History, ed. De Lancey, 1:liii-liv, 138, 306 (the quote is from page 309, n. 1).

31. Rhoden, Nancy L., Revolutionary Anglicanism: The Colonial Church of English Clergy During the American Revolution (New York: New York University Press, 1999), 72. Beach, John, A friendly expostulation, with all persons concern'd in publishing a late pamphlet, entitled, The real advantages which ministers and people may enjoy … by conforming to the Church of England (New York, 1763), Early American Imprints, No. 9336, 20. Inglis, Charles, The duty of honouring the King, explained … in a sermon, preached … on Sunday, January 30, 1780; being the anniversary of the martyrdom of King Charles I (New York, 1780), Early American Imprints, No. 16810. Lee, Charles, Strictures on a pamphlet, entitled, a “Friendly address to all reasonable Americans, …” Addressed to the people of America (Philadelphia, 1774), in Lee, Charles, The Lee Papers, 4 vols., New-York Historical Society, Collections (New York: Printed for the Society, 18721875) 1:153–54. Independent Reflector, 287.

32. Philo-Libertatis, [Isaac Hunt], A Looking-Glass for Presbyterians. Or a Brief Examination of Their Loyalty, Merits, and Other Qualifications for Government. With Some Animadversions on the Quaker Unmask'd, in The Paxton Papers, ed. Dunbar, John R. (The Hague: M. Nijhoff, 1957), 246; Plain Truth in a few Words (New York, 1768), Early American Imprints, No. 11046; A Wonderful dream. The following dream, &c. publish'd near 20 years ago, is now re-printed by particular desire [New York, 1770], Early American Imprints, No. 11791.

33. The first quote is from “A North American” [Chandler, Thomas Bradbury], The American querist: or, Some questions proposed relative to the present disputes ([New York], 1774), Early American Imprints, No. 13220, 13; the second, from [Chandler], Friendly address, 32, 29; the third, from [?Myles Cooper], The Patriots of North-America: a sketch (New York, 1775), Early American Imprints, No. 14359, 17; and the last, from Hutson, James H., Religion and the Forming of the American Republic (Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1998), 42. Hugh Finlay to his brother-in-law Ingram, 29 May 1775, in Documents, ed. Davies, 9:147. Baker, , “Charles Wesley,” 10.

34. Montgomery, , Sermon, 2324. The Enoch Green quote is from Griffin, Keith L., Revolution and Religion and the Reformed Clergy (New York: Paragon House, 1993), 5758. Hahn, Harold M., “Oliver Cromwell—Beaver's Prize,” Nautical Research Journal 23 (winter 1977): 167–87. Harrison, Richard A., Princetonians, 1769–1775: A Biographical Dictionary (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1980), 26.

35. Rhoden, , Revolutionary Anglicanism, 73; Tiedemann, , Reluctant Revolutionaries, 208–10; Clark, , Language of Liberty, 166–67. The first two quotes are from Woolverton, John H., Colonial Anglicanism in North America (Detroit, Mich.: Wayne State University Press, 1984), 185–86. [Chandler], Friendly address, 5.

36. Seabury, Samuel, Letters of a Westchester Farmer, ed. Vance, Clarence H. (White Plains, N.Y.: Westchester Historical Society, 1930), 4348; the quote is on page 61. Inglis, , Duty of honouring the King, 12. Rhoden, , Revolutionary Anglicanism, 73, 8283.

37. [?Cooper], Patriots of North-America, 18.

38. Griffin, Revolution and Religion, chap. 1; the quotes are on pages 1, 13, 56. Noll, Mark A., A History of Christianity in the United States and Canada (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1992), 119. For a contrary view, see Butler, , Awash in a Sea of Faith, chap. 7.

39. Griffin, , Revolution and Religion, 2627. For covenant theology and the New England Puritans, see Noll, Mark A., America's God: From Jonathan Edwards to Abraham Lincoln (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), 3839. For covenant theology and the Revolution, see Hutson, , Religion and the Republic, 5354; Wald, Kenneth D., “Religion and Politics: Points of Contact,” in his Religion and Politics in the United States (New York: St. Martin's, 1987), 3940; and Davis, Derek H., Religion and the Continental Congress, 1774–1789: Contributions to Original Intent (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), chap. 3. Wise, John, A vindication of the government of New-England churches (Boston, 1772), Early American Imprints, No. 12626, 35.

40. Watch-Tower, No. 10, New York Mercury, 27 January 1755; quoted in Independent Reflector, 335, n. 4. Montgomery, , Sermon, 29. Ketteltas, , God Arising, 19. Smith, Robert, The Obligations of the Confederate States of North America to Praise God (Philadelphia, 1782), Early American Imprints, No. 17722, 33. Hutson, , Religion and the Republic, 43; Miller, , Revolutionary College, 44.

41. Address of the Presbyterian ministers, of Philadelphia, to the ministers and Presbyterian congregations, in North-Carolina, 4; Witherspoon, , Dominion of Providence, 44; Ketteltas, , God Arising, 25; Bonomi, , Cope of Heaven, 188. For the relationship between Presbyterian and Lockean thought, see Heimert, , Religion and the American Mind, 278–79, 537–40; Wood, Gordon, Creation of the American Republic (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1969), 118–19; Appleby, Joyce, “The Social Origins of American Revolutionary Ideology,” Journal of American History 64 (03 1978): 953; Kloppenberg, James T., “The Virtues of Liberalism: Christianity, Republicanism, and Ethics in Early American Political Discourse,” journal of American History 74 (06 1987): 933. For the joining of Protestant convictions and republicanism, see Noll, America's God, chaps. 4, 5. For the debate between “liberal” and “republican” historians of Early America, see Dienstag, Joshua Foa, “Between History and Nature: Social Contract Theory in Locke and the Founders,” Journal of Politics 58 (11 1996): 9851009, and Noll, , America's God, 447–51.

42. Gerlach, , Prologue to Independence, 214–15; the quote is from page 215. Haas, John Henry, “Caesar Rodney: Delaware's Prudent Engineer of Revolution” (Ph.D. diss., The Claremont Graduate School, 1994), 96, 16.

43. The first quote is from Bockelman and Ireland, “Internal Revolution in Pennsylvania,” 156. Rosemary S. Warden, “Chester County”; Owen S. Ireland, “Bucks County”; and Robert G. Crist, “Cumberland County,” in Beyond Philadelphia, ed. Frantz and Pencak, 4, 24, 118–19.

44. The quote is from Burrows, Edwin G. and Wallace, Mike, Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 220. Tiedemann, , “Response to Revolution,” 6971.

45. Papas, Phillip, “Richmond County, Staten Island,” in The Other New York: The American Revolution Beyond New York City, 1763–1787, ed. Tiedemann, Joseph S. and Fingerhut, Eugene R. (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2005), 84. Staudt, John G., “Suffolk County,” in The Other New York, ed. Tiedemann, and Fingerhut, , 70.

46. Potter, Janice, The Liberty We Seek: Loyalist Ideology in Colonial New York and Massachusetts (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1983), 1725; Circular Letter and Articles of Some Gentlemen of the Presbyterian Denomination in … Pennsylvania, Mar. 24, 1764, Pennsylvania Chronicle and Universal Advertiser, 14 September 1769; McLachlan, , Princetonians, 148–49; and Galloway, , Historical and Political Reflections, ed. Jensen, , 8485.

47. The quote is from Butler, , Becoming America, 68. For the Paxton Boys, see Hutson, James H., Pennsylvania Politics, 1746–1770: The Movement for Royal Government and Its Consequences (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1972), 3, 8485, 9294; Buxbaum, , Franklin and Presbyterians, 192–96; Trinterud, , Forming an American Tradition, 233–35; Hindle, Brooke, “The March of the Paxton Boys,” William and Mary Quarterly 3 (10 1946): 461–86; Crowley, John E., “The Paxton Disturbance and Ideas of Order in Pennsylvania Politics,” Pennsylvania History 37 (10 1970): 317–39; Martin, James K., “The Return of the Paxton Boys and the Historical State of the Pennsylvania Frontier, 1764–1774,” Pennsylvania History 38 (04 1971): 117–33; and Vaughan, Alden T., “Frontier Banditti and the Indians: The Paxton Boys' Legacy, 1763–1775,” Pennsylvania History 51 (12 1984): 129.

48. Foster, , In Pursuit of Equal Liberty, 4647; John Ewing's quotes are on page 47. Trinterud, , Forming an American Tradition, 154, 228; Buxbaum, , Franklin and Presbyterians, 155, 196, 199200, 211; Bokelman, and Ireland, , “Internal Revolution in Pennsylvania,” 140–41; Hutson, , Pennsylvania Politics, 154; Marietta, Jack D., The Reformation of American Quakerism, 1748–1783 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1984), 193; and McLachlan, , Princetonians, 51, 9598. [Franklin, Benjamin], Narrative of the late massacres, in … Lancaster County, of a number of Indians, friends of this province, by persons unknown [Philadelphia, 1764], Early American Imprints, No. 9667. For the anti-Paxton Boys literature, see A Native of Donegall, , The Paxton boys, a farce [Philadelphia, 1764], Early American Imprints, No. 9776; “Philo-Libertatis” [Hunt], Looking-glass for Presbyterians, Numb II, in Paxton Papers, ed. Dunbar, , 299316; “Christopher Gymnast,” The Paxtonaide …, Second Edition (Philadelphia, 1764), Early American Imprints, No. 9686; A Conference between the D—l [Devil] and Doctor D—e [Divine] [Philadelphia, 1764], Early American Imprints, No. 9617. For Presbyterian opposition to Benjamin Franklin's plan, see Williamson, Hugh, The plain dealer: or, A few remarks upon Quaker-politicks, and their attempts to change the government of Pennsylvania. Numb. I. (Philadelphia, 1764), Early American Imprints, No. 9875. Nybakken, ed., Centinel, 42–43, 56–57; Landsman, Ned C., Scotland and Its First American Colony, 1683–1765 (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1985), 164–65, 261–62.

49. “Philo-Libertatis” [Hunt], Looking-glass for Presbyterians, in Paxton Papers, ed. Dunbar, , 251; “Philo-Libertatis” [Hunt], Looking-Glass for Presbyterians, Numb II, in Paxton Papers, ed. Dunbar, , 301.

50. Samuel, Hazard, ed., Minutes of the Provincial Council of Pennsylvania, from the Organization to the Termination of the Proprietary Government, vol. 9 of Colonial Records of Pennsylvania, 16 vols. (Harrisburg, Penn: T. Fenn, 18511853), 126. A Dialogue, between Andrew Trueman, and Thomas Zealot; about the killing the Indians, in Paxton Papers, ed. Dunbar, 89.

51. Buxbaum, , Franklin and Presbyterians, 192, 194; Trinterud, , Forming an American Tradition, 232; Circular Letter and Articles of Some Gentlemen of the Presbyterian Denomination in … Pennsylvania, Mar. 24, 1764, in Pennsylvania Chronicle and Universal Advertiser, 14 September 1769; Newcomb, Benjamin H., Franklin and Galloway: A Political Partnership (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1972), 8485; Bonomi, , Cope of Heaven, 173–74; Galloway, , Historical and Political Reflections, ed. Jensen, , 4953; Schlenther, Boyd Stanley, Charles Thomson: A Patriot's Pursuit (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1990), 55; and The Substance, of a council held at Lancaster August the 28th 1764. By a committee of Presbyterian ministers and elders … of Pennsylvania, in order to settle the ensuing election of members for the Assembly ([Philadelphia,] 1764), Early American Imprints, No. 9848.

52. The quote is from William Allen to Thomas Penn, 21 October 1764, Thomas Perm Papers, 1729–1832, Reel 9, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (microfilm). Buxbaum, , Franklin and Presbyterians, 211; Muhlenberg, Henry Melchior, The Journals of Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, ed. Tappert, Theodore G. and Doberstein, John W., 3 vols. (Philadelphia: Muhlenberg, 19421958), 2:123. Marietta, , Reformation, 198, 206, 208; Hutson, , Pennsylvania Politics, 154, 210–11; Newcomb, , Franklin and Galloway, 8485; Coleman, John M., Thomas McKean: Forgotten Leader of the Revolution, (Rockaway, N.J.: American Faculty, 1975), 20; Ousterhout, , State Divided, 1921; and Olton, Charles S., Artisans for Independence: Philadelphia Merchants and the American Revolution (Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1975), 40.

53. Galloway, Joseph to Franklin, Benjamin, 27 September 1770, in Papers of Benjamin Franklin, ed. Labaree, and Willcox, , 17:228–29; Schlenther, , Thomson, 81; Ousterhout, , State Divided, 24, 29; and Newcomb, , Franklin and Galloway, 216.

54. Trinterud, , Forming an American Tradition, chap. 13; Bridenbaugh, , Mitre and Sceptre, chaps. 9, 10, 11; Mills, Frederick V. Sr., Bishops by Ballot: An Eighteenth-Century Ecclesiastical Revolution (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978), chap. 2; Rhoden, , Revolutionary Anglicanism, chap. 3; and Clark, , Language of Liberty, 174–75. For the probishop argument, see Chandler, Thomas Bradbury, An Appeal to the Public, in behalf of the Church of England in America (New-York, 1767), Early American Imprints, No. 10578.

55. Chandler's, Thomas Bradbury quote is from Arthur Lyon Cross, The American Episcopate and the American Colonies (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1924), 345. Clergy of New York and New Jersey to Hillsborough, 12 October 1771, in Documents, ed. Davies, 3:210. Rhoden, , Revolutionary Anglicanism, 5354, 58; Sosin, Jack M., “The Proposal in the Pre-Revolutionary Decade for Establishing Anglican Bishops in the Colonies,” Journal of Ecclesiastical History 13 (01 1962): 78.

56. William Livingston published the “The American Whig” in James Parker's New-York Gazette, or, The Weekly Post Boy (March 1768–July 1769). Samuel Seabury, Thomas Bradbury Chandler, and Charles Inglis retaliated with “Timothy Tickle, A Whip for the American Whig,” in Hugh Gaine's New-York Gazette and the Weekly Mercury (April 1768–July 1769). Their opponents countered with “Sir Isaac Foot's A Kick for the Whipper,” in Parker's New-York Gazette (May 1768–January 1770). In Philadelphia, “The Centinel” appeared in the Pennsylvania journal and Weekly Advertiser (March 1768–July 1768). Chandler reentered the fray with his The appeal defended: or, The proposed American episcopate vindicated (New-York, 1769); and The appeal farther defended (New-York, [1771]), Early American Imprints, Nos. 11203,12007. Klein, Milton M., The American Whig: William Livingston of New York (New York: Garland, 1993), 487–98; Potter, Janice, The Liberty We Seek, 7477; Rhoden, , Revolutionary Anglicanism, 40, 4748; Bridenbaugh, , Mitre and Sceptre, 296–99; and Centinel Number 1 (24 March 1768), in Centinel, ed. Nybakken, 85, 89.

57. Rhoden, , Revolutionary Anglicanism, 48; Centinel Number XVI (7 July 1768), in Centinel, ed. Nybakken, 171; Smith, Memoirs, ed. Sabine, 1:43; and Harrison, Princetonians, 185–91.

58. Jamaica's Presbyterian pastor, Matthias Burnet, Jr. (Princeton, 1769), who was installed in April 1775, attempted to remain neutral, but local Whigs considered him a Tory. He had married into a Loyalist family soon after his arrival, but he claimed he acted as he did to protect his church. Harrison, , Princetonians, 1113. Tiedemann, , “Response to Revolution,” 4041. The Ketteltas quote is from Jones, History, ed. De Lancey, 1:149.

59. New York Presbyterians also sought help from their co-religionists in Scotland; Presbyterian Church in New York to … the Assembly of the Church of Scotland, 18 March 1766, in Historical Manuscripts Commission (Great Britain), The Manuscripts of the Earl of Dartmouth, 2 (Fourteenth Report, Appendix, Pt. 10 [London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1895]), 38.

60. Bridenbaugh, , Mitre and Sceptre, 260–61; the quote is on page 260. For the information of the publick. As it has been asserted, in defiance of truth, that no application was ever made for an American bishop, the following extract from the introduction to Doctor Chandler's Appeal to the public, in behalf of the Church of England in America, it is thought will be of service [New York, 1768], Early American Imprints, No. 10898. Rhoden, , Revolutionary Anglicanism, 49. For a history of the Presbyterian quest for a charter, see “A Brief View of the State of Religious Liberty in the Colony of New York, read before the Reverend General Convention of Delegates from the Consociated Churches of Connecticut, and the Synod of New York and Philadelphia, met at Stanford Sept. 1, 1773,” in Massachusetts Historical Society Collections, 1:140–55. Petition of the Presbyterians to Gov. Henry Moore concerning a charter, 17 Feb. 1767, in Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New York, ed. O'Callaghan, Edmund B., 15 vols. (Albany, N.Y.: Weed, Parsons, 18531887), 3:303–4; [Rodgers, John], The Case of the Scotch Presbyterians, of the City of New-York (New-York, 1773), Early American Imprints, No. 12710; Franklin, Gov. William to Dartmouth, , 18 10 1773, in Archives of the State of New jersey, ed. Whitehead, William A. and others, 48 vols. (Newark, N.J.: Daily Journal, 18801949), 10:409; United Presbyterian Churches of New York to Dartmouth, 20 10 1773, in Historical Manuscripts Commission (Great Britain), Manuscripts of Dartmouth, 2:178; and Dartmouth, to Tryon, Gov. William, 4 May 1775, in Documents, ed. Davies, , 9:119–20.

61. Bridenbaugh, , Mitre and Sceptre, 271; Trinterud, , Forming an American Tradition, 238–39; Schlenther, , Thomson, 73; Handy, , “John Rodgers,” 72; and Illick, Joseph E., Colonial Pennsylvania: A History (New York: Scribner, 1976), 254.

62. Frost, J. William, A Perfect Freedom: Religious Liberty in Pennsylvania (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), 5253.

63. The quote is from Peter Van Schaack to Henry Van Schaack, 27 January 1769, Box 1, Misc. Mss., Hawks, New-York Historical Society, New York City. Tiedemann, , Reluctant Revolutionaries, 126–39; Trinterud, , Forming an American Tradition, 240. New-York, July 1769. Mr. printer, I send you the inclosed copy of a printed circular letter, and the articles of a certain society of dissenters in this city (New York, 1769); Reasons for the present glorious combination of the dissenters in this city, against the farther encroachments and stratagems of the Episcopalians (New York, 1769), Early American Imprints, Nos. 41988, 11436. All 10 Livingstonites elected in 1769 became Whigs; ten of the 17 De Lanceyites became Loyalists; 5 of the 7 De Lanceyite Whigs were Dissenters; Olson, James S., “The New York Assembly, the Politics of Religion, and the Origins of the American Revolution,” Historical Magazine of the Protestant Episcopal Church 43 (03 1974): 2223.

64. Klein, , American Whig, 471504; Cross, , American Episcopate, chaps. 8, 9; Bridenbaugh, , Mitre and Sceptre, chap. 10 (the quote is on page xx); Mills, , Bishops by Ballot, chap. 2; Bonomi, , Cope of Heaven, 199209; and Nybakken, ed., Centinel, 62, 72 (the first quote is on page 172; the second, on page 17). John Adams to Dr. Jeredidiah Morse, 2 December 1815, quoted in Rhoden, , Revolutionary Anglicanism, 37; the last quote is from page 63.

65. Synod of New York and Philadelphia, A pastoral letter, Early American Imprints, No. 14410; the quotes are on page 6.

66. Bonomi, Patricia U., “‘Hippocrates’ Twins': Religion and Politics in the American Revolution”, The History Teacher 29 (02 1996): 139, 141.

67. Miller, , Revolutionary College, xx; Lydekker, John Wolf, The Life and Letters of Charles Inglis, His Ministry in America and Consecration as First Colonial Bishop, from 1759 to 1787 (London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1936), 7172.

68. Miller, , Revolutionary College, 67, 79, 87, 101; the quote is from page 20. McLachlan, , Princetonians, xxii, 663–67.

69. McLachlan, , Princetonians, xx, 327, 409, 663–67; Humphrey, David C., From King's College to Columbia, 1746–1800 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1976), 97; Daniels, Bruce C., “College Students and Puritan Society: A Quantitative Profile of Yale Graduates in Colonial America,” Connecticut History 23 (04 1982): 3.

70. Noll, Mark A., Princeton and the Republic, 1768–1822: The Search for a Christian Enlightenment in the Era of Samuel Stanhope Smith (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1989), 50; Wertenbaker, Thomas Jefferson, Princeton, 1746–1896 (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1946), 48; McLachlan, , Princetonians, 663–67; Harrison, , Princetonians, xxxi, 541–50; Humphrey, , King's College, 140; and Daniels, , “College Students,” 1416.

71. For Reference Group Theory, see Hyman, Herbert H. and Eleanor, Singer, ed., Readings in Reference Group Theory and Research (New York: Free, 1968); Singer, Eleanor, “Reference Groups and Social Evaluations,” in Social Psychology: Sociological Perspectives, ed. Morris, Rosenberg and Turner, Ralph H. (New York: Basic Books, 1981), 6693; and “Role Theory,” in Encyclopedia of Sociology, ed. Borgatta, Edgar F. and Montgomery, Rhonda J. V. (New York: Macmillan, 2000), 2415–25.

72. Tiedemann, , “Response to Revolution,” 4652.

73. Independent Reflector, 201.

74. Smith, , Memoirs, ed. Sabine, , 1:8,67,73,76,102. Calhoon, Robert M., The Loyalist Perception and Other Essays (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1989), 1427. [Smith, William], The Candid Retrospect: or, The American War Examined, by Whig Principles (Charleston, 1780), Early American Imprints, No. 16728. New York Gazette, or, the Weekly Post Boy, 19 March 1770. Tiedemann, , Reluctant Revolutionaries, 150–53. [McDougall, Alexander], To the betrayed inhabitants of the city and colony of New-York … [New York, 1769], Early American Imprints, No. 11319; Champagne, Roger J., Alexander McDougall and the American Revolution in New York (Schenectady, N.Y.: New York State American Revolution Bicentennial Commission, 1975), 2021.

75. Independent Reflector, 135,139–40,227, n. 7; 299–304. The quote concerning Cadwallader Colden is in W[illiam] Smith to Horatio Gates, 22 November 1763, Horatio Gates Papers, 1726–1828, Reel 1, New-York Historical Society (microfilm); the William Smith quotes that follow are from Smith, Memoirs, ed. Sabine, 1:103, 138, 175.

76. Ousterhout, , State Divided, 2223.

77. Ethnicity was often related to religion. Anglicans tended to be English, and Presbyterians were often Scots, Irish, or Scots Irish. Tiedemann, , Reluctant Revolutionaries, 2324. Hodges, Graham Russell, Roof and Branch: African Americans in New York and New Jersey, 1613–1863 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999), 18; Beyond Philadelphia, ed. Frantz, and Pencak, , xxiv.

1 The author wishes to thank Thomas Buckley, S.J., Eugene R. Fingerhut, Mark A. Noll, Elizabeth I. Nybakken, and William Pencak for their comments and suggestions on earlier drafts of this article. He also expresses his gratitude to Owen S. Ireland not only for reading the manuscript but for alerting him to some critical material.

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