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Between Eastern Africa and Western India, 1500–1650: Slavery, Commerce, and Elite Formation

  • Sanjay Subrahmanyam (a1)


This essay examines relations between eastern Africa and western India in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries in respect to two related sets of problems: the changing regimes of commercial circulation, and more particularly the evolution of patterns of human movement, notably via the slave trade from Ethiopia and the Swahili coast to Gujarat and the Deccan. It argues that over the course of the sixteenth century, commercial relations between Deccan ports such as Goa and Chaul, and the Swahili coast, came to be strengthened through the intervention of the Portuguese and their military-commercial system. At the same time, large numbers of African slaves reached the Muslim states in India, especially in the period after 1530, where they played a significant role as military specialists, and eventually as elite political and cultural actors. The shifting geographical dimensions of the African presence in India are emphasized, beginning in western Gujarat and winding up in the Deccan Sultanates. This contrasts markedly with the African experience elsewhere, where the meaning and institutional context of slavery were quite different.

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1 Chaudhuri, K. N., Trade and Civilisation in the Indian Ocean: An Economic History from the Rise of Islam to 1750 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), 16, even if Chaudhuri states that he eschews “direct imitation” of the Mediterranean; also Reid, Anthony, Southeast Asia in the Age of Commerce, 1450–1680: The Land below the Winds (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988). The point of reference is Braudel, Fernand, The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II, 2 vols., Reynolds, Siân, trans. (New York: Harper & Row, 1972).

2 See Subrahmanyam, Sanjay, “Notes on Circulation and Asymmetry in Two Mediterraneans, c. 1400–1800,” in Guillot, Claude, Lombard, Denys, and Ptak, Roderich, eds., From the Mediterranean to the China Sea (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 1998), 2143.

3 See Bose, Sugata, A Hundred Horizons: The Indian Ocean in the Age of Global Empire (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2006), 45; Bowen, H. V., Mancke, Elizabeth, and Reid, John G., eds., Britain's Oceanic Empire: Atlantic and Indian Ocean Worlds, c. 1550–1850 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012).

4 Ginzburg, Carlo, Cinco reflexiones sobre Marc Bloch, Rojas, Carlos Aguirre, trans. (Bogotá: Ediciones desde abajo, 2016). Also see the earlier essay by Sewell, William H. Jr., “Marc Bloch and the Logic of Comparative History,” History and Theory 6, 2 (1967): 208–18.

5 Goitein, Shlomo D. and Friedman, Mordechai A., India Traders of the Middle Ages: Documents from the Cairo Geniza (‘India Book’) (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2008); Guo, Li, Commerce, Culture and Community in a Red Sea Port in the Thirteenth Century: The Arabic Documents from Quseir (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2004).

6 De Silva, Chandra Richard, “Indian Ocean but not African Sea: The Erasure of East African Commerce from History,” Journal of Black Studies 29, 5 (1999): 684–94.

7 On Africa-India relations, see papers in these collections: Hawley, John C., ed., India in Africa, Africa in India: Indian Ocean Cosmopolitanisms (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2008); Jayasuriya, Shihan de Silva and Pankhurst, Richard, ed., The African Diaspora in the Indian Ocean (Trenton: Africa World Press, 2003); and Robbins, Kenneth X. and McLeod, John, eds., African Elites in India: Habshi Amarat (Ahmedabad: Mapin, 2006). Other recent contributions include Alpers, Edward A., “Africa and Africans in the Making of Early Modern India,” in Malekandathil, Pius, ed., The Indian Ocean in the Making of Early Modern India (New Delhi: Manohar, 2015), 6174; and Bhatt, Purnima Mehta, The African Diaspora in India: Assimilation, Change, and Cultural Survivals (Abingdon: Routledge, 2018). The narrative history of Ali, Shanti Sadiq, The African Dispersal in the Deccan: From Medieval to Modern Times (Hyderabad: Orient Blackswan, 1996), though often cited, is problematic in various respects. A significant recent work, based largely on the Portuguese-language archives, is Machado, Pedro, Ocean of Trade: South Asian Merchants, Africa and the Indian Ocean, c. 1750–1850 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014).

8 Meloy, John L., Imperial Power and Maritime Trade: Mecca and Cairo in the Later Middle Ages (Chicago: Center for Middle Eastern Studies, University of Chicago, 2010), 249–54.

9 Alpers, Edward A., “Gujarat and the Trade of East Africa, c. 1500–1800,” International Journal of African Historical Studies 9, 1 (1976): 2244.

10 Most recently, see Wynne-Jones, Stephanie and LaViolette, Adria, eds., The Swahili World (New York: Routledge, 2018). For the older literature, see Abdul Sheriff, “The Swahili in the African and Indian Ocean Worlds to c. 1500,” Oxford Research Encyclopedia of African History (; and also Horton, Mark and Middleton, John, The Swahili: The Social Landscape of a Mercantile Society (Oxford: Blackwell, 2000); and Spear, Thomas, “Early Swahili History Reconsidered,” International Journal of African Historical Studies 33, 2 (2000): 257–90.

11 Horton, Mark, “Artisans, Communities, and Commodities: Medieval Exchanges between Northwestern India and East Africa,” Ars Orientalis 34 (2004): 6280.

12 See the discussion in Subrahmanyam, Sanjay, The Career and Legend of Vasco da Gama (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 8694, 112–21.

13 Newitt, Malyn, A History of Portuguese Overseas Expansion, 1400–1668 (London: Routledge, 2005), 111.

14 Barros, João de, Da Ásia, Década Primeira (Lisbon: Régia Officina Typografica, 1777), pt. 2, 211, 224–31, 388–90. For discussions, see Saad, Elias, “Kilwa Dynastic Historiography: A Critical Study,” History in Africa 6 (1979): 177207; also Freeman-Grenville, G.S.P., The East African Coast: Select Documents from the First to the Earlier Nineteenth Century (London: Rex Collings, 1975).

15 Chittick, Neville, “The ‘Shirazi’ Colonization of East Africa,” Journal of African History 6, 3 (1965): 275–94 (discussion on 289–90); and Pouwels, Randall L., “A Reply to Spear on Early Swahili History,” International Journal of African Historical Studies 34, 3 (2001): 639–46.

16 Alpers, Edward A., Ivory and Slaves: Changing Pattern of International Trade in East Central Africa to the Later Nineteenth Century (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975), 8687.

17 Lobato, Manuel, “Relações comerciais entre a Índia e a costa africana nos séculos XVI e XVII: O papel do Guzerate no comércio de Moçambique,” Mare Liberum 9 (1995): 157–73. Lobato's essay is largely based on a close reading of Documentos sobre os Portugueses em Moçambique e na África Central, 1497–1840), 9 vols. (Lisbon: Centro de Estudos Históricos Ultramarinos, 1962–1989). Also see the summary account in Pearson, Michael N., Port Cities and Intruders: The Swahili Coast, India, and Portugal in the Early Modern Era (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998).

18 Letter from Diogo Lopes de Sequeira at Cochin to the King, 23 Dec. 1518, in Documentos sobre os Portugueses, vol. 5, 596–97. The pardau was a gold coin worth 360 reis. The metical (Arabic mithqāl) was usually around 4.5 grams.

19 “Traslado da carta de Ali, Rei de Melinde, para D. Manuel,” in Documentos sobre os Portugueses, vol. 6, 44–47.

20 Anonymous, “Livro das Cidades, e Fortalezas, que a Coroa de Portugal tem nas Partes da Índia, e das capitanias, e mais cargos que nellas há, e da importância delles,” F. P. Mendes da Luz, ed., Studia 6 (1960): fls. 39v–40r.

21 Allen, Richard B., “Satisfying the ‘Want for Labouring People’: European Slave Trading in the Indian Ocean, 1500–1850,” Journal of World History 21, 1 (2010): 4573. Also see the essay by Hassell, Stephanie, “Inquisition Records from Goa as Sources for the Study of Slavery in the Eastern Domains of the Portuguese Empire,” History in Africa 42 (2015): 397418. The work of Pinto, Jeanette, Slavery in Portuguese India (1510–1842) (Bombay: Himalaya Publishing House, 1992), is largely impressionistic.

22 See Marcocci, Giuseppe, “Tra cristianesimo e Islam: Le vite parallele degli schiavi abissini in India (secolo XVI),” Società e storia 138 (2012): 807–22.

23 Machado, Ocean of Trade, 124–26.

24 Machado, Pedro, “Awash in a Sea of Cloth: Gujarat, Africa and the Western Indian Ocean, 1300–1800,” in Riello, Giorgio and Parthasarathi, Prasannan, eds., The Spinning World: A Global History of Cotton Textiles, 1200–1850 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), 161–79, (discussion on 165–66).

25 Dias Antunes, Luís Frederico, “A actividade da companhia do comércio dos baneanes de Diu em Moçambique: A dinâmica privada indiana no quadro da economia estatal portuguesa (1686–1777),” Mare Liberum 4 (1992): 143–64.

26 See the detailed discussion in Aubin, Jean, Le Latin et l'Astrolabe, 1: Recherches sur le Portugal de la Renaissance, son expansion en Asie et les relations internationales (Paris: Centre Culturel Calouste Gulbenkian, 1996), 133210.

27 See Chekroun, Amélie, “Dakar, capitale du sultanat éthiopien du Barr Sa‘d ad-dīn (1415–1520),” Cahiers d’Études Africaines 55 (2015): 569–85.

28 For a contemporary account, see Castanhoso, Miguel de, Dos feitos de D. Christovam da Gama em Ethiopia, Pereira, Francisco Maria Esteves, ed. (Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional, 1898). For a recent summary narrative, with some context, see d'Alòs-Moner, Andreu Martínez, “Conquistadores, Mercenaries, and Missionaries: The Failed Portuguese Dominion of the Red Sea,” Northeast African Studies 12, 1 (2012): 128.

29 The use of African slaves (often as infantry but sometimes as cavalry) was certainly known in the ‘Abbasid and Fatimid Caliphates. See Bacharach, Jere L., “African Military Slaves in the Medieval Middle East: The Cases of Iraq (869–955) and Egypt (868–1171),” International Journal of Middle East Studies 13, 4 (1981): 471–95.

30 Lovejoy, Paul E., Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in Africa, 3d ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012), 46–47, 6162.

31 Vernet, Thomas, “Slave Trade and Slavery on the Swahili Coast (1500–1750),” in Mirzai, Behnaz A., Montana, Ismael M., and Lovejoy, Paul, eds., Slavery, Islam and Diaspora (Trenton: Africa World Press, 2009), 3776 (discussion on 59–60).

32 See Derat, Marie-Laure, “Chrétiens et musulmans d’Éthiopie face à la traite et à l'esclavage aux XVe et XVIe siècles,” in Médard, Henri, Derat, Marie-Laure, Vernet, Thomas, and Ballarin, Marie-Pierre, eds., Traites et esclavages en Afrique orientale et dans l'océan Indien (Paris: Karthala, 2013), 119–48.

33 Kumar, Sunil, “When Slaves Were Nobles: The Shamsî Bandagân in the Early Delhi Sultanate,” Studies in History 10, 1 (1994): 2352; Jackson, Peter, “The Mamluk Institution in Early Muslim India,” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 2 (1990): 340–58. More generally, see Chatterjee, Indrani and Eaton, Richard M., eds., Slavery and South Asian History (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006).

34 Cortesão, Armando, ed., The Suma Oriental of Tomé Pires and the Book of Francisco Rodrigues, 2 vols. (London: Hakluyt Society, 1944), 88 (translation), 377 (text).

35 See King, J. S., The History of the Bahmani Dynasty: Founded on the Burhan-i Ma'asir (London: Luzac, 1900), 119.

36 Pires, Suma Oriental, 50–51.

37 An important literary source on his career remains to be adequately explored: this is Anna Centenary Library, Chennai, Government Oriental Manuscripts Collection, Persian Ms. D. 92, fls. 108–37, Ni‘matullah ‘Iyani, Fath Nama-i Mahmud Shahi.

38 ‘Abdullah Hajji-ud-Dabir Ulughkhani, Zafar al-Walih bi-Muzaffar wa Alihi: An Arabic History of Gujarat, Ross, E. Denison, ed., 3 vols. (London: John Murray, 1910–29), vol. 2, xiixviii, xxxiii–xxxiv.

39 On Ahmedabad, see Chaghatai, M. Abdulla, Muslim Monuments of Ahmadabad through Their Inscriptions (Poona: Deccan College Research Institute, 1942).

40 Sidi Bilal Jhujhar Khan was killed during the 1546 siege of the Portuguese fortress of Diu. For several references to him (as “Jusarcão”), see Baião, António, ed., História quinhentista (inédita) do segundo cêrco de Dio (Coimbra: Imprensa da Universidade, 1927), 27, 4547, 92. His body was buried at the celebrated Sarkhej Rauza.

41 To these we can add the devoutly Hanafite figure of Sidi Sa‘id Sultani (d. 1576), builder of a major mosque in Ahmedabad; see Chaghatai, Muslim Monuments of Ahmadabad, 95–96.

42 For a survey of these sources, see Gina Maria Cordeiro Antunes, “Os Abexins no Decão e no Guzarate no século XVI: Escravos e senhores,” Mestrado thesis in History, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 1997.

43 We may note that the absence of notarial archives of the type used by historians of the Spanish Atlantic empire thus hinders the construction of a more nuanced and gendered history of the African presence in early modern India. See, by way of comparison, Williams, Danielle Terrazas, “‘My Conscience Is Free and Clear’: African-Descended Women, Status, and Slave Owning in Mid-Colonial Mexico,” The Americas 75, 3 (2018): 525–54.

44 See the discussion in Cruz, Maria Augusta Lima, “A ‘Crónica da Índia’ de Diogo do Couto,” Mare Liberum 9 (1995): 383–91; and Martins, António Coimbra, Em Torno de Diogo do Couto (Coimbra: Biblioteca Geral da Universidade de Coimbra, 1985).

45 do Couto, Diogo, Da Ásia, Década Sexta (Lisbon: Régia Officina Typografica, 1781), pt. 2, 515–17, 529–36.

46 do Couto, Diogo, Da Ásia, Década Sétima (Lisbon: Régia Officina Typografica, 1782), pt. 1, 8388.

47 For details of the dealings in 1556–1557, see Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo, Lisbon, Corpo Cronológico, I-100–31, letter from Dom João da Costa in Daman to the King, 20 Dec. 1556; CC, I-102-47, letter from Dom Diogo de Noronha at Goa to Pero de Alcáçova Carneiro, 17 Dec. 1557.

48 See the letter from Dom Constantino de Bragança to the Queen, Jan. 1561, in Pereira, António dos Santos, “A Índia a preto e branco: Uma carta oportuna, escrita de Cochim, por D. Constantino de Bragança, à Rainha Dona Catarina,” Anais de História de Além-Mar, vol. 4 (2003), 449–86 (discussion on 474–75).

49 Couto, Da Ásia, Década Sétima, pt. 2, 502–12.

50 For further details on Távora, see Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo, Lisbon, Miscelâneas Manuscritas do Convento da Graça, Tomo 280, fls. 72–77, four letters from Garcia Rodrigues de Távora, respectively from Cochin, Chaul, and Daman (1558–1561).

51 Ulughkhani, Arabic History, vol. 2, 580–81; Commissariat, M. S., A History of Gujarat: Including a Survey of Its Chief Architectural Monuments and Inscriptions, vol. 1 (Bombay: Longmans, Green, & Co., 1938), 471–72.

52 Couto, Da Ásia, Década Sétima, pt. 2, 43.

53 See de Matos, Artur Teodoro, et al. ., O Tombo de Damão, 1592 (Lisbon: CNCDP, 2001). For a statistical analysis of this text, see Ferrão, Livia Baptista de Souza, “Tenants, Rents and Revenues from Daman in the late 16th Century,” Mare Liberum 9 (1995), 136–49. For a slightly later description of Daman and its territories, from the 1630s, see Bocarro, António, O Livro das Plantas de todas as fortalezas, cidades e povoações do Estado da Índia Oriental, Cid, Isabel, ed., 3 vols. (Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda, 1992), vol. 2, 84101.

54 See Faruqui, Munis D., The Princes of the Mughal Empire, 1504–1719 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012), 172.

55 See Shyam, Radhey, The Kingdom of Ahmadnagar (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1966), 155–56.

56 Farhad Khan was obviously already prominent in Ahmadnagar by the late 1550s. See the inscription in the mosque, shrine, and rest-house built by him in that city in 967 H/1559-60, in Epigraphia Indo-Moslemica, 1933–34, 6.

57 Pereira, António Pinto, História da Índia no tempo em que a governou o visorei Dom Luís de Ataíde, Duarte, Manuel Marques, ed. (Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda, 1987), 368–69, passim.

58 do Couto, Diogo, Da Ásia, Década XI (Lisbon: Régia Officina Typográfica, 1788), 171–72; also Vignato, Antonella, ed., “Vida e Acções de Mathias de Albuquerque, Capitão e Viso-Rei do Estado da Índia,” pt. 2, Mare Liberum 17 (1999): 267360. It is of interest to read Farhad Khan's career together with the case of another Ethiopian (apparently of “falaxa” or Beta Israel origin) named Gabriel or Sidi Rahim (“Side Reme”), who was tried by the Inquisition at Chaul and Goa in 1595, after spending a part of his career in Ahmadnagar service; for a careful analysis of his Inquisition file, see Marcocci, “Tra cristianesimo e Islam,” 807–22.

59 King to viceroy Rui Lourenço de Távora, 29 Oct. 1609, in de Bulhão Pato, R. A., ed., Documentos Remettidos da Índia, ou Livros das Monções, vol. 1 (Lisbon: Academia Real das Ciências, 1880), 253. For Portuguese dealings with Malik ‘Ambar more generally, see Flores, Jorge, Nas Margens do Hindustão: O Estado da Índia e a expansão mogol, ca. 1570–1640 (Coimbra: Imprensa da Universidade de Coimbra, 2015), 235–42.

60 Thus, see the popular account by Ali, Omar H., Malik Ambar: Power and Slavery across the Indian Ocean (New York: Oxford University Press, 2016).

61 Eaton, Richard M., A Social History of the Deccan, 1300–1761: Eight Indian Lives (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 105–28.

62 The most useful account is in the mid-seventeenth-century text of Fuzuni Astarabadi, Futuhat-i ‘Adil Shahi (British Library, Persian Ms., Addn. 27,251). For a translation of relevant passages, see Sarkar, Jadunath, “Malik Ambar: A New Life,” in Sarkar, J., House of Shivaji: Studies and Documents on Maratha History, 3d ed. (Calcutta: M. C. Sarkar and Sons, 1955), 525. On Chingiz Khan, and the end of his career, see Haig, Wolseley, The History of the Nizam Shahi Kings of Ahmadnagar (Bombay: British India Press, 1923), 131–32, passim.

63 See Ghulam Yazdani, “Inscriptions at the Fort of Qandhar, Nanded District, H.E.H. the Nizam's Dominions,” Epigraphia Indo-Moslemica, 1919–20, 20–26. For a discussion of Kandhar and other sites, see Rötzer, Klaus, “The Architectural Legacy of Malik Ambar, Malik Sandal, and Yaqut Kabuli Habshi,” in Robbins, Kenneth X. and McLeod, John, eds., African Elites in India: Habshi Amarat (Ahmedabad: Mapin, 2006), 7084.

64 See Ghulam Yazdani, “Inscriptions of Nizam Shahi Kings from Antur Fort, Aurangabad District,” Epigraphia Indo-Moslemica, 1919–20, 12–15. For the inscription from Shivneri, see Gadre, Pramod B., Cultural Archaeology of Ahmadnagar during Nizam Shahi Period, 1494–1632 (Delhi: B. R. Publishing, 1986), 125–25.

65 Nauruzi, Jamshid, ed., Risala-i Tarikh-i Asad Beg Qazwini (Tehran: Pizhushishgah-i ʻUlum-i Insani wa Mutalaʻat-i Farhangi, 2014), 29, 3134.

66 Firishta, Muhammad Qasim, Tarikh-i Firishta, Nasiri, Mohammad Reza, ed., 4 vols. (Teheran: Anjuman-i Asar wa Mafakhir-i Farhangi, 2009–11), vol. 3, 508; History of the Rise of Mahomedan Power in India till the Year A.D. 1612, John Briggs, trans. (with Mir Khairat ‘Ali Khan Akbarabadi “Mushtaq”), 4 vols. (London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green, 1829), vol. 3, 314–15 (revised). The farsakh was around 6 kilometers, and the karoh roughly 3 kilometers.

67 See Foster, William, ed., The English Factories in India, 1618–69, 13 vols. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1906–27) (henceforth EFI): EFI, 1618–21, 272–73.

68 See the letters from Jeffries dated October and November 1621, in EFI, 1618–21, 287–90, 296–97, 315–18. There are further references to the episode and its aftermath in EFI, 1622–23, 12–13, 18, 200–4. For a full discussion, see Gupta, Ashin Das, “Indian Merchants and the Western Indian Ocean: The Early Seventeenth Century,” Modern Asian Studies 19, 3 (1985): 481–99.

69 “William Minor's Account of the Voyage of the Scout” (1625), in EFI, 1624–29, 71.

70 For an account of his career, see Sharif, Muhammad Jamal, Dakan mein Urdu sha‘iri Wali se pehle, Asar, Muhammad ‘Ali, ed. (Hyderabad: Idara-i Adabiyat-i Urdu, 2004), 416–32. For an edition of his most important work, see Khushnud, Malik, Jannat Singar (1056 H./1645), Ja‘far, Sayyida, ed. (New Delhi: Qaumi Council bara'i Urdu Zaban, 1997).

71 See Jadunath Sarkar, “The Leading Nobles of Bijapur, 1627–1686,” in Sarkar, House of Shivaji, 90–101.

72 For details, see Sarkar, Jadunath, Shivaji and His Times, 3d ed. (Calcutta: M. C. Sarkar and Sons, 1929), 254–78. On Janjira, also see the recent essay by Jasdanwalla, Faeeza, “The Invincible Fort of the Nawabs of Janjira,” Journal of African Diaspora Archaeology & Heritage 4, 1 (2015): 7291.

73 For an overview, see Subrahmanyam, Sanjay, “Iranians Abroad: Intra-Asian Elite Migration and Early Modern State Formation,” Journal of Asian Studies 51, 2 (1992): 340–62.

74 For a discussion, see Mancini-Lander, Derek J., “Tales Bent Backward: Early Modern Local History in Persianate Transregional Contexts,” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 3d Series, 28 (2018): 2354.

75 See Graf, Tobias P., The Sultan's Renegades: Christian-European Converts to Islam and the Making of the Ottoman Elite, 1575–1610 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017), 164–65, 178–83.

76 See the account in Amélie Chekroun, “Le Futūh al-Habaša: Ecriture de l'histoire, guerre et société dans le Bar Sa‘ad al-Din (Éthiopie, XVIe siècle),” PhD thesis, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne, Paris-I, 2013, 81–84, passim. For a modern English translation of the text, see ‘Arab Faqih, Shihab-ud-Din Ahmad bin ‘Abdul Qadir, The Conquest of Abyssinia: 16th Century, Stenhouse, Paul Lester and Pankhurst, Richard, trans. eds., and (Hollywood: Tsehai Publishers & Distributors, 2003).

77 See Vaughan, Megan, Creating the Creole Island: Slavery in Eighteenth-Century Mauritius (Durham: Duke University Press, 2005).

78 An interesting case that tests the limits is that studied in Furtado, Júnia Ferreira, Chica da Silva: A Brazilian Slave of the Eighteenth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009). Also see Candido, Mariana P., An African Slaving Port and the Atlantic World: Benguela and Its Hinterland (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013), for a comparison of mobility on the two sides of the Atlantic.

79 Reis, João José, Slave Rebellion in Brazil: The Muslim Uprising of 1835 in Bahia, Brakel, Arthur, trans. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995); Diouf, Sylviane A., Servants of Allah: African Muslims Enslaved in the Americas (New York: New York University Press, 1998).

80 See Hathaway, Jane, The Chief Eunuch of the Ottoman Harem: From African Slave to Power-Broker (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018); and Fetvacı, Emine, Picturing History at the Ottoman Court (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2013), 149–90. For Ottoman political ambitions in relation to Ethiopia, see the classic work of Orhonlu, Cengiz, Habeş eyaleti: Osmanlı imparatorluğu'nun güney siyaseti (Istanbul: Edebiyat Fakültesi Matbaası, 1974).


Between Eastern Africa and Western India, 1500–1650: Slavery, Commerce, and Elite Formation

  • Sanjay Subrahmanyam (a1)


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