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British Suffragettes and the Russian Method of Hunger Strike

  • Kevin Grant (a1)
Extract

In the spring of 1878 male political prisoners in the Peter and Paul Fortress of St. Petersburg went on hunger strike to protest against the oppressive conditions in which they were held by the tsarist regime. After three days, news of the strike reached the prisoners' families, who appealed for relief to the director of military police, General N. V. Mezentsev. The director dismissed their pleas and reportedly declared of the hunger strikers, “Let them die; I have already ordered coffins for them all.” It was a volatile period of repression and reprisal in the Russian revolutionary movement. The tsarist regime had cracked down on the revolutionary populists, the narodniki, and the era of terrorism had just begun in St. Petersburg that January, when Vera Zasulich shot and seriously wounded the city's governor. The hunger strikers were among a group of 193 revolutionaries who had been recently tried for treason and sentenced to various forms of punishment, including hard labor and imprisonment in Siberia. In these circumstances the news of Mezentsev's response spread quickly beyond the strikers' families, soon reaching a would-be terrorist and former artillery officer, Sergius Kravchinskii. Kravchinskii killed Mezentsev with a dagger on a city street, then fled Russia and made his way to Great Britain, a haven for Russian revolutionaries since Alexander Herzen had arrived in 1852 and established the first Russian revolutionary press abroad. Kravchinskii likewise wrote against the tsarist regime, under the pen name Sergius Stepniak, and in 1890 he became the editor of a new, London-based periodical, Free Russia. Its first number chronicled a dramatic series of hunger strikes led by female revolutionaries imprisoned at Kara in the Trans-Baikál of eastern Siberia. These strikes had culminated in the death of one woman after she was flogged and in five suicides by female and male political prisoners who, after the death of their comrade, had ended their hunger strikes to eat poison. Having been inspired to terror by his sympathy for revolutionary hunger strikers, Stepniak, like other Russian exiles, believed that the hunger strike would win sympathy and support for Russian revolutionaries in Britain.

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1 The preceding account is drawn from The Anglo-Russian 11, 12 (June 1907): 1116; Deutsch, Leo, Sixteen Years in Siberia (New York: Dutton, 1903), 263–64; Daly, Jonathan W., Autocracy under Siege: Security Police and Opposition in Russia, 1866–1905 (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1998), 4, 2223; Ruud, Charles and Stepanov, Sergei, Fontanka 16: The Tsars' Secret Police (Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1999), 4044.

2 Lennon, Joseph, “Fasting for the Public: Irish and Indian Sources of Marion Wallace Dunlop's 1909 Hunger Strike,” in Flannery, Eóin and Mitchell, Angus, eds., Enemies of Empire (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2007), 1939.

3 F. W. Pethick-Lawrence, “The Treatment of Suffragettes in Prison,” W.S.P.U. Leaflet No. 59, W.S.P.U. Collection, Museum of London.

4 Historians have referred briefly to the Russian origins of the suffragette hunger strike. See Harrison, Brian, Peaceable Kingdom (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982), 39; Grant, Kevin, “The Transcolonial World of Hunger Strikes and Political Fasts, c. 1909–1935,” in Ghosh, Durba and Kennedy, Dane, eds., Decentring Empire: Britain, India and the Transcolonial World (Hyderabad: Orient Longman, 2006), 248–49.

5 Hughes, Michael, Diplomacy before the Russian Revolution: Britain, Russia, and the Old Diplomacy, 1894–1917 (New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000); Malia, Martin, Russia under Western Eyes (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1999), 179–82.

6 Malia, Russia under Western Eyes, 163, 167.

7 Ibid., 8–9, 175.

8 For hunger strikes in national contexts, see Kumar, Pramod, Hunger-Strike in Andamans (Lucknow: Martyrs Memorial and Freedom Struggle Research Center, 2004); Costello, Francis, Enduring the Most: The Life and Death of Terence MacSwiney (Dingle, Co. Kerry: Brandon, 1995); Tickner, Lisa, The Spectacle of Women: Imagery of the Suffrage Campaign, 1907–1914 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988).

9 Grant, “Transcolonial World.”

10 For references to women's hunger strikes, see Clements, Barbara, Bolshevik Women (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997); Engel, Barbara Alpern and Rosenthal, Clifford N., Five Sisters: Women against the Tsar (New York: Routledge, 1992).

11 Schrader, Abby, Languages of the Lash: Corporal Punishment and Identity in Imperial Russia (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2002); Adams, Bruce, The Politics of Punishment: Prison Reform in Russia, 1863–1917 (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1996); Rabe, Volker, Der Widerspruch von Rechtsstaatlichkeit und strafender Verwaltung in Russland, 1881–1917 (Karlsruhe: Verlag M. Wahl, 1985); Daly, Jonathan, “Political Crime in Late Imperial Russia,” Journal of Modern History 74 (Mar. 2002): 62100.

12 Slatter, John, ed., From the other Shore: Russian Political Emigrants in Britain, 1880–1917 (London: Frank Cass, 1984); Leventhal, F. M., “H. N. Brailsford and Russia: The Problem of Objectivity,” Albion 5, 2 (Summer 1973): 8486; Hollingsworth, Barry, “The Society of Friends of Russian Freedom: English Liberals and Russian Socialists, 1890–1917,” Oxford Slavonic Papers, vol. III (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970): 4564.

13 Tickner, Spectacle of Women; Howlett, Caroline, “Writing on the Body? Representation and Resistance in British Suffragette Accounts of Forcible Feeding,” Genders 23 (1996): 341; Green, Barbara, Spectacular Confessions: Autobiography, Performative Activism, and the Sites of Suffrage, 1905–1938 (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997).

14 Regarding hunger strikes as rejections of maternalism, see Corbett, Mary Jean, Representing Femininity: Middle-Class Subjectivity in Victorian and Edwardian Women's Autobiographies (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), 163. For hunger strikes as embodiments of maternalism, see Vernon, James, Hunger: A Modern History (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2007), 7273.

15 Vernon, Hunger, 44, 61, 64.

16 Lennon, “Fasting for the Public.”

17 Mayhall, Laura E. Nym, The Militant Suffrage Movement (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), 3; Vernon, Hunger, 64.

18 “Forcible Feeding. A Letter to a Liberal Member of Parliament,” W.S.P.U. leaflet, W.S.P.U. Collection, Museum of London.

19 Stepniak, Sergius, Russia under the Tzars, vol. 1 (London: Ward and Downey, 1885), 185; Rabe, Der Widerspruch, 280.

20 Kennan, George, Siberia and the Exile System, vol. 2 (New York: The Century Co., 1891), 238. Kennan spelled the word golodófka, but I have modified this in accordance with current transliteration.

21 I thank Shoshana Keller for consulting the Russian explanatory dictionaries and providing me with the following information on golodovka.

22 Dal', Vladimir Ivanovich, Tolkovyi slovar' zhivogo velikorusskogo iazyka (Moscow: Gosizdat, 1955, repr. of 1880–1882 ed.).

23 Stepniak, Russia under the Tzars, 185; Kropotkin, Prince, The Terror in Russia: An Appeal to the British Nation (London: Methuen & Co., 1909), 18.

24 Ushakov, D. N., Tolkovyi slovar' russkogo iazyka (Moscow: Gosizdat, 1935–1940).

25 Gregg, Robert, “Valleys of Fear: Policing Terror in an Imperial Age, 1865–1925,” in Grant, Kevin, Levine, Philippa, and Trentmann, Frank, eds., Beyond Sovereignty: Britain, Empire and Transnationalism, c. 1880–1950 (New York: Palgrave, 2007), 169–90.

26 Good, Jane E., “America and the Russian Revolutionary Movement, 1888–1905,” Russian Review 41, 3 (July 1982): 279–80.

27 Ibid., 274; Senese, Donald, “Felix Volkhovsky in London, 1890–1914,” in Slatter, John, ed., From the other Shore: Russian Political Emigrants in Britain, 1880–1917 (London: Frank Cass, 1984), 73.

28 Purvis, June, Emmeline Pankhurst: A Biography (London: Routledge, 2002), 28.

29 Daly, “Political Crime,” 88.

30 Rabe, Der Widerspruch, 167–70.

31 Daly, “Political Crime,” 91.

32 Ibid., 88, 92.

33 Rabe, Der Widerspruch, 198, 242–54.

34 Schrader, Languages of the Lash, 168–75.

35 Daly, “Political Crime,” 89, 91.

36 Deutsch, Sixteen Years, v.

37 Ibid., 263–64.

38 Kennan, Siberia, vol. 1, 52, 81; Rabe, Der Widerspruch, 177.

39 Breshkovskaia, Katerina, Hidden Springs of the Russian Revolution. Hutschinson, Lincoln, ed. (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1931), 191.

40 Kennan, Siberia, vol. 2, 260–70; Deutsch, Sixteen Years, 271–94.

41 Kennan, Siberia, vol. 2, 260; Deutsch, Sixteen Years, 271. For more on Kovalskaya, see Engel and Rosenthal, Five Sisters, 202–49.

42 Deutsch, Sixteen Years, 272.

43 Ibid., 273.

45 Kennan, George, “Exiles at Irkutsk,” The Century 37, 15 (1889): 502–11.

46 Deutsch, Sixteen Years, 273.

48 Ibid., 277–78.

49 Ibid., 278.

50 Ibid., 280–81.

51 Ibid., 91.

52 Ibid., 288.

53 Ibid., 290.

54 Ibid., 294.

55 Stites, Richard, The Women's Liberation Movement in Russia: Feminism, Nihilism, and Bolshevism, 1860–1930 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978), 149.

56 Ibid., 19, 100, 113.

57 Ibid., 19, 233–39.

58 Ibid., 126–28, 153.

59 Knight, Amy, “Female Terrorists in the Russian Socialist Revolutionary Party,” Russian Review 38, 2 (Apr. 1979): 139–59.

60 Mayhall, Militant Suffrage Movement, 38; Stites, Women's Liberation, 229, 272; Daly, “Political Crime,” 99.

61 Pankhurst, E. Sylvia, The Suffragette (New York: Sturgis & Walton, Co., 1911), 91. The Russian suffragists who were more like British suffragettes made up a small, middle-class pressure group that advocated constitutional reforms through constitutional means and never set foot in prison. See Stites, Women's Liberation, 191–230.

62 For examples of other accounts of Russian hunger strikes, see Stepniak, Russia under the Tzars, 185, 248–49; Poole, Ernest, “Katharine Bereshkovsky: A Russian Revolutionist,” The Outlook 79 (Jan.–Apr. 1905): 85; Kropotkin, Terror in Russia, 18; Brailsford, H. N., The Fruits of Our Russian Alliance (London: Anglo-Russian Committee, 1912), 23; and various references in Free Russia (1890–1915), and The Anglo-Russian (1897–1914).

63 For “customary,” see “Prison Strikers,” Manchester Guardian, 29 Mar. 1912. For “traditional,” see Free Russia, 1 Nov. 1904, 89.

64 Voronina, Tatjana, “Fasting in the Life of Russians (19th–20th Centuries),” Acta Ethnographica Hungarica 51, 3–4 (2006): 235–55.

65 Ibid., 244

66 If there is a connection between fasting by peasants and hunger strikes by politicals, it might come to light in new scholarship that rejects the binary opposition of “popular” and “elite” faiths and challenges the concept of dvoeverie. See Worobec, Christine, “Lived Orthodoxy in Imperial Russia,” Kritika 7, 2 (Spring 2006): 329–50.

67 Malia, Russia under Western Eyes, 171.

68 Deutsch, Sixteen Years, 189.

69 “Prison Strikers,” Manchester Guardian, 29 Mar. 1912; Figner, Vera, Memoirs of a Revolutionist (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1991), 223–25.

70 For similar goals, see the hunger strike of 1878, in Stepniak, Russia under the Tzars, 185.

71 Skeffington, Hanna Sheehy, “Reminiscences of an Irish Suffragette” (1941), in Skeffington, Andrée Sheehy and Owens, Rosemary, eds., Votes for Women (Dublin: E. & T. O'Brien, Ltd., 1975), 23.

72 For example, The Times featured two critical articles and an editorial about the Kara tragedy in February and March of 1890. See The Times, “Flogging and Suicide of Female Political Prisoners in Siberia,” 11 Feb. 1890; “The Siberian Suicides and Hunger Strikes,” 28 Feb. 1890; Editorial, 14 Mar. 1890.

73 Riasanovsky, Nicholas and Steinberg, Mark D., A History of Russia (7th ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), 378–91.

74 Morris, A. J. Anthony, Radicalism against War, 1906–1914 (Totowa, New Jersey: Rowman and Littlefield, 1972), 5270.

75 Murray, John A., “Sir Edward Grey and His Critics, 1911–1912,” in Wallace, Lillian Parker and Askew, William, eds., Power, Public Opinion, and Diplomacy (Durham: Duke University Press, 1959), 142.

76 Hughes. Diplomacy; Tomaszewski, Fiona, “The Tsarist Regime's Manipulation of Public Opinion in Great Britain and France, 1906–1914,” Russian History 24, 3 (Fall 1997): 279–92.

77 Hollingsworth, “Society of Friends”: 47–51.

78 Ibid.: 50–51.

79 Slatter, John, “Among British Liberals: Jaakoff Prelooker and The Anglo-Russian,” in J. Slatter, ed., From the other Shore: Russian Political Emigrants in Britain, 1880–1917 (London: Frank Cass, 1984), 53.

80 The Anglo-Russian 12, 5 (Nov. 1908): 1215.

81 Pugh, Martin, The March of the Women (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 189.

82 The Anglo-Russian, 12, 5 (Nov. 1908): 1215.

83 Slatter, “Among British Liberals,” 57.

84 The Anglo-Russian, 11, 10 (Apr. 1908): 1176–78.

85 For other suffragists, see Laity, Paul, The British Peace Movement, 1870–1914 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), 136–37.

86 Brailsford, Fruits of Our Russian Alliance; Nevinson, Henry, The Dawn in Russia (London: Harper & Bros., 1906).

87 For example, “Medieval Prisons,” Free Russia (Jan. 1909): 2–3. See the Labour Party resolution in the Daily News, 29 June 1909.

88 Taylor, A. J. P., The Troublemakers (London: Pimlico, 1993), 95131.

89 Hobson, J. A., Imperialism: A Study (1902) (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1965, repr.), 56, 61.

90 Hobhouse, Emily, Report of a Visit to the Camps of Women and Children in the Cape and Orange River Colonies (London: Friars Printing Association, Ltd., 1901); Morel, E. D., King Leopold's Rule in Africa (London: Heinemann, 1904).

91 See Grant, Kevin, A Civilised Savagery: Britain and the New Slaveries in Africa, 1884–1926 (New York: Routledge, 2005).

92 Lynne Ann Hartnett, “Perpetual Exile: The Dynamics of Gender, Protest, and Violence in the Revolutionary Life of Vera Figner (1852–1917)” (PhD diss., Boston College, 2000), 755–56.

93 Ibid., 763.

94 Repr. in Free Russia (July 1909): 2.

95 For Figner's political views, see Richard Stites' introduction to Figner, Memoirs, ix–xxiii; and Hartnett, “Perpetual Exile.”

96 Free Russia (July 1909): 7.

97 Pankhurst, The Suffragette, 436.

98 Rosen, Andrew, Rise Up, Women! (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974), 8694; Ugolini, Laura, “‘We Must Stand By Our Own Bairns’: ILP Men and Suffrage Militancy,” Labour History Review 67, 2 (Aug. 2002): 149–69.

99 Purvis, Emmeline Pankhurst, 28. Thank you to John Bartle for translating this section of Figner's memoir. See Figner, Vera, Polnoe sobranie sochinenii v semi tomakh, vol. 3 (Moscow: Izd-vo Vses. ob-va politkatorzhan i ssyl'poselentsev, 1932), 352.

100 Frances, Hilary, “‘Dare to be Free!’ The Women's Freedom League and Its Legacy,” in Purvis, June and Holton, Sandra, eds., Votes for Women (London: Routledge, 2000), 181202.

101 Rosen, Rise Up, 118.

102 Votes for Women, 16 July 1909: 934.

103 Ibid.

104 Hobhouse, Stephen and Brockway, A. Fenner, English Prisons To-Day (London: Longmans & Co., 1922), 256, 260–62, 274.

105 For example, John Edwards, medical officer, to governor of Strangeways Prison, 7 Sept. 1909, Public Records Office (hereafter PRO), HO144/1041/183189.

106 For example, see Votes for Women issues: 16 July 1909: 934; 23 July 1909: 971, 977; and 30 July 1909: 1014.

107 For example, Votes for Women, 30 July 1909: 1014.

108 Tickner, Spectacle of Women, 83; Votes for Women, 23 Aug. 1912: 765.

109 Votes for Women, 23 July 1909: 977; Pugh, March of the Women, 193.

110 Tickner, Spectacle of Women; Votes for Women, 6 Aug. 1909: 1043.

111 Votes for Women, 30 July 1909: 1014.

112 Bearman, C. J., “An Army without Discipline? Suffragette Militancy and the Budget Crisis of 1909,” The Historical Journal 50, 4 (2007): 880.

113 Hollingsworth, “Society of Friends”: 62.

114 Pankhurst, The Suffragette, 436.

115 The Times, 2 Aug. 1909.

116 Ibid.

117 The Times, 6 Aug. 1909.

118 Regarding policies on forcible feeding, see Grant, “Transcolonial World,” 243–46, 262–67.

119 Memorandum on hunger strikes, 12 Oct. 1909, PRO, HO144/1042/183256.

120 A notation by Herbert Smalley on the Home Office memorandum of 12 October 1909 (ibid.) indicates that twenty-nine of the eighty-two men and ten of the thirty women were insane.

121 Geddes, J. F., “Culpable Complicity: The Medical Profession and the Forcible Feeding of Suffragettes, 1909–1914,” Women's History Review 17, 1 (Mar. 2008): 7994.

122 Pankhurst, E. Sylvia, The Suffragette Movement (London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1931), 319.

123 Chairman of the Prison Commission Sir E. Ruggles-Brise to Sir Edward Troup, Oct. 1909, PRO, HO144/1042/183256.

124 The Times, 18 Sept. 1909.

125 Parliamentary Debates, Commons, Fifth Series, 1909, vol. 8, 923–35. The term “methods of barbarism” had been coined by the former Liberal leader Henry Campbell-Bannerman in 1901 to describe British military atrocities during the South African War.

126 The Times, 5 Oct. 1909.

127 Bearman, “An Army”: 886.

128 Ibid.: 881.

129 See the cover of Votes for Women, 28 Jan. 1910, reproduced in Vernon, Hunger, 66.

130 Bearman, “An Army”: 886.

131 Ibid.: 887.

132 Pethick-Lawrence, F. W., Fate Has Been Kind (London: Hutchinson & Co., Ltd., 1943), 93.

133 Pankhurst, Emmeline, “Speech Delivered at the Dinner at the Connaught Rooms in Honour of the Released Prisoners” (1911), in Jorgenson-Earp, Cheryl R., Speeches and Trials of the Militant Suffragettes (Madison: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1999), 144; Rosen, Rise Up, 156–59.

134 Votes for Women, 12 Apr. 1912: 444.

135 Figner, Memoirs, 190–94, 218–27. Garnett had befriended Figner in England. See Garnett, David, The Golden Echo (New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1954), 119–20.

136 Hartnett, “Perpetual Exile,” 766.

137 Votes for Women, 12 Apr. 1912: 444.

138 The Times, 17 Apr. 1912.

139 Rosen, Rise Up, 165.

140 Ibid., 171.

141 Memorandum by Herbert Smalley, 31 Dec. 1912, PRO, PCOM 7/355.

142 Ibid.

143 Memorandum on Prisoners (Temporary Discharge for Ill-Health) Bill, 28 Apr. 1913, PRO, HO45/10699/234800.

144 Pugh, March of the Women, 212.

145 Purvis, Emmeline Pankhurst, 296.

146 Ibid., 299.

147 Figner, Memoirs, 193–94.

148 Ibid., 220–21.

149 Ibid., 224.

150 Ibid., 223–25.

151 Figner, Vera, Les Prisons Russes (Pully-Lausanne: Imprimerie des Unions Ouvrières, 1911), 28, 30, 31–32, 34.

152 Pankhurst, The Suffragette, 436.

153 Speech by Lady Constance Lytton at the Queen's Hall, 31 January 1910,” in Jorgenson-Earp, Speeches and Trials, 108–9; Holton, Sandra Stanley, “Manliness and Militancy: The Political Protest of Male Suffragists and the Gendering of the ‘Suffragette’ Identity,” in John, Angela V. and Eustance, Claire, eds., Men's Share? Masculinities, Male Support and Women's Suffrage in Britain, 1890–1920 (London: Routledge, 1997), 122, 124.

154 Holton, “Manliness and Militancy,” 110–11.

155 Ibid., 122; Pugh, March of the Women, 262–64.

156 Votes for Women, 30 July 1909: 1014.

157 For example, “Suffragist Violence: Mrs. Fawcett's Appeal to Cabinet Ministers,” The Times, 5 Dec. 1911; Mayhall, Militant Suffrage Movement, 105.

158 Pugh, March of the Women, 206–10. Regarding “terrorists,” see Mayhall, Militant Suffrage Movement, 107; Emmeline Pankhurst, “Address at Hartford,” 13 Nov. 1913, in Jorgensen-Earp, Speeches and Trials, 322–49.

159 Rosen, Rise Up, 235.

160 Fletcher, Christopher, Mayhall, Laura E. Nym, and Levine, Philippa, eds., Women's Suffrage in the British Empire (London: Routledge, 2000).

161 Murphy, Cliona, The Women's Suffrage Movement and Irish Society in the Early Twentieth Century (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989), 109, n. 10.

162 They conducted their hunger strikes in solidarity with Mary Leigh, Gladys Evans, and Mrs. Jennie Baines, three members of the W.S.P.U. who had begun a hunger strike for political status on the previous day.

163 From an article in the Irish Independent, repr. in Votes for Women, 23 Aug. 1912: 765.

164 Anderson, W. K., James Connolly and the Irish Left (Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 1994), 21.

165 O'Malley, Padraig, Biting at the Grave (Boston: Beacon Press, 1990).

166 Sing, Ujjwal Kumar, Political Prisoners in India (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1998).

167 Gupta, Manmathnath, They Lived Dangerously: Reminiscences of a Revolutionary (Delhi: People's Publishing House, 1969), 295.

168 Hunt, James D., An American Looks at Gandhi (New Delhi: Promilla & Co., 2005), 102.

169 Ibid., 93–112.

170 Young India, 1 May 1924: 145, cited in Prabbu, R. K. and Rao, U. R., eds., The Mind of Mahatma Gandhi (Ahmedabad: Navajivan Publishing House, 2002), 36; Alter, Joseph, Gandhi's Body: Sex, Diet, and the Politics of Nationalism (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000), 2852; Dalton, Dennis, Gandhi's Power: Nonviolence in Action (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1999), 139–67.

171 Letter to Joseph, George, 12 Apr. 1924, in The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, vol. 23 (1922–1924), 420.

Acknowledgments: I wish to thank John Bartle, Shoshana Keller, Alfred Kelly, Kristin Strohmeyer, Lisa Trivedi, James Vernon, Steve Yao, and the CSSH anonymous readers. I benefited especially from Keller's guidance through the scholarship on imperial Russia, and from her and Bartle's translations of Russian texts.

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