Skip to main content
×
×
Home

The Colonial State, Migration, and Diasporic Nationhood in Korea

  • Jaeeun Kim (a1)
Abstract
Abstract

Studies of European colonialism have long documented how colonial states served as incubators of nationhood, yet the literature has limited its analytic scope largely to the encounters and ethnic mixings that took place within the territorial boundaries of colonies. This article examines a hitherto understudied phenomenon, the colonial state's trans-border engagement with its subjects who left the territorial unit of the colony and its impact on the contested development of diasporic nationhood. My empirical focus is the shifting trajectories of the classification struggles over Korean migrants in Manchuria during Japan's occupation of Korea. I identify the tumultuous and uneven development of specific legal, organizational, and bureaucratic infrastructures that helped the colonial state extend its trans-border reach and define and identify these migrants as “its own,” often against suspicion, sabotage, hostility, and resistance on the part of other states, indigenous populations, or migrants themselves. I argue that the colonial state's extensive and intensive transborder engagement provided a critical institutional scaffolding for the imagined community of the Korean nation, which came to be conceived as transcending the geographical boundary of the colony. This article contributes to the comparative studies of empire, migration, diaspora, and nationhood formation by challenging the prevalent sedentary bias of the existing literature, by elucidating the critical infrastructural underpinning of the formation of diasporic nationhood, and by extending the horizon of comparison to the political dynamics and long-term ramifications engendered by the migration of, not only metropolitan settlers, but also colonial subjects, within and beyond the ambit of the empire.

Copyright
Corresponding author
jaeeun1121@gmail.com
References
Hide All
Amith Sunil S. 2011. Migration and Diaspora in Modern Asia. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Anderson Benedict. 1991. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. New York: Verso.
Appiah Kwame A. 1993. In My Father's House: Africa in the Philosophy of Culture. London: Methuen.
Bates Crispin, ed. 2001. Community, Empire, and Migration: South Asians in Diaspora. New York: Palgrave.
Bennett Tom W. 2004. Customary Law in South Africa. Lansdowne: Juta and Company Ltd.
Benton Lauren. 1999. Colonial Law and Cultural Difference: Jurisdictional Politics and the Formation of the Colonial State. Comparative Studies in Society and History 41, 3: 563–88.
Brooks Barbara. 2000. Japan's Imperial Diplomacy: Consuls, Treaty Ports, and War in China, 1895–1938. Honolulu: University of Hawaìi Press.
Breuilly John. 1993. Nationalism and the State. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.
Brubaker Rogers. 2004. Ethnicity without Groups. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Caplan Jane and Torpey John, eds. 2001. Documenting Individual Identity: The Development of State Practices in the Modern World. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Caprio Mark E. 2009. Japanese Assimilation Policies in Colonial Korea, 1910–1945. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Chaeman Chosŏnin Munje (The problem of Koreans in Manchuria). 1927. Tonga ilbo, 30 Nov.
Chapman David. 2011. Geographies of Self and Other: Mapping Japan through the Koseki. Asia-Pacific Journal 9, 29, 2 (18 July). At: www.japanfocus.org/-David-Chapman/3565.
Chatterjee Partha. 1993. The Nation and Its Fragments: Colonial and Postcolonial Histories. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Chen Edward I-te. 1984. The Attempt to Integrate the Empire: Legal Perspectives. In Myers Ramon H. and Peattie Mark R., eds., The Japanese Colonial Empire, 1895–1945. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 240–74.
Cho Gyu Tae. 1981. Minjŏkbue Natanan Yŏja Irŭm Yŏngu (A philological study of the women's name in Min-Jŏk Bu). Yŏsŏngmunje Yŏngu 10: 297306.
Cho Yŏl. 1933. Zaiman Chōsenjin no Tōmen Yōkyū (The urgent demand from Koreans in Manchuria). Zenman Chōsenjin Minkai Rengōkai Kaibō 6: 1213.
Choate Mark I. 2008. Emigrant Nation: The Making of Italy Abroad. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Ch'oech'angho P'isalgwa Kando Chumin Daehoe (The murder of Choi Chang-ho and the Kando resident rally). 1923. Kaebyŏk 33: 8587.
Chungguk Chosŏnjok Ch'ŏngnyŏn Hakhoe (Society of Korean Chinese youths in academia). 1992. Chungguk Chosŏnjok Imin Sillok (Oral history of Korean Chinese migration). Yanji, China: Yŏnbyŏn Inmin Ch'ulp'ansa.
Cohen Robin. 1997. Global Diasporas: An Introduction. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Cohn Bernard S. 1996. Colonialism and Its Forms of Knowledge: The British in India. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Duara Prasenjit. 2003. Sovereignty and Authenticity: Manchukuo and the East Asian Modern. New York: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.
DuBois Thomas D. 2010. Inauthentic Sovereignty: Law and Legal Institutions in Manchukuo. Journal of Asian Studies 69, 3: 749–70.
Duncan John. 1998. Proto-Nationalism in Premodern Korea. In Lee Sang-oak and Park Duk-soo, eds., Perspectives on Korea. Sydney: Wild Peony Press, 198221.
Elkins Caroline and Pedersen Susan, eds. 2005. Settler Colonialism in the Twentieth Century: Projects, Practices, Legacies. New York: Routledge.
Elliott Mark C. 2000. The Limits of Tartary: Manchuria in Imperial and National Geographies. Journal of Asian Studies 59, 3: 603–46.
Endō Masataka. 2010. Kindai Nihon no Shokuminchi Tōchi ni okeru Kokuseki to Koseki: Manshū, Chōsen, Taiwan (The nationality and the family registration in Japan's colonial rule). Tokyo: Akashi Shoten.
Esselstrom Erik. 2009. Crossing Empire's Edge: Foreign Ministry Police and Japanese Expansionism in Northeast Asia. Honolulu: University of Hawaìi Press.
Fitzgerald David. 2009. A Nation of Emigrants: How Mexico Manages Its Migration. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Fujitani Takashi. 2011. Race for Empire: Koreans as Japanese and Japanese as Americans during World War II. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Gabaccia Donna R. and Hoerder Dirk, eds. 2011. Connecting Seas and Connected Ocean Rims: Indian, Atlantic, and Pacific Oceans and China Seas Migrations from the 1830s to the 1930s. Boston: Brill.
Gabaccia Donna R. and Ottanelli Fraser M., eds. 2005. Italian Workers of the World: Labor Migration and the Formation of Multiethnic States. Champaign: University of Illinois Press.
Glick Schiller Nina. 2005. Long Distance Nationalism. In Ember Melvin, Ember Carol R., and Skoggard Ian, eds., Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures around the World. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 570–79.
Go Julian. 2009. The ‘New’ Sociology of Empire and Colonialism. Sociology Compass 3: 114.
Gottschang Thomas and Lary Diana. 2000. Swallows and Settlers: The Great Migration from North China to Manchuria. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.
Green Nancy L. and Weil François, eds. 2007. Citizenship and Those Who Leave: The Politics of Emigration and Expatriation. Champaign: University of Illinois Press.
Han Suk-Jung. 1995. Puppet Sovereignty: The State Effect of Manchukuo, from 1932 to 1936. PhD diss., Dept. of Sociology, University of Chicago.
Harper Marjory and Constantine Stephen. 2010. Migration and Empire. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hirschman Albert O. 1970. Exit, Voice, and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Hoerder Dirk. 2002. Cultures in Contact: World Migrations in the Second Millennium. Durham: Duke University Press.
Hoffman Katherine E. 2010. Berber Law by French Means: Customary Courts in the Moroccan Hinterlands, 1930–1956. Comparative Studies in Society and History 52, 4: 851–80.
Horiguchi Noriko. 2011. Women Adrift: The Literature of Japan's Imperial Body. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Hwang Kyung Moon. 2004. Citizenship, Social Equality, and Government Reform: Changes in the Household Registration System in Korea, 1894–1910. Modern Asian Studies 38, 2: 355–87.
Hwang Kyung Moon. 2007. Nation, State and the Modern Transformation of Korean Social Structure in the Early Twentieth Century. History Compass 5, 2: 330–46.
Jung Jong-Hyun. 2007. Ttakchibon Taejung Sosŏre Natanan ‘Manju’ P'yosang (The representations about Manchuria shown in ‘Ddakjibon’ popular novels). Hanguk Munhak Yŏngu 33: 5394.
Kantō Kyokukogai Minkaikyō ken Kantō Hunchun Minkai Rengōkai Shikko Iinchō Ch'oe Ch'ungju no Kyūso (Imploration of Ch'oe Ch'ungju, chair of the Korean Association in Yanji and chair of the Executive Committee of the Federation of Korean Associations in Hunchun). 1971 [1930]. In Saitō Makoto Bunsho: Chosen Sotoku Jidai Kankei Shiryo 11: 287.
Kawashima Ken C. 2009. The Proletarian Gamble: Korean Workers in Interwar Japan. Durham: Duke University Press.
Kim Jaeeun. 2011. Colonial Migration and Transborder Membership Politics in Twentieth-Century Korea. PhD diss., Dept. of Sociology, University of California at Los Angeles.
Kim Kihoon. 1992. Japanese Policy for Korean Rural Immigration to Manchukuk, 1932–1945. PhD diss., Dept. of History, University of Hawaìi at Manoa.
Kim Man-sŏn. 1989. “Ijung Kukchŏk” (Dual Nationality), “Kwigukcha” (Repatriates). In Im Sŏ-ha, Kim Mansŏn, Chi Ha-ryŏn Sŏnjip. Seoul, Korea: Samsŏng Ch'ulp'ansa. (Stories originally published in 1948).
Kim Marie Seong-Hak. 2007. Law and Custom under the Chosŏn Dynasty and Colonial Korea: A Comparative Perspective. Journal of Asian Studies 66, 4: 1067–97.
Kim Richard S. 2011. The Quest for Statehood: Korean Immigrant Nationalism and U.S. Sovereignty, 1905–1945. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kim Seonmin. 2006. Borders and Crossings: Trade, Diplomacy, and Ginseng between Qing China and Choson Korea. PhD diss., Dept. of History, Duke University.
Kim Tae-kook. 2002. Manjujiyŏk ‘Chosŏnin Minhoe’ Yŏngu (On study about pro-Japanese Korean People's Association of Manchuria). PhD diss., Dept. of Korean History, Kookmin University, Seoul.
Kim Ŭiyong. 1935. Chōsen Shisōkai Kaiko: Zaiman Chōsenin Shidōmondai (Reflections on the world of thoughts in Korea: The question of the guidance of Koreans in Manchuria). Zenman Chōsenjin Minkai Rengōkai Kaibō 27: 34.
Kwon Taesan. 1933. Zaiman Chōsenjin Mondaini Kanshite (On the problems of Koreans in Manchuria). n.p.: Mansen Kenkyūsha.
Lee Hyun-Jeong. 2009. Reimagining the Nation in Manchuria: The Representation of Peasant Collectivity in Chinese and Korean Discourses on the Wanbaoshan Incident (1931). PhD diss., Dept. of East Asian Languages and Civilizations, University of Chicago.
Lie John. 2004. Modern Peoplehood. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Lie John. 2008. Zainichi (Koreans in Japan): Diasporic Nationalism and Postcolonial Identity. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Liu Binghu. 2002. Chaeman Haninŭi Kukchŏk Munje Yŏngu, 1881–1911 (A study on the issues of nationality concerning Korean people in Manchu Territory, 1881–1911). PhD diss., Dept. of History, Chung-ang University, Seoul.
Longman Timothy. 2001. Identity Cards, Ethnic Self-Perception, and Genocide in Rwanda. In Caplan Jane and Torpey John, eds., Documenting Individual Identity: The Development of State Practices in the Modern World. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 345–57.
Loveman Mara. 2005. The Modern State and the Primitive Accumulation of Symbolic Power. American Journal of Sociology 110, 6: 1651–83.
Lynn Hyung Gu. 2005. Malthusian Dreams, Colonial Imaginary: The Oriental Development Company and Japanese Emigration to Korea. In Elkins Caroline and Pedersen Susan, eds., Settler Colonialism in the Twentieth Century: Projects, Practices, Legacies. New York: Routledge, 2540.
Mamdani Mahmood. 1996. Citizen and Subject: Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of Late Colonialism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Mann Michael. 1986. The Sources of Social Power: A History of Power from the Beginning to A.D. 1760, Volume 1. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Manshū no Chōsenjin Shidō Hōan (Guidelines for the treatment of Koreans in Manchuria). 1933. Issued by the Kwantung Army in December.
McKeown Adam M. 2008. Melancholy Order: Asian Migration and the Globalization of Borders. New York: Columbia University Press.
Miyata Setsuko, Kim Yŏng-dal, and Yang T'ae-ho. 1992. Sōshi Kaimei (The Japanization of Korean names). Tokyo: Akashi Shoten.
Mizuno Naoki. 2008. Ch'angssi Kaemyŏng: Ilbonŭi Chosŏn Chibaewa Irŭmŭi Chŏngch'ihak (The Japanization of Korean names: Japanese imperialism and the politics of names). T'ae-jŏng Seon, trans. Seoul: Sanch'ŏrŏm.
Mullaney Thomas S. 2011. Coming to Terms with the Nation: Ethnic Classification in Modern China. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Noiriel Gérard. 1996. The French Melting Pot: Immigration, Citizenship, and National Identity. de Laforcade Geoffroy, trans. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Noiriel Gérard. 2001. The Identification of the Citizen: The Birth of Republican Civil Status in France. In Caplan Jane and Torpey John, eds., Documenting Individual Identity: The Development of State Practices in the Modern World. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2848.
Northrup David. 1995. Indentured Labor in the Age of Imperialism, 1834–1922. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Oguma Eiji. 2002. A Genealogy of “Japanese Self-Images.” Askew David, trans. Melbourne: Transpacific Press.
Oh Changhyun and Ryu Sang Yun. 2009. Tamyŏng Sahoeesŏ Ilmyŏng Sahoero: Chŏllabukdo Sunch'anggun Han Maŭrŭi Chokpowa Hojŏkpurŭl T'onghae Pon Irŭm Kijae Kwansŭbŭi Pyŏnhwa (From multiple names to a single name). Hanguk Munhwa Illyuhak 42, 2: 107–44.
Ooms Herman. 1998. Tokugawa Ideology: Early Constructs, 1570–1680. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Palais James B. 1996. Confucian Statecraft and Korean Institutions: Yu Hyŏngwŏn and the Late Chosŏn Dynasty. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Park Alyssa. 2009. Borderland Beyond: Korean Migrants and the Creation of a Modern Boundary between Korea and Russia, 1860–1937. PhD diss., Dept. of History, Columbia University.
Park Hyun Ok. 2005. Two Dreams in One Bed: Empire, Social life, and the Origins of the North Korean Revolution in Manchuria. Durham: Duke University Press.
Piao Jinhai. 2005. Manju Sabyŏnhu Iljeŭi Chaeman Chosŏnin Kyoyuk Chŏngch'aek Yŏngu (A study of the educational policies towards Korean residents in Manchuria after the Manchurian incident). Dongbang Hakchi 130: 239–77.
Robertson Craig. 2009. A Documentary Regime of Verification: The Emergence of the U.S. Passport and the Archival Problematization of Identity. Cultural Studies 23, 3: 329–54.
Sadiq Kamal. 2008. Paper Citizens: How Illegal Immigrants Acquire Citizenship in Developing Countries. New York: Oxford University Press.
Saengjon'gwŏne Kwanhan Chawich'aek (A measure of self-defense for survival). 1927. Tonga ilbo, 9 Dec.
Schmid Andre. 2002. Korea between Empires: 1895–1919. New York: Columbia University Press.
Scott James C. 1998. Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Scott James C., Tehranian John, and Mathias Jeremy. 2002. The Production of Legal Identities Proper to States: The Case of the Permanent Family Surname. Comparative Studies in Society and History 44, 1: 444.
Seo Ho Chul. 2006. 1890–1930 nyŏndae Chumin Tŭngnok Chedowa Kŭndaejŏk T'ongch'isŏngŭi Hyŏngsŏng: Hojŏk Chedoŭi Pyŏnyonggwa ‘Naemu Haengjŏngŭl Chungsimŭro (Registration of people and emergence of governmentality in Korea, 1890s to 1930s). PhD diss., Dept. of Sociology, Seoul National University.
Shin Gi-Wook. 2006. Ethnic Nationalism in Korea: Genealogy, Politics, and Legacy. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Sin Gyu Seob. 2002. Teikoku Nihon no Minjoku Seikoku to Zaiman Chōsenjin (The nationality policies of the Japanese Empire and Koreans in Manchuria). PhD diss., Dept. of Humanities, Tokyo Provincial University.
Son Chunil. 2001. Haebang Chŏn Tongbuk Chosŏnjok T'oji Kwan'gye Yŏngu (A study of the land relations of Koreans in northeast China before liberation). Jilin, China: Kilim Inmin Ch'ulp'ansa.
Steinmetz George. 2007. The Devil's Handwriting: Precoloniality and the German Colonial State in Qingdao, Samoa, and Southwest Africa. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Stoler Ann L. 1992. Sexual Affronts and Racial Frontiers: European Identities and the Cultural Politics of Exclusion in Colonial Southeast Asia. Comparative Studies in Society and History 34, 3: 514–51.
Stoler Ann L. 2002. Carnal Knowledge and Imperial Power: Race and the Intimate in Colonial Rule. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Tamanoi Mariko Asano. 2000. Knowledge, Power, and Racial Classification: The ‘Japanese’ in ‘Manchuria.’ Journal of Asian Studies 59, 2: 248–76.
Tamanoi Mariko Asano. 2005. Crossed Histories: Manchuria in the Age of Empire. Honolulu: University of Hawaìi Press.
Tanaka Ryūichi. 2004. Nitteino ‘Manchukuo’ Tōchito Zaiman Chosenjin Mondai: Gozokukyōwato Naisenittaino Sōkoku (Japan's governance of Manchukuo and the problem of Koreans in Manchuria: The incompatibility between Gozokukyōwa and Naisenittai). Manju Yŏngu 1, 1: 89108.
Torpey John. 2000. The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship, and the State. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Uchida Jun. 2011. Brokers of Empire: Japanese Settler Colonialism in Korea, 1876–1945. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Vail Leroy, ed. 1989. The Creation of Tribalism in Southern Africa. Berkeley: University of California Press.
van der Veer Peter, ed. 1995. Nation and Migration: The Politics of Space in the South Asian Diaspora. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Wang Gungwu. 2002. The Chinese Overseas: From Earthbound China to the Quest for Autonomy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Watt Lori. 2009. When Empire Comes Home: Repatriation and Reintegration in Postwar Japan. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Weiner Michael. 1994. Race and Migration in Imperial Japan. New York: Routledge.
Winichakul Thongchai. 1994. Siam Mapped: A History of the Geo-body of a Nation. Honolulu: University of Hawaìi Press.
Yamamuro Shin'ichi. 2006. Manchuria: Under Japanese Domination. Fogel Joshua A., trans. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Yang Hyunah. 1998. Envisioning Feminist Jurisprudence in Korean Family Law at the Crossroads of Tradition/Modernity. PhD diss., Dept. of Sociology, New School for Social Research.
Yoon Hwy Tak. 2001. Manjugugŭi ‘2dŭng Kuk(Kong)min,’ Kŭ Silsanggwa Hŏsang (The second nation of ‘Manchukuo’, with special reference to the national identity of Koreans in Manchuria). Yŏksa Hakpo 169: 139–71.
Yoon Hwy Tak. 2012. ‘Minjok Hyŏphwaŭi Hŏsang: Manjuguk Kyŏngcharŭi Minjok Kusŏnggua Minjok Mosun (The illusion of the “Cooperation and Harmony of Ethnic Groups”: Ethnic composition and conflict within the Manchukuo police). Tongyang Sahak Yŏngu 119: 227–63.
Young Crawford. 1976. The Politics of Cultural Pluralism. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Young Robert. 1995. Colonial Desire: Hybridity in Theory, Culture and Race. New York: Routledge.
Zolberg Aristide R. 2003. The Archaeology of ‘Remote Control.’ In Fahmeir Andreas, Faron Oliver, and Weil Patrick, eds., Migration Control in the Old Atlantic World: The Evolution of State Practices in Europe and the United States from the French Revolution to the Interwar Period. Oxford: Berghahn Books, 195222.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Comparative Studies in Society and History
  • ISSN: 0010-4175
  • EISSN: 1475-2999
  • URL: /core/journals/comparative-studies-in-society-and-history
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 6
Total number of PDF views: 100 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 315 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 16th January 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.