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From Avoidance to Confrontation: Peasant Protest in Precolonial and Colonial Southeast Asia

  • Michael Adas (a1)

Although there has been a dramatic broadening of the definition of social protest in recent years to include collective behavior that was once dismissed as criminal, irrational, or insignificant, our attention has continued to be focused on movements involving direct, often violent, confrontations between the wielders of power and dissident groups. Avoidance protest, by which dissatisfied groups seek to attenuate their hardships and express their discontent through flight, sectarian withdrawal, or other activities that minimize challenges to or clashes with those whom they view as their oppressors, has at best remained a secondary concern of students of social protest. Although specific forms of avoidance protest, such as the flight of slaves in the plantation zones of the Americas or the migration or serfs to the towns of medieval Europe and peasants to the frontiers of Tsarist Russia, have merited a prominent place in the historical literature on some societies and time periods, avoidance protest has rarely been systematically analyzed as a phenomenon in itself. There have been few detailed studies of the diverse forms which avoidance protest may take and the ways in which these are shaped by the sociopolitical contexts in which they develop. This neglect is serious because in many societies and time periods (perhaps in most in the preindustrial era), modes of protest oriented to avoidance rather than confrontation have been the preferred and most frequently adopted means of resisting oppression and expressing dissatisfaction.

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1 For sample discussions of avoidance protest in each of these situations, see, respectively, Genovese, Eugene D., Roll, Jordan, Roll (New York, 1972), esp. pp. 648–57, and Mullin, Gerald, Flight and Rebellion: Slave Resistance in Eighteenth Century Virginia (New York, 1972); Hilton, Rodney, Bond Men Made Free (New York, 1973), esp. ch. 2, and Bennett, H.S., Life on the English Manor (Cambridge, 1937), ch. 11; Blum, Jerome, Lord and Peasant in Russia (Princeton, 1961), esp. ch. 14.

2 Notable recent exceptions to this trend include the work of Fernandez, James, and especially his article on “The Affirmation of Things Past: Alar Ayong and Bwiti as Movements of Protest in Central and Northern Gabon,” in Protest and Power in Black Africa, Rotberg, Robert and Mazrui, Ali, eds. (Oxford, 1970), pp. 427–57; Asiwaju, A.I.'s article on “Migrations as Revolt: The Example of the Ivory Coast and the Upper Volta Before 1945,” Journal of African History 17, no. 4 (1976): 577–94; Isaacman, Allen, The Tradition of Resistance in Mozambique (Berkeley, 1976), ch. 5.

3 For examples, see Moertono, Soermarsaid, State and Statecraft in Old Java (Ithaca, N.Y. 1968), pp. 35ff.; Thaung, , “Burmese Kingship in Theory and Practice under the Reign of King Mindon,” Journal of the Burma Research Society (hereafter cited as JBRS) 42 (1959): 178–83; Spellman, John W., Political Theory of Ancient India (Oxford, 1964), ch. 8; Gluckman, Max, “The Kingdom of the Zulu in South Africa,” in African Political Systems, Fortes, M. and Evans-Pritchard, E.E., eds. (London, 1940), esp. pp. 2834.

4 Weber, Max, Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology, Roth, G. and Wittich, C., eds. (New York, 1968), vol. 3, ch. 12. To a lesser degree than empires in the Islamic heartland or Mughal India, Javanese and Burmese administrative systems also contained prebendal elements.

5 Court intrigues and succession disputes received much attention in earlier historical works on Burma and Java, as the writings of G.E.Harvey, Arthur Phayre, M.L.van Deventer, and H.J. de Graaf amply illustrate. For more recent studies which attempt to relate these phenomena to broader political analyses, see Koenig, William, “The Early Kon-baung Polity, 1752–1819” (Ph.D. diss., University of London, 1978), chs. 6,7; or Lieberman, Victor, “The Burmese Dynastic Pattern, circa 1590–1760” (Ph.D. diss., University of London, 1976); and Carey, Peter, “Pangeran Dipanagara and Origins of the Java War, 1825–1830,” in Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk lnstituut (Leiden, forthcoming), ch.2. For Indian examples, see the writings of Satish Chandra or Athar Ali on the Mughal court and nobility; for Africa, see Wilks, Ivor, Asante in the Nineteenth Century (Cambridge, 1975), esp. 12; Gluckman, Max, Custom and Conflict in Africa (Glencoe, 111., 1959), pp. 39, 43, 45–6, et passim.

6 For discussion of regional autonomy, see Moertono, , State and Statecraft, pp. 88ff., 104–5, 107, 134; Graaf,, De Regering van Sultan Agung, Vorst van Mararam, 1613–1645 (The Hague, 1958), pp. 118–21; Koenig, , “Early Kòn-baung Polity,” pp. 34–6, 41ff.; Lieberman, ,“Burmese Dynastic Pattern,” pp. 36, 3940, 45, 120ff., 227ff. For a superb study of this pattern in India, see Fox, Richard G., Kin, Clan, Raja and Rule (Berkeley, 1971). For African examples, see Gluckman, , Custom and Conflict, pp. 34–5, 3744; Bradbury, R.E., “The Kingdom of Benin,” in West African Kingdoms in the Nineteenth Century, Forde, D. and Kaberry, P.M., eds. (Oxford, 1967), pp. 56, 9, 27; Vansina, Jan, “A Comparison of African Kingdoms,” Africa 32 (1963): 329–30.

7 Graaf, De, De Regering van Sultan Agung, p. 119; Carey, Peter, “Origins of the Java War,” manuscript, pp. 811; Onghokham, , “The Residency of Madiun Pryayi and Peasant in the Nineteenth Century” (Ph.D. diss., Yale University, 1975), pp. 44ff., 6061, 84; Davelaar, W.A.J.van, “Middenpersonen tusschen de districts-beambten en desahoofden op Java,” Tijdschrifi voor Indische Taal, Land, en Volkenkunde (hereinafter cited as TGB) 34 (1891): 365–72; Koenig, , “Early Kon-baung Polity,” pp. 273ff., esp. pp. 295–96, 303–7; Breazeale, Kennon, “Thai Provincial Minority Elites” (Paper read at the Seventh Conference of the International Historians of Asia,Bangkok,1977), pp. 34, 1112;Hasan, S.N., “Zamindars under the Mughals,” in Land Control and Social Structure in Indian History, Frykenberg, R.E., ed. (Madison, Wisc., 1969), pp. 1732.

8 Koenig, , “Early Kòn-baung Polity,” pp. 245–46, 311–12; Sein, Daw Mya, Sir Charles Crosthwaite and the Administration of British Burma (Rangoon, 1938), pp. 63–4, 67–8.

9 Sein, Mya, Sir Charles Crosthwaite, pp. 47, 67, 69, 72; Furnivall, J.S., “Notes on the History of Hanthawaddy,” JBRS 4, no. 4 (1914): 209; Kyan, Mya, “Village Administration in Upper Burma,” JBRS 52 (1969): 68; Onghokham, , “Residency of Madiun Pryayi,” pp. 6368; Raffles, Thomas, The History of Java (London, 1817), vol. 1, pp. 145, 284–86; Beattie, John, The Nvoro State (Oxford, 1971), pp.132ff.; Gluckman, , Custom and Conflict, pp. 3541, 5152;Berque, Jacques, Egypt: Imperialism and Revolution (New York, 1972), esp. pp. 5157.

10 For detailed discussions of transport and communication difficulties in central Java and the Javanese military system, see Louw, Pieter and Klerck,, De Java-Oorlog van 1825–1830 (The Hague-Batavia, 18941909), vol. 1, pp. 2350, 203–8. For a discussion of the population of Java in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, see Peper, Bram, Grootte en Groei van Java's Inheemse Bevolking in de Negentiende Eeuw (Amsterdam, 1967). For Burma, see Scott, James G. [Shway Yoe], The Burman: His Life and Notions (New York, 1963), ch. 54; Burney, Henry, “On the Population of the Burman Empire,” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society of London 4, no. 4 (1842): 335–47.

11 For an incisive discussion of these patterns, see Ricklefs, Merle, Jogjakarta under Sultan Mangkubumi, 1749–1792 (Oxford, 1974), ch. 1.

12 Max Weber has analyzed these control devices in general terms. See Economy and Society, vol. 3, pp. 1042–44. For Java, see Onghokham, , “Residency of Madiun Pryayi,” pp. 15, 3536, 4043, 61ff.; Rouffaer, G.P. “Vorstenlanden,” Encyclopedia van Nederlandsch-Indie (The Hague, 1905), vol. 4, pp. 588–90, 624–25. For Burma, see Koenig, , “Early Kon-baung Polity,” pp. 40, 249ff., 312–20; Lieberman, , “Burmese Dynastic Pattern,” pp. 88, 129ff. For African examples, see Kamgire, S.R., A History of the Kingdom ofNkore in Western Uganda to 1896 (Oxford, 1971), pp. 64ff.; Beattie, , Nyoro State, pp. 137–39.

13 In the more highly developed bureaucratic system found in China, officials were prohibited, at least in times of dynastic strength, from serving in their home districts. This was not the case in Java or Burma.

14 Beattie, , Nyoro State, pp. 138ff.; Richards, John F., ed., Kingship and Authority in South Asia (Madison, Wisc., 1978), pp. iii, v.

15 Koenig, , “Early Kòn-baung Polity,” pp. 35, 4041et passim; Lieberman, , “Burmese Dynastic Pattern, ” p. 124. The most graphic account of the use of spies and subterfuge in this sort of polity remains Vishakadatta's play, The Signet Ring of Rakshasa. See Lal, P., Great Sanskrit Plays (New York, 1957).

16 Carey, , “Originsof the Java War,” pp. 610; J.L.V., “Bijdrage tot de kennis der residentie Madioen,” Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië (hereafter cited as TNI) 17, no. 2 (1855): 23, 78; De toestand van Bagelen in 1830,” TNI 20, no. 2 (1858): 30; Koenig, , “Early Kon-baung Polity,” esp. pp. 308–12; and Lieberman, , p. 186.

17 Moertono, , State and Statecraft, pp. 139–40, 143–44. See also Onghokham, , “Residency of Madiun Pryayi1,” pp. 9596; Scott, James G. and Hardiman, John P., Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States (Rangoon, 1900), vol. 1, pp. 413, 416–18; Koenig, , “Early Kon-baung Polity,“ pp. 95, 312, 315–16.

18 Onghokham, , “Residency of Madiun Pryayi,” pp. 167–76, 199200;Carey, , “Origins ofthe Java War,” pp. 6, 89, 3738, 4042, 50; J.L.V., “Kennis der Madioen,” pp. 56, 9; Sein, Mya, Sir Charles Crosthwaite, pp. 4041, 52, 65, 6769; Scott, and Hardiman, , Gazetteer of Upper Burma, pp. 415–16.

19 Kollman, M.J.H., “Bagelen onder het bestuur van Soerkarta en Djokjokarta,” TGB 14 (1864): 362–64, 368. For greater detail and regional variations, see Bergsma, W., comp., Eindresume… de rechten van den inlander op de grond op Java en Madoera, 3 vols. (Batavia, 1876, 1880, 1896). Insofar as I am aware, information of comparable quality on precolonial conditions in village Burma is not available.

20 For examples, see Chesneaux, Jean, Contributions à l'histoire de la nation Vietnamienne (Paris, 1955), pp. 91ff.; Gluckman, , Custom and Conflict, pp. 39, 43, 45; and Myrdal, Jan and Kessel, Gun, Angkor: An Essay on Art and Imperialism (New York, 1970). For a discussion of the low incidence of peasant rebellion in precolonial Java, see Moertono, , State and Statecraft, pp. 5, 75.

21 Alroy, Gil Carl, The Involvement of Peasants in Internal Wars (Princeton, 1966), esp. pp. 12, 1820.

22 See, for examples, Koenig, , “Early Kon-baung Polity,” pp. 9192; Gluckman, , “Kingdom of the Zulu,” pp. 4344; Khôi, LêThanh, Le Viêtnam: histoire et civilisation (Paris, 1955), pp. 296310.

23 Moertono, , State and Statecraft, pp. 56; Imhoff, Gustaaf W. van, “Reis van den Gouverneur-General van Imhoff in het Jaar 1746,”; Bijdragen tot Taal-Land-, en Volkenkunde (hereafter cited as BKI) 1, no. 3 (1853): 361–62, 409.

24 Moertono, , State and Statecraft, pp. 7677; deGraaf, H.J., Geschiedenis van lndonesie (The Hague, 1949), pp. 428–29. For Burma, see Scott, and Hardiman, , Gazetteer of Upper Burma, vol. 1, p. 432; Sein, Mya, Sir Charles Crosthwaite, p. 67. For a form of protest similar to the sit-in on the alun-alun, see Spodek, Howard, “On the Origins of Gandhi's Political Methodology: The Heritage of Kathiawad and Gujarat,” Journal of Asian Studies 30, no. 2 (1971): 361–72.

25 Carey, , “Origins of the Java War,” p. 10; “De toestand van Bagelen,” p. 81; Rouffaer, , “Vorstenlanden,” p. 624; Raffles, , History of Java, p. 284.

26 Koenig, , “Early Kòn-baung Polity,” esp. 128–30; Moertono, , State and Statecraft, pp. 104ff.; Rabibhadana, Akin, The Organization of Thai Society in the Early Bangkok Period(Ithaca, N.Y., 1969), esp. pp. 8289; Beattie, , Nyoro State, pp. 132–33, 137, et passim.

27 For a brilliant analysis of these patterns, see Hanks, Lucien M., “Merit and Power in Thai Social Order,” American Anthropologist 64, no. 6 (1962): 1247–62.

28 Carey, , “Origins of the Java War,” p. 19; Moertono, , State and Statecraft, p. 76; Rabibhadana, Akin, Organization of Thai Society, p. 87. For an African parallel, see Karugire, , History of Kingdom of Nkore, pp. 105–6.

29 Onghokham, , “Residency of Madiun Pryayi,” p. 44; Rabibhadana, Akin, Organization of Thai Society, p. 181–82.

30 Sein, Mya, Sir Charles Crosthwaite, p. 67; Crosthwaite, Charles, The Pacification of Burma (London, 1912), pp. 56.

31 Lieberman, , “Burmese Dynastic Pattern,” pp. 45, 165, 189, 190, 196ff., 205–6, 221–22.For other areas, see Beattie, , Nyoro State, p. 137; Habib, Irfan, The Agrarian System of Mughal India (Bombay, 1963), pp. 116–17, 334ff.; Vansina, , “Comparison of African Kingdoms,” p. 326.

32 Koenig, , “Early Kòn-baung Polity,” pp. 304–5, 321–22; Lieberman, , “Burmese Dynastic Pattern,” 102; Rouffaer, , “Vorstenlanden,” p. 624; Carey, , “Origins of the Java War,” pp. 910; Breazeale, , “Thai Provincial Minority Elites,” pp. 34; and Vansina, , “Comparison of African Kingdoms,” p. 326.

33 Deventer, M.L.van, Geschiedenis der Nederlanders op Java (Haarlem, 18861887), vol. 1, pp. 127, 158, 230, 255, 301, 313; Hopkins, Elizabeth, “The Nyabingi Cult of Southwest Uganda,” in Protest and Power, Rotberg, and Mazrui, , eds., p. 283.

34 Moertono, , State and Statecraft, p. 76.

35 Crosthwaite, , Pacification of Bruma, pp. 57; Imhoff, Gustaaf W. van, “Reis van den Gouvemeur-General Gustaaf Willem Baron van Imhoff in en door je Jakatrasche Bovenlanden in 1744,” BKI 7 (1863): 234, 237, 244, 247. For another social pattern which also provided a high degree of mobility and potential for avoidance migration, see Woodside, Alexander's discussion of the boat people of Cochin China in Vietnam and the Chinese Model (Cambridge, Mass., 1971), p. 141.

36 For examples, see Moertono, , State and Statecraft, pp. 7576, 145ff.; Raffles, , History of Java, vol. 1, p. 273; Carey, , “Origins of the Java War,” pp. 11, 4243; Koenig, , “Early Kon-baung Polity,” pp. 8892, 130, 144.

37 Deventer, van, Geschiedenis der Nederlanders, vol. 1, pp. 155, 199; Kollman, , “Bagelen onderhet Bestuur,” p. 354; Lieberman, , “Burmese Dynastic Pattern,” p. 45; Gluckman, , “Kingdom of the Zulus,” p. 42.

38 Schrieke, B., Indonesian Sociological Studies (The Hague, 1957), vol. 2, pp. 300301; Moertono, , State and Statecraft, pp. 56, 75; Onghokham, , “Residency of Madiun Piyayi,” pp. 154, 175, 188, 224: Lieberman, , “Burmese Dynastic Pattern,” pp. 45, 52; Rabibhadana, Akin, Organization of Thai Society, pp. 73, 8788; Tignor, Robert, The Colonial Transformation of Kenya (Princeton, 1976), p. 66. For the fortress-defiance pattern, see Kamambo, I.N., “Mbiru, Popular Protest in Colonial Tanzania, 1944–47,” in War and Society in Africa, Ogot, B.A., ed. (London, 1972), p. 242.

39 Carey, , “Origins of the Java War,” pp. 1415; Louw, and de Klerck, , Java-Oorlog, vol. 1, pp. 2526; Pigeaud, Th., Javaanse Volksvertoningen (Batavia, 1938), pp. 3536; Koenig, , “Early Kòn-baung Polity,” p. 90; Lieberman, , “Burmese Dynastic Pattern,” p. 45; Chesneaux, , Contributions à l'histoires, p. 40; Berque, , Egypt: Imperialism and Revolution, p. 130.

40 Tun, Than, “Administration under King Thalun (1629–48),” JBRS 51, no. 2 (1968): 177–80; Lieberman, , “Burmese Dynastic Pattern,” p. 120; Rabibhadana, Akin, Organization of Thai Society, pp. 7374; Onghokham, , “Residency of Madiun Pryayi,” p. 37.

41 Tin, Pe Maung and Luce, G.H., The Glass Palace Chronicle of the Kings of Burma (Oxford, 1923), p. 177; Wiselius, J.A.B., “Djaja Baja, zijn leven en profetieen,”BKI 7 (1872): 185.

42 Tun, Than, “Administration under King Thalun,” pp. 181, 186–87; Lieberman, , “Burmese Dynastic Pattern,” pp. 45, 161, 203–4, 217; AungThwin, Michael, “Kingship, the Sangha and Society in P agan,” in Explorations in Early Southeast Asian History: Origins of Statecraft, Hall, K. and Whitmore, J., eds. (Ann Arbor, Mich., 1976), pp. 205–56; Rabibhadana, Akin, Organization of Thai Society, p. 87.Victor Lieberman argues in a recent article that Aung Thwin has overestimated the importance of this pattern in the post-Pagan period. See The Political Significance of Religious Wealth in Burmese History: Some Further Thoughts,” Journal of Asian Studies 39, no. 4 (1980): 753–69.

43 Fokkens, F., “Vrije Desa's op Java en Madoera,” TGB 31 (1886): 477517; J.L.V., “Kennis der Madioen,” pp. 1011; Onghokham, , “Residency of Madiun Pryayi,” p. 46. For a somewhat different view of perdikan conditions late in the nineteenth century, see Gorkom, K.W.van, “Over het desabestuur op Java,” Indische Gids (hereafter cited as IG) 27, no. 2 (1905): 1028–29.

44 Dumont, Louis, Homo Hierarchius (London, 1970), pp. 230–33.

45 On the traditions of cult and eschatological protest in Java and Burma respectively, see Adas, Michael, Prophets of Rebellion: Millenarian Protest against the European Colonial Order(Chapel Hill, N.C., 1979), pp. 9799, 101–2.

46 Moertono, , State and Statecraft, pp. 7779; Kartoni, Margaret J., “Performance, Music andc Meaning of Reyog Ponorogo,” Indonesia 22 (1976): 114–15; Anderson, Benedict R.O'G., Mythology and the Tolerance of the Javanese (Ithaca, N.Y., 1965), p. 28; Aung, Maung Htin, Burmese Law Tales (London, 1962), esp. pp. 6871, 9495, 103–4, 120–21, 146–47; idem, Epistles Written on the Eve of the Anglo-Burmese War (The Hague, 1968), p. 27; idem, Burmese Drama (Oxford, 1937), pp. 1920, 5051, 74, 77, 8687, 107–8.

47 For the original formulation of this concept, see Hobsbawm, Eric, Primitive Rebels (New York, 1959), ch. 2. For a later elaboration, see idem.Bandits (New York, 1969), and the incisive critique by Blok, Anton, “The Peasant and the Brigand: Social Banditry Reconsidered,” Comparative Studies in Society and History 14 (1972): 494503.

48 On banditry in precolonial Java and Burma, see Moertono, , State and Statecraft, pp. 8586, 185; Onghokham, , “Residency of Madiun Pryayi,” pp. 1617, 6569, 86; Graaf, de, Geschiedenis von Indonesié, pp. 102, 205; Lieberman, , “Burmese Dynastic Pattern,” pp. 223–28;Koenig, , “Kon-baung Polity,” pp.15, 8890, 132, 166; Crosthwaite, , Pacification of Burma, pp. 67; Sein, Mya, Administration of Burma, p. 88; Scott, and Hardiman, , Gazetteer of Upper Burma, vol. 1, p. 512. For parallels in other areas, see Khôi, Lê Thanh, Le Viêtnam, pp. 259, 261–62; Berque, , Egypt: Imperialism and Revolution, pp. 130ff.; Franke, Wolfgang, A Century of Chinese Revolution 1851–1949 (New York, 1971), esp. pp. 612.

49 Deventer, Van, Geschiedenis der Nederlanders, vol. 2, pp. 68; Sarkisyanz, E., Buddhist Backgrounds of the Burmese Revolution (The Hague, 1965), p. 70.

50 Koenig, , “Early Kòn-baung Polity,” pp. 9091.

51 Crosthwaite, , Pacification of Burma, pp. 14, 17, 23, 27, 31ff.; Geary, Grattan, Burma after the Conquest (London, 1886), pp. 4647, 71, 232, 276, 292–93; Government of Burma, Report[s] on the Police Administration in Burma (Rangoon, 18881913), esp. those for 1888, 1894, 1902, 1909, 1910, 1912, 1913; Kartodirdjo, Sartono, The Peasants' Revolt of Banten in 1888 (The Hague, 1966), esp. pp. 24, 110–16; Binnenlandsche onlusten op Java,” TNI (1861): 288300; Meijer, D.H., “Over het bendwezen op Java,” Indonesié 3 (19491950): 178–84.

52 Adas, Michael, The Burma Delta: Economic Development and Social Change on an Asian Rice Frontier, 1852–1941 (Madison, Wisc., 1974), ch. 2, 3, 6; J.L.V., “Kennis derMadioen,” p. 6; Onghokham, , “Residency of Madiun Pryayi,” pp. 194, 215–18, 222; Imhoff, van, “Reisvan 1774,” p. 230. For African parallels, see Hopkins, “Nyabingi Cult,” and Lonsdale, J. M., “Political Associations in Western Kenya,” in Protest and Power, Rotberg, and Mazrui, , eds., pp. 283 and 592, respectively.

53 For examples, see Adas, , Prophets of Rebellion, esp. ch.5.

54 Adelante, , “De ontwikkeling van de inlandsche hoofden op Java,” IG 14 (1892): 683–84; Government of Burma, Report on the Settlement Operations in the Bassein and Thongwa Districts, 1888–9 (Rangoon, 1890), p. 23. For Africa, see Isaacman, , Tradition of Resistance in Mozambique, pp. 103–5.

55 Crosthwaite, , Pacification of Burma, p. 23.

56 For examples, see Isaacman, Allen, “Social Banditry in Zimbabwe (Rhodesia) and Mozambique, 1894–1907: An Expression of Early Peasant Protest”, Journal of Southern African Studies 4, no. 1 (1977): 130; Sturtevant, David, Popular Uprisings in the Philippines 1840–1940 (Ithaca, N.Y., 1976), pp. 9495, 127ff.

57 The following discussion of integration of peasant villages into the colonial systems of Java and Burma is based primarily upon Furnivall, J.S., Colonial Policy and Practice (New York, 1956), pp. 7177, 241–43; Sein, Mya, Sir Charles Crosthwaite, pp. 81115, 157, 161, 165–75; Burger, D.H., “Structuurveranderingen in de Javaanse samenleving,” pt. 1, Indonesië 2 (19481949): 381–94. For sample parallels in Subsaharan Africa, see Lonsdale, “Political Associations in Western Kenya,” and Lemarchand, Rene, “The Coup in Rwanda,” in Protest and Power, Rotberg, and Mazrui, , eds., pp. 589–96 and 889–90, respectively. In some areas, the reach of the colonial bureaucracy was more limited until well into the twentieth century. See Washbrook, D.A., The Emergence of Provincial Politics: The Madras Presidency, 1870–1920 (Cambridge, 1976).

58 Scott, and Hardiman, , Gazetteer of Upper Burma, vol. 1, p.416; Government of Burma, Report on Settlement Operations in the Mandalay District, 1892–93 (Rangoon, 1894), p. 24; Onghokham, , “Residency of Madiun Pryayi,” p. 416ff.

59 For a comparative discussion of this process, see Scott, James C., “The Erosion of Patron Client Bonds and Social Change in Southeast Asia,” Journal of Asian Studies 33 (1972): 537.

60 Popkin, Samuel, The Rational Peasant: The Political Economy of Rural Society in Vietnam (Berkeley, 1979), pp. 6166,7172, 76, 8082, et passim.

61 Adas, , Prophets of Rebellion, esp. ch. 3.

62 Carey, , “Origins of the Java War,” p. 15; Adas, , Burma Delta, ch. 6.

63 Benda, Harry and Castles, Lance, “The Samin Movement,” BKI 125, no. 2 (1965): 222–23; and Government of Burma, The Origin and Causes of the Burma Rebellion 1930–1932 (Rangoon, 1934), pp. 3334.

64 Isaacman, , Tradition of Resistance in Mozambique, pp. 98ff., 101, 105–6; Asiwaju, “Migration as Revolt,” passim; Lonsdale, , “Political Associations in Western Kenya,” in Protest and Power, Rotberg, and Mazrui, , eds., p. 592.

65 See Government of Burma, Reports on Police Administration: Sartono, Peasants' Revolt of Banten. For other areas, see Isaacman, , “Social Banditry,” pp. 1516, 19, 23; Sturtevant, , Popular Uprisings, pp. 121ff., 135–36.

66 Sartono, , Peasants' Revolt of Banten, pp. 135–36; Berque, , Egypt: Imperialism and Revolution, pp. 134ff.

67 Onghokham, , “Residency of Madiun Pryayi,” pp. 226, 230; Louw, and de Klerck, , Java Oorlog, vol. 1, pp. 267, 269, 273; Adas, , Burma Delta, pp. 149–50, 203–4; Isaacman, , “Social Banditry” p. 23; idem, Tradition of Resistance in Mozambique, pp. 100101, 107, 115–16; Iliffe, John, “Organization of the Maji Maji Rebellion,” Journal of African History 8 (1967): 499.

68 For a superb illustration of these fears applied to several colonized areas, see Schoemaker, W.J., “Het Mohammedaansche fanatisme,” IG 20, no. 2 (1896): 1517–537. For discussions of actual government overreactions, see Drewes, G.W.J., Drie Javaansche Goeroe's: Hun Leven, Onderricht en Messiasprediking (Leiden, 1925), esp. pp. 3940, 49; Mendelson, E. Michael, State and Sangha in Burma (Ithaca, N.Y., 1975), pp. 173–79; Berque, , Egypt: Imperialism and Revolution, pp. 233, 262.

69 For examples of these forms of protest see, respectively, Kartini, Raden Adjeng, Letters of a Javanese Princess (New York, 1964), p. 60; Brandon, James R., Theatre in Southeast Asia (Cambridge, Mass., 1964), pp. 259, 284–88; Peacock, James L., “Anti-Dutch, Anti-Muslim Drama among Surabaja Proletarians: A Description of Performances and Responses,” Indonesia 4 (1967): 4473; Kartomi, , “Performance, Music, and Meaning,” pp. 115–16; Dahm, Bernhard, Sukarno and the Struggle for Indonesian Independence (Ithaca, N.Y., 1969), esp. pp. 102–5; Myint, Thein Pe, “Her Husband or Her Money,” “Oil,” “Bittersweet,” and “A Song to Make One Weep,” in Selected Short Stories of Thein Pe Myint, Milne, P.M., trans. (Ithaca, N.Y.,1973); Long, Ngo Vinh, Before the Revolution: The Vietnamese Peasants under the French (Cambridge, Mass., 1973); Adas, , Burma Delta, pp. 193–96; and Mendelson, , State and Sangha, pp. 214–21.

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