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Domestic Sovereignty, A‘yan Developmentalism, and Global Microhistory in Modern Egypt

  • Adam Mestyan (a1)

Through a new type of global microhistory, this article explores the remaking of the political system in Egypt before colonialism. I argue that developmentalism and the origins of Arabic monarchism were closely related in 1860s Egypt. Drawing on hitherto unknown archival evidence, I show that groups of Egyptian local notables (a‘yan) sought to cooperate with the Ottoman governor Ismail (r. 1863–1879) in order to gain capital and steam machines, and to participate in the administration. Ismail, on his side, secured a new order of succession from the Ottoman sultan. A‘yan developmentalism was discursively presented in petitions, poems, and treatises acknowledging the new order and naturalizing the governor as an Egyptian ruler. Consultation instead of constitutionalism was the concept to express the new relationship. The collaboration was codified in the Consultative Chamber of Representatives, often interpreted as the first parliament in the Middle East. As a consequence of the sultanic order and the Chamber, Egypt's position within the Ottoman Empire became similar to a pseudo-federal relationship. I conclude by contrasting different ways of pseudo-federalization in the global 1860s, employing a regional, unbalanced comparison with the United Principalities and Habsburg Hungary.

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1 Attachment to undated letter from Sayyid Ahmad Agha Nafi‘, headman of Dandit, to Isma‘il Siddiq Pasha, 421/39, microfilm 199, al-Ma‘iyya al-Saniyya Turki (Turkish correspondence of the Governor's Entourage, henceforth MST), Dar al-Watha'iq al-Qawmiyya (National Archives of Egypt, Cairo; henceforth DWQ). Dandit is a small town in the Daqahliyya Province of Egypt. All translations are my own unless otherwise indicated. Arabic and Ottoman Turkish transliteration follows the simplified standard of the International Journal of Middle East Studies. Names of Ottoman elite individuals are written according to Turkish orthography.

2 Schielke, Samuli, “Hegemonic Encounters: Criticism of Saints Day Festivals and the Formation of Modern Islam in Late 19th and Early 20th Century Egypt,” Die Welt Des Islams 47, 3–4 (2007): 319–55; Barak, On, On Time: Technology and Temporality in Modern Egypt (Berkeley, 2013); Gelvin, James L. and Green, Nile, “Introduction,” in Gelvin, James L. and Green, Nile, eds., Global Muslims in the Age of Steam and Print (Berkeley, 2014), 222 ; Green, Nile, Terrains of Exchange: Religious Economies of Global Islam (New York, 2015), 18 ; Kozma, Liat, Schayegh, Cyrus, and Wishnitzer, Avner, eds., A Global Middle East: Mobility, Materiality and Culture in the Modern Age, 1880–1940 (London, 2015).

3 ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Rafi‘i, ‘Asr Isma‘il (The age of Ismail), 2 vols. (Cairo, 1987 [1932]); Schölch, Alexander, Egypt for the Egyptians! The Socio-Political Crisis in Egypt (London, 1981); Salim, Latifa Muhammad, Al-Quwa al-Ijtima‘iyya fi al-Thawra al-‘Urabiyya (The social force in the ‘Urabi revolution) (Cairo, 1981); Cole, Juan R., Colonialism and Revolution in the Middle East: Social and Cultural Origins of Egypt's ‘Urabi Movement (Princeton, 1993); Weipert-Fenner, Irene, Starke Reformer oder schwache Revolutionäre? Ländliche Notabeln und das ägyptische Parlament in der ʻUrabi-Bewegung, 1866–1882 (Berlin, 2011); Davis, Eric, Challenging Colonialism: Bank Misr and Egyptian Industrialization, 1920–1941 (Princeton, 1983), 2627 ; Gelvin, James, The Modern Middle East: A History, 2d ed. (New York, 2008), 108 .

4 For the analysis of later monarchical systems, see Butovsky, Avriel, “Reform and Legitimacy: The Egyptian Monarchy,” in Roussillon, Alain, ed., Entre réforme sociale et mouvement national (Cairo, 1995); Matt Ellis, “King Me: The Political Culture of Monarchy in Interwar Egypt and Iraq,” M. Phil. thesis, University of Oxford, 2005; De Gayffier-Bonneville, Anne-Claire, L’échec de la monarchie égyptienne, 1942–1952, 2 vols. (Cairo, 2010); Whidden, James, Monarchy and Modernity in Egypt: Politics, Islam and Neo-Colonialism between the Wars (London, 2013).

5 Barak, On, “Outsourcing: Energy and Empire in the Age of Coal, 1820–1911,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 47 (2015): 425–45; Sönmez, Erdem, “From Kanun-ı Kadim (Ancient Law) to Umumun Kuvveti (Force of People): Historical Context of the Ottoman Constitutionalism,” Middle Eastern Studies 52, 1 (2016): 116–34.

6 Brown, Nathan J., Constitutions in a Nonconstitutional World—Arab Basic Laws and the Prospects for Accountable Government (Albany, 2002), 2627 ; EzzelArab, Abdelaziz, “The Fiscal and Constitutional Program of Egypt's Traditional Elites in 1879: A Documentary and Contextual Analysis of ‘al-La'iha al-Wataniyya’ (‘The National Program’),” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 52 (2009): 301–24; Mitchell, Timothy, Colonising Egypt (Berkeley, 1991), 7576 ; Thompson, Elizabeth, Justice Interrupted: The Struggle for Constitutional Government in the Middle East (Cambridge, Mass., 2013), does not mention this institution.

7 Afaf Lutfi al-Sayyid Marsot evaluated that “every concession he gained from it [the Ottoman center] was in fact a new constitutional development”; The Porte and Ismail Pasha's Quest for Autonomy,” Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 12 (1975): 8996, 89; Hunter, Robert, Egypt under the Khedives: From Household Government to Modern Bureaucracy (1984; Cairo, 1999), 53 ; Thompson, Justice Interrupted, 62; Musa, Nifin Muhammad, “Al-Dirasa—al-Hayat al-Niyabiyya fi Misr (Study—the history of parliamentarism in Egypt),” pages h-ta’, in Al-Hayat al-Niyabiyya fi Misr—Mukhtarat min Watha'iq al-Arshif al-Misri (The history of parliamentarism in Egypt: selections from the documents of the Egyptian archive) (Cairo, 2016).

8 Haedrick, Daniel R., The Tools of Empire—Technology and European Imperialism in the Nineteenth Century (New York, 1981); Gelvin and Nile, “Introduction,” 3.

9 Barkey, Karen, Empire of Difference: The Ottomans in Comparative Perspective (Cambridge, 2008), 259–60.

10 Philliou, Christine, Biography of an Empire: Governing Ottomans in an Age of Revolution (Berkeley, 2010), 2527 ; Blumi, Isa, Reinstating the Ottomans: Alternative Balkan Modernities, 1800–1912 (New York, 2011), 4551 ; Yaycioglu, Ali, Partners of the Empire: The Crisis of the Ottoman Order in the Age of Revolutions (Stanford, 2016), 113 .

11 Hourani, Albert, “Ottoman Reform and the Politics of Notables,” in Hourani, Albert, Khoury, Philip, and Wilson, Mary C., eds., The Modern Middle East (London, 2004 [1966]), 83109 .

12 Cuno, Kenneth, “Joint Family Households and Rural Notables in 19th-Century Egypt,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 27, 4 (1995): 485502 ; Gelvin, James L., “The ‘Politics of Notables’ Forty Years After,” Middle East Studies Association Bulletin 40, 1 (2006): 1929 .

13 Toledano, Ehud R., State and Society in Mid-Nineteenth-Century Egypt (Cambridge, 1990); Mitchell, Colonising; Fahmy, Khaled, Mehmed Ali: From Ottoman Governor to Ruler of Egypt (Oxford, 2009); Fahmy, Ziad, Ordinary Egyptians: Creating the Modern Nation through Popular Culture (Stanford, 2011).

14 For social collaboration, see Beik, William, “The Absolutism of Louis XIV as Social Collaboration,” Past & Present 188, 1 (2005): 195224 ; for similar questions, see Davies, Challenging Colonialism, 6–7; Cooper, Frederick, Colonialism in Question—Theory, Knowledge, History (Berkeley, 2005), 27 . Importantly, this is a study about their discursive developmentalism. To tell the story of development through this collaboration would require a longer enquiry. Hammad, Hanan, Industrial Sexuality—Gender, Urbanization, and Social Transformation in Egypt (Austin, 2016); Vitalis, Robert, When Capitalists Collude: Business Conflict and the End of Empire in Egypt (Berkeley, 1995).

15 Gelvin and Green, “Introduction”; Mitchell, Timothy, Carbon Democracy—Political Power in the Age of Oil (London, 2011); Barak, “Outsourcing.”

16 Bayly, Christopher A., The Birth of the Modern World, 1780–1914: Global Connections and Comparisons (Malden, Mass., 2004); Osterhammel, Jürgen, The Transformation of the World: A Global History of the Nineteenth Century (Princeton, 2014).

17 Barak, On Time, 83–87; Daniel Stolz, “The Lighthouse and the Observatory: Islam, Authority, and Cultures of Astronomy in Late Ottoman Egypt,” PhD. diss., Princeton University, 2013; Mestyan, Adam, “Upgrade?—Power and Sound during Ramadan and ‘Id al-Fitr in the Nineteenth-Century Ottoman Arab Provinces,” Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 37, 2 (2017): 262–79.

18 Benton, Lauren A., A Search for Sovereignty: Law and Geography in European Empires, 1400–1900 (Cambridge, 2010); Lewis, Mary, Divided Rule: Sovereignty and Empire in French Tunisia, 1881–1938 (Berkeley, 2014); Minawi, Mostafa, The Ottoman Scramble for Africa: Empire and Diplomacy in the Sahara and the Hijaz (Stanford, 2016); Genell, Aimee M., “Autonomous Provinces and the Problem of ‘Semi-Sovereignty’ in European International Law,” Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies 18, 6 (2016): 533–49; Hanley, Will, Identifying with Nationality: Europeans, Ottomans, and Egyptians in Alexandria (New York, 2017).

19 Anscombe, Frederick, State, Faith, and Nation in Ottoman and Post-Ottoman Lands (New York, 2014), 9093 .

20 Deringil, Selim, The Well-Protected Domains: Ideology and the Legitimation of Power in the Ottoman Empire, 1876–1909 (London, 1998).

21 Karateke, Hakan, “Legitimizing the Ottoman Sultanate: A Framework for Historical Analysis,” in Karateke, H. T. and Reinkowski, M., eds., Legitimizing the Order: The Ottoman Rhetoric of State Power (Leiden, 2005), 1352 .

22 Ceylan, Ayhan, Osmanlı Taşra Idarî Tarzı Olarak Eyâlet-i Mümtâze ve Mısır Uygulaması (İstanbul, 2014); Kızıltoprak, Süleyman, Mehmet Ali Paşa'dan II. Abbas Hilmi Paşa'ya: Mısır'da Osmanlı’nın Son Yüzyılı (İstanbul, 2010); Akalın, Durmuş, Süveyş Kanalı: açılışı ve Osmanlı Devleti'ne Etkisi 1854–1882 (İstanbul, 2015); Aimee Genell, “Empire by Law: Ottoman Sovereignty and the British Occupation of Egypt, 1882–1923,” PhD diss., Columbia University, 2013.

23 See the special issue edited by Taglia, Stefano, Die Welt des Islams 56, 3–4 (2016).

24 Hanley, Identifying with Nationality, 7–8.

25 Darling, Linda T., A History of Social Justice and Political Power in the Middle East (London, 2013); Thompson, Justice Interrupted; McLarney, Ellen, “Freedom, Justice, and the Power of Adab,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 48, 1 (2016): 2546 ; Ghalwash, Maha, “On Justice: Peasants, Petitions and the State in Mid-Nineteenth-Century Egypt,” British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 43, 4 (2016): 523–40.

26 Hourani, Albert, Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age (London, 1962); Philipp, Thomas, “From Rule of Law to Constitutionalism: The Ottoman Context of Arab Political Thought,” in Hanssen, Jens and Weiss, Max, eds., Arabic Thought beyond the Liberal Age: Towards an Intellectual History of the Nahda (Cambridge, 2016), 142–73; Hill, Peter, “Ottoman Despotism and Islamic Constitutionalism in Mehmed Ali's Egypt,” Past & Present 236, 2 (2017): 135–66; see sociology references in the methodology section on patriotism.

27 Mardin, Şerif, The Genesis of Young Ottoman Thought: A Study in the Modernization of Turkish Political Ideas (Princeton, 1962); Davison, Roderic H., Reform in the Ottoman Empire, 1856–1876 (Princeton, 1963); Lewis, Bernard, The Emergence of Modern Turkey (New York, 1965); Zürcher, Erik Jan, Turkey: A Modern History (London, 2004); Çiçek, Nazan, The Young Ottomans: Turkish Critics of the Eastern Question in the Late Nineteenth Century (London, 2010); Yalçınkaya, M. Alper, Learned Patriots: Debating Science, State, and Society in the Nineteenth-Century Ottoman Empire (Chicago, 2015).

28 I learned the expression “segmented sovereignty” from an anonymous CSSH reviewer; it is used casually by Shmuel N. Eisenstadt in several essays, and historian-sociologists, such as Julia Adams in her The Familial State: Ruling Families and Merchant Capitalism in Early Modern Europe (Ithaca, 2005). For “layered sovereignty” see Burbank, Jane and Cooper, Frederick, Empires in World History: Power and the Politics of Difference (Princeton, 2010), 17 .

29 This resembles the method in Green, Terrains.

30 See Davis, Natalie Zemon, Trickster Travels: A Sixteenth-Century Muslim between Worlds (New York, 2006); and her Decentering History: Local Stories and Cultural Crossing in a Global World,” History and Theory 50, (2011): 188202 .

31 Ginzburg, Carlo, The Cheese and the Worms: The Cosmos of a Sixteenth-Century Miller (New York, 1982); Robisheaux, Thomas, The Last Witch of Langenburg: Murder in a German Village (New York, 2009).

32 Carminati, Lucia, “Alexandria, 1898: Nodes, Networks, and Scales in Nineteenth-Century Egypt and the Mediterranean,” Comparative Studies in Society and History 59, 1 (2017): 127–53; Boyle, Stephanie Anne, “Cholera, Colonialism, and Pilgrimage: Exploring Global/Local Exchange in the Central Egyptian Delta, 1848–1907,” Journal of World History 26, 3 (2016): 581604 .

33 Omich, Dale, “The Order of Historical Time: The Longue Durée and Micro-History,” Almanack 2 (2011): 3852 .

34 Hobsbawm, Eric, The Age of Capital, 1848–1875 (London, 1995), 91 .

35 Partner, Simon, The Merchant's Tale—Yokohama and the Transformation of Japan (New York, 2017).

36 Orlowska, Izabela, “The Legitimizing Project: The Coronation Rite and the Written Word,” Aethiopica 16 (2013): 74101 .

37 Bayly, Birth, 161, 169.

38 Yaycioglu, Partners, 114–15; Anscombe, State, Faith, and Nation, 64.

39 Lewis, Emergence, 112.

40 Davison, Reform, 362–71.

41 Later, Tripoli in Libya was somewhat reintegrated into the Ottoman imperial system, too. Ahmida, Ali Abdullatif, The Making of Modern Libya: State Formation, Colonization, and Resistance (1994; Albany, 2009), 3031 ; Oualdi, M'hamed, Esclaves et maîtres: Les mamelouks au service des beys de Tunis du XVIIe siècle aux années 1880 (Paris, 2011).

42 Ceylan, Eyalet-i mümtaze, 28–29, 45; Genell, “Autonomous Provinces,” 542.

43 Genell, “Autonomous Provinces,” 541.

44 Toledano, Ehud, “The Emergence of Ottoman-Local Elites (1700–1900): A Framework for Research,” in Pappé, Ilan and Ma'oz, Moshe, eds., Middle Eastern Politics and Ideas: A History from Within (London, 1997), 145–62; 155. Recently, mamluks have been analyzed as social bridges between rulers and society: Oualdi, M'hamed, “Mamluks in Ottoman Tunisia: A Category Connecting State and Social Forces,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 48, 3 (2016): 473–90.

45 In the Balkans and in Anatolia a‘yan was a rank; Yaycioglu, Partners, 127.

46 Carl Brown, The Tunisia of Ahmad Bey, 1837–1855 (Princeton, 1974); Ceyhan, Eyalet-i mümtaze, 28–29; Oualdi, Esclaves et Maîtres, 376–83.

47 Brown, Constitutions, 16–20.

48 Ehud Toledano, State and Society; Cuno, Kenneth M., The Pasha's Peasants: Land, Society, and Economy in Lower Egypt, 1740–1858 (Cambridge, 1992); Khaled Fahmy, Mehmed Ali; Patrick Scharfe, “The Islamic Politics of Ottoman Reform: Muslim Scholars and the Public Sphere in Mehmed Ali Pasha's Egypt, 1801–1848,” PhD thesis, Ohio State University, 2015; Mestyan, Adam, Arab Patriotism—The Ideology and Culture of Power in Late Ottoman Egypt (Princeton, 2017).

49 Mestyan, Arab Patriotism, 60–61.

50 Letters from French consul in Alexandria to Direction Politique (French Ministry of Foreign Affairs), 26 April 1866 and 8 May 1866, 166PO/D25/67–68, MEAN.

51 See more in Mestyan, Arab Patriotism, 63–64.

52 Cooper, Colonialism, 28, 153, 156.

53 Letter from Şahin Kabh, governor of the Citadel to Ismail Pasha, 26 Dhu'l-Hijja 1282 (12 May 1866), 468/37; and undated letter from Ismail Salim, Minister of War, 486/37, both in microfilm 197, MST, DWQ.

54 al-Rahman, Jamal ‘Abd, Isma‘il Siddiq al-Mufattish—Rajul al-Azamat—Dahiyya al-Wishaya (Isma‘il Siddiq, the inspector: man of crises, victim of conspiracies) (Cairo, 2004).

55 Letter from Isma‘il Siddiq, 7 Muharram 1283 (22 May 1866), 29/38, microfilm 197, MST, DWQ.

56 Letter from Mehmed Şerif, 7 Muharram 1283 (22 May 1866), 31/38, microfilm 197, MST, DWQ. See Hunter, Egypt, 152–57.

57 Letter from Mehmed Şerif, 7 Muharram 1283 (22 May 1866), 32/38, microfilm 197, MST, DWQ.

58 Sarhank, Isma‘il, Ḥaqa'iq al-Akhbar ‘an Duwal al-Bihar (The true news about the sea dynasties) (Cairo, 2009, reissue), al-Juz’ al-Thani, vol. 2, 521; Mitchell, Timothy, The Rule of Experts (Berkeley, 2002), 64 ; Abul-Magd, Zeinab A., Imagined Empires: A History of Revolt in Egypt (Berkeley, 2013), 109–14.

59 van Donzel, E., “Masawwa‘,” in Bearman, P. et al. , eds., Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2d ed. (Brill Online, 2014). See also Talhami, Ghada H., Suakin and Massawa under Egyptian Rule (Washington, D.C., 1979); and al-Jamal, Shawqi ‘Ata Allah, al-Watha‘iq al-Tarikhiyya li-Siyasat Misr fi al-Bahr al-Ahmar (Historical documents pertaining to Egyptian politics in the Red Sea) (Cairo, 196?).

60 First letter about the victory is dated 6 Muharram 1283 (21 May 1866), from the Governor of Masawwa‘ to Ismail Pasha, 21/38, microfilm 197, MST, DWQ.

61 Letter from French consul in Alexandria to Direction Politique (French Ministry of Foreign Affairs), 8 Sept. 1866, 166PO/D25/67–68, MEAN.

62 Most letters are in microfilm 197, MST, DWQ.

63 Letter dated 20 Muharram 1283 (4 June 1866), 98/38, microfilm 197, MST, DWQ. For merchants, Omar Cheta, “Rule of Merchants—The Practice of Commerce and Law in Late Ottoman Egypt, 1841–1876,” PhD thesis, New York University, 2014.

64 Letter dated 13 Muharram 1283 (28 May 1866), from Mehmed Şerif, 51/38, microfilm 197, MST, DWQ.

65 The decree is analyzed in detail in Mestyan, Arab Patriotism, 63–64.

66 Davis, Challenging Colonialism, 28–29.

67 Cuno, “Joint Family Households,” 495–96.

68 Davis, Challenging Colonialism, 36–38; Hamed, Raouf Abbas and El-Dessouky, Assem, The Large Landowning Class and the Peasantry in Egypt, 1837–1952, Gran, Peter, ed., Mohsen, Amer and Zikri, Mona, trans. (Syracuse, 2011), 61, 6566 .

69 Hunter, Egypt, 41.

70 Mitchell, Rule of Experts, 65.

71 Letter from French consul in Alexandria to Direction Politique (French Ministry of Foreign Affairs), 18 June 1866, 166PO/D25/67–68, MEAN.

72 Sharubim, Mikha'il, al-Kafi fi Tarikh Misr al-Qadim wa-l-Hadith (Compendium of the ancient and modern history of Egypt), 4 vols. (Cairo, 2004 [1890s]), iv, 184.

73 Letter from Leopold Sellari, 20 Aug. 1866, 45/39, microfilm 198, MST, DWQ.

74 Letter from Isma‘il Siddiq, 14 Muharram 1283 (29 May 1866), 62/38, microfilm 197, MST, DWQ. For Tanta, see Boyle, “Cholera.”

75 Undated letter from Isma‘il Siddiq (ca. 21 Muharram 1283/5 June 1866), 111/38, microfilm 197, MST, DWQ.

76 For groupness, see Cooper, Colonialism, 75–76. For the Arabic translation of the firman: letter from Ismail Sal, 23 Muharram 1283 im (7 June 1866), 125/38, microfilm 197, MST, DWQ.

77 Letter from Ali Cevdet, 2 Muharram 1283 (17 May 1866) 148/38, microfilm 197, MST, DWQ.

78 Letter from Qasim Pasha, 26 Muharram 1283 (10 June 1866), 138/38, microfilm 197, MST, DWQ.

79 Letter from Mehmed Zeki, 28 Safar 1283 (12 July 1866), 217/38, microfilm 198, MST, DWQ.

80 French Consul in Alexandria letters to the Direction Politique (French Ministry of Foreign Affairs), 28 June and 9 July 1866, 166PO/D25/67–68, MEAN.

81 See letters in MST and Diwan al-Khidiwi ‘Arabi (Civil Administration Department in Arabic) in DWQ; Hunter, Egypt, 146.

82 French consul in Alexandria letter to the Direction Politique (French Ministry of Foreign Affairs), 19 July 1866, 166PO/D25/67–68, MEAN.

83 Smith, Anthony D., “Biblical Beliefs in the Shaping of Modern Nations,” Nations and Nationalism, 21 (2015): 403–22.

84 Smith, Anthony D., Chosen Peoples (Oxford, 2003), ch. 3.

85 Hastings, Adrian, The Construction of Nationhood: Ethnicity, Religion and Nationalism (Cambridge 1997), 45 ; Smith, Chosen Peoples.

86 Friedland, Roger, “Religious Nationalism and the Problem of Collective Representation,” Annual Review of Sociology 27 (2001): 125–52, 126.

87 Brubaker, Rogers, “Religion and Nationalism: Four Approaches,” Nations and Nationalism 1, 18 (2012): 220, 11.

88 Ahmed, Shahab, What Is Islam? The Importance of Being Islamic (Princeton, 2016), 323 .

89 Omar, Hussein, “Arabic Thought in the Liberal Cage,” in Devji, Faisal and Kazmi, Zaheer, eds., Islam after Liberalism (Oxford, 2017), 1745 .

90 Asad, Talal, The Idea of an Anthropology of Islam (Washington, D.C., 1986), 14 ; Green, Terrains, 10.

91 Taymur, Ahmad, Tarajim A‘yan al-Qarn al-Thalith ‘Ashar wa-Awa'il al-Rabi‘ ‘Ashar (Biographies of notables in the thirteenth and the beginning of the fourteenth centuries) (Cairo, 2001, repr.), 137 .

92 Mustafa Salama al-Najjari, “Rawd Madih Isma‘il bi-Ashraf al-Thana’ al-Jamil (The meadows of Isma‘il's praise with the most noble and beautiful admiration),” MS 2389 Tarikh Taymur, Dar al-Kutub al-Misriyya (National Library of Egypt). I am preparing an Arabic-English bilingual study and edition of this manuscript, to be published by Institut français d'archéologie orientale (Ifao).

93 Crone, Patricia, Medieval Islamic Political Thought (Edinburgh, 2004), ch. 13; Darling, Linda T., “Mirrors of Princes in Europe and the Middle East,” in Classen, Albrecht, ed., East Meets West in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Times: Transcultural Experiences in the Premodern World (Berlin, 2013), 223–42.

94 For an analysis of al-Tahtawi's travel description as a mirror of princes, see Gran, Peter, “Al-Tahtawi's Trip to Paris in Light of Recent Historical Analysis,” in Boroujerdi, Mehzrad, ed., Mirror for the Muslim Prince: Islam and the Theory of Statecraft (Syracuse, 2013), 193217 .

95 Al-Najjari, “Rawd Madih,” 42–46.

96 Ibid., 14, 31, 33.

97 Ibid., 32–33; 50.

98 Mittermaier, Amira, Dreams that Matter: Egyptian Landscapes of the Imagination (Berkeley, 2011), 91 .

99 Undated letter from Sayyid Ahmad Agha Nafi‘ to Isma‘il Siddiq Pasha, 421/39, microfilm 199, MST, DWQ.

100 Hoffner, H., “Ancient Views of Prophecy and Fulfilment: Mesopotamia and Asia Minor,” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 30 (1987): 257–65.

101 Lewis, Emergence, 139–40.

102 Ghazal, Amal, “Illiberal Thought in the Liberal Age—Yusuf al-Nabhani (1849–1932): Dream-Stories and Sufi Polemics against the Modern Era,” in Hanssen, Jens and Weiss, Max, eds., Arabic Thought beyond the Liberal Age: Towards and Intellectual History of the Nahda (Cambridge, 2016), 214–33, 227.

103 Mittermaier, Dreams that Matter, 6, 143.

104 Al-Ghazali quoted in Talha, Abu Ibrahim, ‘Umar bin, Ru'yat Allah Ta‘ala fi al-Manam (The vision of the Almighty God in sleeping) (Oman, 2002), 16 .

105 Deny, J., Sommaire des archives turques du Caire (Cairo, 1930), 7678 . See Tottoli, Roberto, “‘Aziz Misr,” in Fleet, Kate et al. , eds., Encyclopaedia of Islam, Three. Brill Online, 2014 .

106 On a later period, see Baron, Bath, Egypt as a Woman: Nationalism, Gender, and Politics (Berkeley, 2005).

107 Anderson, Benedict, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism (London, 2006 [1983]), 8588 .

108 Crone, Medieval Islamic Political Thought, 158–61.

109 Konrad, Felix, “‘Fickle Fate Has Exhausted My Burning Heart’: An Egyptian Engineer of the 19th Century between Belief in Progress and Existential Anxiety,” Die Welt des Islams 51, 2 (2011): 145–87.

110 Salama, Al-Shaykh Mustafa [al-Najjari], Majmu‘ al-Thana’ al-Jamil li-Dawar al-‘Adl Isma‘il (A collection of beautiful praise for the just prince Ismail) (Cairo, 1866 or 1867).

111 Hamadeh, Shirine, The City's Pleasures: Istanbul in the Eighteenth Century (Seattle, 2008), ch. 6.

112 [Al-Najjari], Majmu‘, 3.

113 He was an Azharite sheikh and Sufi leader. See, in particular, Hatina, Meir, ‘Ulama’, Politics, and the Public Sphere—An Egyptian Perspective (Salt Lake City, 2010), 60, 67.

114 [Al-Najjari], Majmu‘, 25.

115 Ibid., 38.

116 Ibid., 4.

117 Ibid., 33.

118 Ibid., 45.

119 Smith, Chosen Peoples, 162–63.

120 The title malik is not new: Said Pasha had already been praised as “possessor/king of Egypt” in the 1850s. [Salih Majdi], Diwan (Collected poems) (Bulaq, 1311 [1893 or 1894]), 1, 12, 55, etc.

121 M. Plessner, “Mulk,” and A. Ayalon, “Malik,” both in P. Bearman et al., eds., Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2d ed., Brill Online, 2014.

122 Lewis, Bernard, “Monarchy in the Middle East,” in Kostiner, Joseph, ed., Middle East Monarchies: The Challenge of Modernity (Boulder, 2000), 1522 .

123 Al-Azmeh, Aziz, Muslim Kingship: Power and the Sacred in Muslim, Christian, and Pagan Politics (London, 2001), 74 .

124 [Al-Najjari], Majmu‘, 13.

125 Ibid., 28. Not identical with the al-Abyari above. Hatina, ‘Ulama, 56.

126 Al-Najjari, “Rawd Madih,” 28.

127 Hanssen and Weiss, Arabic Thought; McLarney, “Freedom”; Hill, “Ottoman Despotism”; Omar, “Liberal Thought.”

128 Rafi‘, Rifa‘a Bey [al-Tahtawi], Manahij al-Albab al-Misriyya fi Mubahij al-Adab al-‘Asriyya (The paths of the Egyptian hearts in the joys of modern arts) (Cairo, 1869), 232–38; Zolondek, Leon, “Al-Tahtawi and Political Freedom,” Muslim World 54. 2 (1964): 9097 ; Cole, Colonialism and Revolution, 39; McLarney, “Freedom,” 37–38.

129 Hourani, Arabic Thought, 72–82.

130 Sperl, Stefan, “Kingship and Arabic Panegeric Poetry in the Early 9th Century,” Journal of Arabic Literature 8 (1977): 2035 ; Al-Azmeh, Muslim Kingship, 91.

131 Noorani, Yaseen, Culture and Hegemony in the Colonial Middle East (New York, 2010), 23 .

132 Chalcraft, John, “Engaging the State: Peasants and Petitions in Egypt on the Eve of Colonial Rule,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 37, 3 (2005): 303325, 318.

133 Ghalwash, “On Justice.”

134 Quoted in Moreh, Shmuel, Modern Arabic Poetry, 1800–1976 (Leiden, 1976), 70 .

135 Davis calls the practice “native capitalism”; Challenging Colonialism, 7.

136 Letter from French consul in Alexandria to Direction Politique (French Ministry of Foreign Affairs), 9 July 1866, 166PO/D25/67–68, MEAN.

137 Letter from French consul in Alexandria to Direction Politique (French Ministry of Foreign Affairs), 19 July 1866, 166PO/D25/67–68, MEAN.

138 Al-Najjari, Rawd Madih, 59.

139 Davis, Challenging Colonialism, 24; Mitchell, Rule of Experts, 62–65; Stolz, Daniel, “The Voyage of the Sammanud: Pilgrimage, Cholera, and Empire on an Ottoman-Egyptian Steamship Journey in 1865-67,” International Journal of Turkish Studies 23, 1–2 (2017): 118 .

140 Chalcraft translates huquq at the time in peasant petitions as “dues,” but in this context it seems that “rights” may work better; “Engaging the State,” 323, n. 57.

141 “We pay for the expenses of the train line” (yakun takalif al-sikka ‘alayna). Letter from Hasanayn Hamza, 16 Rabi‘ al-Awwal 1283 (29 July 1866), 265/38, microfilm 198, MST, DWQ.

142 Letter from Musa al-Jundi, 11 Rabi‘ al-Thani 1283 (23 Aug. 1866), 55/39, microfilm 198, MST, DWQ.

143 Letter from Ahmad Mustafa, 15 Rabi‘ al-Akhir 1283 (25 Oct. 1866), 82/39, microfilm 198, MST, DWQ.

144 Anderson, Imagined Communities, 21.

145 Undated letter from Muhammad al-Shawarli, village headman of Qayub, and Hamza ‘Ali, village headman of Tasma, 150/39, MST, DWQ.

146 Undated letter from Ahmad al-Yamani entitled “Malhuzat tata‘allaq bi-aqlam min al-irad wa-l-masarif wa-umur al-dabt wa-l-rabt” (Notes related to the Offices of Income and Expenditure and General Security), 151/39, microfilm 198, MST, DWQ.

147 Yavari, Neguin, Advice for the Sultan: Prophetic Voices and Secular Politics in Medieval Islam (London, 2014), 79 .

148 Aytekin, E. Attila, “Peasant Protest in the Late Ottoman Empire: Moral Economy, Revolt, and the Tanzimat Reform,” International Review of Social History 57 (2012): 191227, 219; Ben-Bassat, Yuval, Petitioning the Sultan: Protests and Justice in Late Ottoman Palestine, 1865–1908 (London 2013), 58 .

149 Gasper, Michael Ezekiel, The Power of Representation: Publics, Peasants, and Islam in Egypt (Stanford, 2009).

150 Cuno, Pasha's Peasants; Maha Ghalwash, “Peasant Land Tenure in Mid-Nineteenth Century Egypt, 1848—1862,” PhD thesis, Princeton University, 1997.

151 Darling, History of Social Justice, 166.

152 Davison, Reform, 188–91; Nazan, Young Ottomans, 72–78.

153 Davison, Reform, 191–205; Nazan, Young Ottomans, 48; Riedler, Florian, Opposition and Legitimacy in the Ottoman Empire: Conspiracies and Political Cultures (London, 2011), 2838 .

154 Arsan, Andrew, “The Strange Lives of Ottoman Liberalism: Exile, Patriotism and Constitutionalism in the Thought of Mustafa Fazıl Paşa,” in Isabella, Maurizio and Zanou, Konstantina, eds., Mediterranean Diasporas: Politics and Ideas in the Long Nineteenth Century (London, 2015), 153–70.

155 Ami Ayalon, “Shura,” in P. Bearman et al., eds., Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2d ed., Brill Online, 2014.

156 Sariyannis, Marinos, “Ottoman Ideas on Monarchy before the Tanzimat Reforms,” Turcica 47 (2016): 3372, 58.

157 Diyaf, Ahmad ibn Abi, Consult Them in the Matter—A Nineteenth-Century Islamic Argument for Constitutional Government (Fayetteville, 2005); Sönmez, “From Kanun-ı Kadim”; Hill, “Ottoman Despotism.”

158 There is a short series of articles entitled “Usul al-Hukm fi Nizam al-Umam,” from n. 422, Tasvir-i Efkar, 8 Jumada al-Ula 1283 (18 Sept. 1866), 4.

159 Tasvir-i Efkar, n. 439, 18 Rajab 1283 (27 Nov. 1866), 1–2.

160 Muhbir, 25 Sha‘ban 1283 (2 Jan. 1867), 3.

161 Nazan, Young Ottomans, 152–53, 165.

162 Canatar, Mehmet, “Şura-yi Devlet Teşkilatı ve Tarihi Gelişimi Üzerine Bazı Tespitler,” İlmi Araştırmalar 5 (1997): 107–39.

163 Turnaoğlu, Banu, The Formation of Turkish Republicanism (Princeton, 2017), 7172 .

164 Hunter, Egypt, 52; Hamed and El-Dessouky, Large Landowning Class, 142–43.

165 Davis, Challenging Colonialism, 26–36.

166 Mitchell, Colonizing, 75–76.

167 al-Rafi‘i, ‘Asr Isma‘il, ii, 94–96.

168 Chalcraft, “Engaging the State,” 313–17. Cole provides details about later elections in guilds, in Colonialism and Revolution, 169–74.

169 French consul in Alexandria letter to Direction Politique (French Ministry of Foreign Affairs), 30 July 1866, 166PO/D25/67–68, MEAN.

170 The decision was sent to the governorates on 22 October 1866. Amr Karim, p. 18 from qayd 24, microfilm 23, Ma‘iyya Saniyya ‘Arabi (Correspondence of the Governor's Entourage in Arabic, henceforth MSA), DWQ.

171 Sayyid-Marsot, Afaf Lutfi, Egypt in the Reign of Muhammad Ali (Cambridge 1984), 108 .

172 Musa, “Al-Dirasa.”

173 Yaycioglu, Partners.

174 Hunter, Egypt, 53.

175 al-Rafi‘i, ‘Asr Isma‘il, ii, 96–97.

176 Amr Karim, p. 18 from qayd 24, microfilm 23, MSA, DWQ.

177 “Khedive” (A. Mestyan), Encyclopaedia of Islam, 3d ed., Brill, forthcoming.

178 Hunter, Egypt, 54.

179 See, for instance, p. 90, qayd 40, microfilm 33, MSA, DWQ.

180 Ghalwash, “On Justice,” 528.

181 Chalcraft, “Engaging the State,” 309; Ghalwash, “On Justice.”

182 EzzelArab, “Fiscal and Constitutional Program.”

183 Benton, Search for Sovereignty, 237–38.

184 Hitchins, Keith, Rumania 1866–1947 (Oxford, 1994), 1415 .

185 Kónyi, Manó, ed., Deák Ferenc beszédei, 6 vols. (Collected speeches of Ferenc Deak) (Budapest, 1903), ii, 397403 .

186 Cieger, András ed., A kiegyezés (The compromise) (Budapest, 2004), 15183 .

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