Skip to main content

Food and Welfare in India, c. 1900–1950

  • Sunil S. Amrith (a1)

In 2001, the People's Union for Civil Liberties submitted a writ petition to the Supreme Court of India on the “right to food.” The petitioner was a voluntary human rights organization; the initial respondents were the Government of India, the Food Corporation of India, and six state governments. The petition opens with three pointed questions posed to the court: A.

Does the right to life mean that people who are starving and who are too poor to buy food grains ought to be given food grains free of cost by the State from the surplus stock lying with the State, particularly when it is reported that a large part of it is lying unused and rotting?


Does not the right to life under Article 21 of the Constitution of India include the right to food?


Does not the right to food, which has been upheld by the Honourable Court, imply that the state has a duty to provide food especially in situations of drought, to people who are drought affected and are not in a position to purchase food?

Hide All

1 People's Union for Civil Liberties [PUCL] v. Union of India [UOI] and Others, Writ Petition (Civil), No. 196 of 2001. The full text is available at:

2 PUCL v. UOI and others, § 3.

3 Ibid., § 11.

4 Ibid., § 17.

5 Journalist P. Sainath puts it with characteristic eloquence: “An exclusive focus on ‘starvation deaths’—disconnected from the larger canvas—seems to imply this: if they don't die, everything's alright. If they lose their land, cannot feed their families, see their children enter bondage, are forced into debt-driven prostitution—all that is okay. They just shouldn't starve to death. That's upsetting. It's bad implementation.” P. Sainath, “It's the Policy, Stupid, Not Implementation,”

6 Dreze Jean, Famine Prevention in India (London: London School of Economics, 1988); cf. Davis Mike, Late Victorian Holocausts: El Niño Famines and the Making of the Third World (London: Verso, 1999).

7 Dreze Jean and Sen Amartya, India: Development and Participation (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002).

8 On the British context for such interventions, see the illuminating work of Vernon James, notably, “The Ethics of Hunger and the Assembly of Society: The Techno-Politics of the School Meal in Britain,” American Historical Review, 110, 3 (2005): 693725.

9 As Dipesh Chakrabarty has noted, “The capacity to notice and document suffering (even if it be one's own suffering) from the position of a generalized and necessarily disembodied observer is what marks the beginnings of the modern self.” He argues that where “social thought” sees pain as “specific and hence open to secular interventions,” in religious thought “suffering is existential. It shadows man in his life.” The discourses of food and hunger in modern India brought these countervailing notions of pain—as necessary or preventable—into contention and dialogue. Chakrabarty Dipesh, Provincializing Europe: Post-Colonial Thought and Historical Difference (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000), 119–20.

10 Asad Talal, “Thinking about Agency and Pain,” in Formations of the Secular: Christianity, Islam, Modernity (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003), 6799.

11 This is to suggest that, modifying Gyan Prakash's argument, it was not only or even primarily by turning to an “inner and uncolonized tradition” that Indian nationalists were able to appropriate and “reinscribe” colonial governmentality. Cf. Prakash Gyan, Another Reason: Science and the Imagination of Modern India (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999).

12 Guha Ranajit, A Rule of Property for Bengal: An Essay on the Idea of Permanent Settlement (Paris: Mouton, 1963).

13 Ahuja Ravi, “State Formation and ‘Famine Policy’ in Early Colonial South India,” Indian Economic and Social History Review 39, 4 (2002): 351–80.

14 Foucault Michel, “Governmentality,” in, Burchill Graham, Gordon Colin, and Miller Peter, eds., The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality (London: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1991). Initiators of the debate on colonial governmentality were Scott David, “Colonial Governmentality,” Social Text 43 (Fall 1995): 191220; and Stoler Ann Laura, Race and the Education of Desire: Foucault's History of Sexuality and the Colonial Order of Things (Durham: Duke University Press, 1995).

15 Kalpagam U., “Colonial Governmentality and the ‘Economy,’” Economy and Society 29, 3 (2000): 418–38.

16 Hodges Sarah, “Governmentality, Population and the Reproductive Family in Modern India,” Economic and Political Weekly 39, 11 (13 Mar. 2004): 1157–63; Hodges Sarah, “Looting the Lock Hospital in Colonial Madras during the Famine Years of the 1870s,” Social History of Medicine 18 (2005): 379–98.

17 Gyan Prakash, Another Reason, 157. This point was also raised in David Arnold's presentation on “Famine and Ideas of Welfare in India,” at the conference on Welfare, Land and Taxes, Trinity Hall, Cambridge, 3 June 2005.

18 Report of the Indian Famine Commission, 1880 (Calcutta: Government of India), 31–32.

19 See, for example: Famine Code: Madras Presidency (Madras: Government of Madras, 1883); Bengal Famine Code, rev. ed. (Calcutta: Government of Bengal, 1892).

20 Naoroji Dadabhai, Poverty and Un-British Rule in India (London: Swan, Sonnenschein and Co., 1901), 24.

21 Dutt R. C., The Economic History of India in the Victorian Age: From the Accession of Queen Victoria in 1837 to the Commencement of the Twentieth Century, vol. 2 (London: Kegan, Paul and Co., 1904).

22 Appadurai Arjun, “Gastro-Politics in Hindu South Asia,” American Ethnologist 8, 3 (1981): 494511, quote p. 496.

23 Watt Carey, Serving the Nation: Cultures of Service, Association and Citizenship (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2005).

24 M. K. Gandhi, “Non-Cooperation Means Self Purification,” Navajivan, 27 Jan. 1921, in Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi [henceforth CWMG], vol. 19 (New Delhi: Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India, 1958–1983, 90 vols.), 285.

25 Gandhi, “Five Crores Starving,” Indian Opinion, 28 Mar. 1908, CWMG, vol. 8, 156–57.

26 Foucault Michel, “Omnes et Singulatim: Towards a Critique of Political Reason,” in, Faubion James, ed., Power: Essential Works of Foucault, 1954–84, vol. 3, Hurley Robert et al. , trans. (London: Penguin, 2001), 298325, quote p. 308; see also “The Subject and Power,” in the same volume, 326–48, quote pp. 334–35.

27 Bose Sugata, “Nation as Mother: Representations and Contestations of ‘India’ in Bengali Literature and Culture,” in, Bose S. and Jalal A., eds., Nationalism, Democracy and Development: State and Politics in India (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1997), 5075; Sarkar Tanika, “Nationalist Iconography: Images of Women in 19th-Century Bengali Literature,” Economic and Political Weekly, 21 Nov. (1987): 2011–15.

28 Subramania Bharati, “Bharata Samudayam,” Tamil original available at: I have slightly modified the translation, “Bharat Commonwealth,” in Poems of Subramania Bharathy—A Selection, P. S. Sundaram, trans. (Madras: Vikas Publishing House, 1982).

29 I owe this formulation of the point to an anonymous CSSH reviewer.

30 Loveday Alexander, History and Economics of Indian Famines (London: G. Bell and Sons, 1914).

31 For the demographic evidence, see Dyson T., ed., India's Historical Demography: Studies in Famine, Disease and Society (London: Curzon, 1989).

32 On the broader colonial context, see Worboys M., “The Discovery of Colonial Malnutrition,” in, Arnold D., ed., Imperial Medicine and Indigenous Societies (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1988), 208–25. The best discussion of India is Arnold's DavidDiscovery of Malnutrition and Diet in Colonial India,” Indian Economic and Social Review 31, 1 (1994): 126.

33 Here the early interest taken by the League of Nations in the question of nutrition helped to “globalize” it. The League's work on the impact of poverty and unemployment on industrial workers' diets in Europe lent itself to global replication. On this process, see Amrith Sunil, Decolonizing International Health: India and Southeast Asia, 1930–65 (New York: Palgrave, 2006), ch. 1.

34 The proliferation of family budget studies suggested, implicitly, that this was the case.

35 Gangulee N., Health and Nutrition in India (London: Faber and Faber, 1939), 2627.

36 See McCarrison Robert and Norris Roland, “The Relationship of Rice to Beri-Beri in India,” Indian Medical Research Memoirs 2 (1924); Gangulee, Nutrition; W. R. Aykroyd, “Nutrition in India,” in, League of Nations, Health Organization, Intergovernmental Conference of Far Eastern Countries on Rural Hygiene, C.H. 1235b, Geneva, Apr. 1937; W. R. Aykroyd, Note on the Results of Diet Surveys in India (Simla: India Research Fund, 1940). For further discussion of this distinction between rice and wheat, see Arnold, “Discovery of Malnutrition.”

37 For a sense of the older tradition of colonial writing on diet and race, see Johnston John Wilson, A Contribution to the Dynamics of Racial Diet in India (Edinburgh: Mclachlan and Stewart, 1876). For an early contrast between “ordinary” diets and those under conditions of captivity, see Cornish W. R., Reports on the Nature of the Food of the Inhabitants of the Madras Presidency and on the Dietaries of Prisoners in Zillah Jails (Madras: United Scottish Press,1863). For a more detailed discussion of these themes, see Arnold, “Discovery of Malnutrition.”

38 Aykroyd, “Nutrition in India.”

39 See, for example, Choudhury A. C. Roy, Report of an Enquiry into the Standard of Living of Jute Mill Workers in Bengal (Calcutta: Government of Bengal, 1930); Adyanthaya N. K., Report of an Enquiry into the Family Budgets of Industrial Workers in Madras City (Madras: Government of Madras, 1938).

40 Gangulee, Nutrition, 128.

41 Wills L. and Mehta M. M., “Studies in Pernicious Anaemia of Pregnancy,” Indian Journal of Medical Research 17 (1930): 777–92; Balfour Margaret, “Maternity Conditions and Anaemia in the Assam Tea-Gardens,” Journal of the Association of Medical Women in India 21 (1933): 2838; and Balfour brings together concerns with childbearing women, and industrial workers, in, “Diseases of Pregnancy and Labour in India, with Special Reference to Community,” Proceedings of the Seventh Congress of the Far Eastern Association of Tropical Medicine (Calcutta: Far Eastern Association of Tropical Medicine, 1927), 318–28.

42 Aykroyd W. R. and Rajagopal K., “The State of Nutrition in Schoolchildren in South India,” Indian Journal of Medical Research 24, 2 (1936): 419–38; Aykroyd W. R. and Krishnan S., “The State of Nutrition of Schoolchildren in Three Towns of South India,” Indian Journal of Medical Research 24, 3 (1937): 707–26.

43 Gangulee, Nutrition, 119.

44 Alter Joseph, “Gandhi's Body, Gandhi's Truth: Nonviolence and the Biomoral Imperative of Public Health,” The Journal of Asian Studies 55, 2 (1996): 301–22; Arnold David, Gandhi: Profiles in Power (London: Longman, 2001).

45 Pyarelal, Epic Fast (Ahmedabad: Navajivan, 1932), 44.

46 Alter, “Gandhi's Body.”

47 See, inter alia, “Dietetic Changes,” Harijan, 27 July 1935, in, Gandhi M. K., Diet and Diet Reform (Ahmedabad: Navajivan Publishing House, 1948), 8687; “Minimum Diet,” Harijan, 31 Aug. 1935, in ibid., 30; “Polished v. Unpolished,” Harijan, 26 Oct. 1934, in ibid., 44–46.

48 Gandhi, Diet and Diet Reform.

49 Robert McCarrison, letter to Gandhi in Young India, 15 Aug. 1929, in ibid., 24–25.

50 Gandhi, “National Food,” Harijan, 5 Jan. 1934, in Diet and Diet Reform (Ahmedabad: Navajivan Publishing House, 1949), 29–30.

51 Gandhi, “Unfired Food Experiment,” Young India, 18 July 1929, in ibid., 18.

52 Gandhi, “National Food.”

53 See, for example, Gandhi's notion of a “cloth famine”: Speech to Students of Gujarat Mahavidyalaya, Ahmedabad, 13 Jan. 1921, CWMG, vol. 22. For further discussion, see Bayly C. A., “The Origins of Swadeshi (Home Industry): Cloth and Indian Society, 1700–1930,” in Origins of Nationality in South Asia: Patriotism and Ethical Government in the Making of Modern India (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1998), 172209; and Tarlo Emma, Clothing Matters: Dress and Identity in India (London: Hurst, 1996).

54 Gandhi, “A Talk to Village Workers,” extract from a talk given on 22 Oct. 1935, in Diet and Diet Reform, 31–33. On this occasion, Gandhi had invited almost one hundred village workers to his ashram and had prepared for them a special meal that reflected his vision for “national food”: cheap, wholesome, vegetarian, and distinctively Indian.

55 Indeed, the language of nutrition was at least as crucial in this regard as was the resort to indigenous medical and scientific practices that Gyan Prakash emphasizes in Another Reason.

56 Wellcome Contemporary Medical Archive Centre, London, papers of R. McCarrison, GC 205: R. McCarrison, Nutrition and Health, Being the Cantor Lectures Delivered before the Royal Society of Arts, 1936 (London: The McCarrison Society, n.d.).

57 Gandhi, “Unfired Foods,” Young India, 15 Aug. 1929, in Diet and Diet Reform, 26–27.

58 “Findings of the International Commission of Experts Appointed by the Health Committee of the League of Nations,” Harijan, 25 Apr. 1936, in Diet and Diet Reform, 101. The original report was: League of Nations, Report on the Physiological Bases of Nutrition, League of Nations Document A.12(a), 1936.

59 Gandhi, “Polished v. Unpolished.”

60 Cullather Nick, “Foreign Policy of the Calorie,” American Historical Review 112, 2 (2007): 337–64.

61 Following, here, the usage of Mitchell Timothy, The Rule of Experts: Egypt, Technopolitics, Modernity (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2002). I am grateful to an anonymous CSSH reviewer for clarifying this point.

62 For a recent perspective on the intellectual history of planning in India, see Zachariah Benjamin, Developing India: An Intellectual and Social History (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2005).

63 National Planning Committee, Population: Report of the Sub-Committee, Chair: Dr Radhakamal Mukherjee, K. T. Shah, ed. (Bombay: Vohra and Co, 1947), 144–45. The Planning Committee's reports were published after 1947, but their discussions took place between 1938 and 1940, and should therefore be read in the context of the debates of the 1930s.

64 National Planning Committee, Population, 127.

65 Chandavarkar Rajnarayan, “Customs of Governance: Colonialism and Democracy in Twentieth Century India,” Modern Asian Studies 41, 3 (2007): 441–70.

66 On the Planning Committee's obsession with eugenics, see my “Political Culture of Health in India: A Historical Perspective,” Economic and Political Weekly, 13 Jan. (2007): 114–21; and Benjamin Zachariah, “Uses of Scientific Argument: The Case of Development in India, c. 1930–1950,” Economic and Political Weekly, 29 Sept. (2001): 3689–702.

67 Marx Karl, Capital: A Critique of Political Economy, Fowkes Ben, trans. (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1976), 130, 134. For an elaboration in the Indian context, see Chakrabarty Dipesh, Provincializing Europe: Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000).

68 National Planning Committee, Population, 14.

69 Chand Gyan, India's Teeming Millions (London: Allen and Unwin, 1939).

70 Mukherjee Radhakamal, Food Planning for Four Hundred Millions (London: MacMillan, 1938).

71 National Planning Committee, Population, 145.

72 Gangulee, Nutrition, 199.

73 Ibid., 200–1.

74 Ibid., 234.

75 Venkatesan V., “Hoarder's Delight,” Frontline, 25 Apr. (2008): 22.

76 Aykroyd W. R., “The Economic Aspects of the Problem of Nutrition in India,” Indian Journal of Social Work 2, 3 (1941): 269–82.

77 A synthesis of Aykroyd's many studies can be found in W. R. Aykroyd, B. G. Krishnan, R. Passmore, and A. R. Sundararajan (Coonoor Nutrition Research Laboratory), Indian Medical Research Memoirs, No. 32, The Rice Problem in India (Jan. 1940), British Library; Asia, Pacific and Africa Collection; India Office Records [henceforth IOR], V/25/850/92.

78 Aykroyd et al., The Rice Problem in India.

79 As Michel Foucault put it in his lectures on sovereignty and biopolitics, “One might say this: It is as though power, which used to have sovereignty as its modality or organising schema, found itself unable to govern the economic and political body of a society that was undergoing both a demographic explosion and industrialization.” Foucault M., Society Must Be Defended: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1975–76, Macey David, trans. (London: Penguin, 2003), 249.

80 Jawaharlal Nehru to B. J. K. Hallowes (Deputy Commissioner, Allahabad and President of the Famine Relief Fund of Gonda), 26 June 1929, in, S. Gopal and Uma Iyengar, eds., The Essential Writings of Jawaharlal Nehru (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2003), 12.

81 Cf. Foucault, Society Must Be Defended.

82 Nehru to B. J. K. Hallowes, 26 June 1929.

83 IOR/M/4/936, Food: Rice Study Group, Feb.–Jun. 1947; IOR/M/4/809, Food: International Emergency Food Council; Singapore Sub-Committee on Rice, Oct. 1946–Oct. 1947.

84 Nehru Jawaharlal, The Discovery of India (Delhi: Jawaharlal Nehru Memorial Fund/Oxford University Press, 2003 [1946]), 496.

85 Ibid., 498.

86 Greenough Paul, Prosperity and Misery in Modern Bengal: The Famine of 1943–4 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982). This remains the best English language history of the famine.

87 Sen Bhowani, Rural Bengal in Ruins, Chakravarty N., trans. (Bombay: People's Publishing House, 1945).

88 Mahalanobis P. C., Mukerjea Ramakrishna, Ghosh Ambika, A Sample Survey of the After-Effects of the Bengal Famine of 1943 (Calcutta: Statistical Publishing Society, 1946); Narayan T. G., Famine over Bengal (Calcutta: Book Company, Ltd., 1944). See also the classic analysis in Sen Amartya, Poverty and Famines: An Essay in Entitlement and Deprivation (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981).

89 Greenough, Prosperity and Misery. See also Greenough Paul, “Indian Famines and Peasant Victims: The Case of Bengal in 1943–4,” Modern Asian Studies 14, 2 (1980): 205–35.

90 Nehru, Discovery of India, 497.

91 Ibid., 497.

92 Appadurai Arjun, “How Moral is South Asia's Economy?—A Review Article,” The Journal of Asian Studies 43, 3 (1984): 481–97, quote p. 485.

93 Gandhi, Talk with Mridula Sarabhai, Sevagram, 26 Oct. 1944, CWMG, vol. 78, 234.

94 Sardesai S. G., Food in the United Provinces (Bombay: People's Publishing House, 1944), 19.

95 Ibid., 36–37.

96 Namboodiripad E. M. S., Food in Kerala (Bombay: People's Publishing House, 1944), 16.

97 Nehru, Discovery of India, 535.

98 Chand Gyan, Problem of Population (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1944), 10.

99 Bennett V. D. Wickizer and M. K., The Rice Economy of Monsoon Asia (Stanford: Stanford University Food Research Institute, 1941); see Baker C. J., “Economic Reorganization and the Slump in Southeast Asia,” Comparative Studies in Society and History 23, 3 (1981): 325–39.

100 See Bose Sugata, “Starvation amidst Plenty: The Making of Famine in Bengal, Honan and Tonkin, 1942–45,” Modern Asian Studies 24, 4 (1990): 699727.

101 Government of India, Foodgrains Policy Committee, Interim Report (New Delhi, 1948); Government of India, Foodgrains Policy Committee, Final Report (New Delhi, 1948).

102 Report of American Famine Mission to India, led by Schultz T. W., cited in Henry Knight, Food Administration in India, 1939–47 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1954), 253.

103 Knight, Food Administration.

104 Report of the Foodgrains Enquiry Committee, 1957 (New Delhi: Ministry of Food and Agriculture, 1957), 26–27.

105 On this point, see Hodges, “Governmentality.”

106 Mehta Uday S., “Indian Constitutionalism: The Articulation of a Political Vision,” in, Chakrabarty Dipesh, Majumdar Rochona, and Sartori Andrew, eds., From the Colonial to the Postcolonial: India and Pakistan in Transition (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2006), 1330, 26–27.

107 Rudolf Mrazek, Sjahrir (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1994), 333.

108 See, for example, Gourou Pierre, The Tropical World: Its Social and Economic Conditions and Its Future Status, Beaver S. H. and Laborde E. D., trans. (London: Longman, 1973).

109 IOR, M/4/745, “Indonesia: Rice from Indonesia to India”: Viceroy to Secretary of State for India, 30 Aug. 1946.

110 IOR, M/4/745, “Indonesia: Rice from Indonesia to India”: Special (Food—Southeast Asia), 18 Sept. 1946.

111 Ibid.

112 For a consideration of the parallel developments concerning the United Nations and its organizations in the field of public health, see Amrith, Decolonizing International Health, ch. 2.

113 IOR, M/4/745, “Indonesia: Rice from Indonesia to India,” Government of India—Food Department to Indian Agent General, Washington, D.C., 17 Sept. 1946.

114 Space constraints prevent my delving into the origins of food aid from the United States to India, but see the excellent account in Dennis Merrill, Bread and the Ballot: The United States and India's Economic Development, 1947–1963 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1990).

115 Foodgrains Enquiry Committee, 1957.

116 Gandhi, “Speech at Prayer Meeting,” 3 Nov. 1947, CWMG, vol. 89, 467–68.

117 Ibid.

118 Ibid.

119 Gandhi, “A Letter,” 13 July 1947, Bihar Pachhi Dilhi, CWMG, vol. 88, 328.

120 Gandhi, “Speech at Prayer Meeting,” 18 Feb. 1946, CWMG, vol. 83, 153.

121 Gandhi, “Question Box,” Harijan, 24 March 1946, CWMG, vol. 83, 240.

122 Gandhi, “Speech at Prayer Meeting,” 6 Oct. 1947, CWMG, vol. 89, 294–95.

123 Gandhi, “Mass Murder,” Harijan, 25 Aug. 1946, CWMG, vol. 85, 165–66.

124 Gandhi, “Speech at Prayer Meeting,” 6 Oct. 1947.

125 Gandhi, “Speech at Prayer Meeting,” 18 Feb. 1946.

126 One of the moving testimonies in Urvashi Butalia's collection of oral histories of Partition makes this connection explicit: “Such good relations we had that if there was any function that we had, then we used to call Musalmaans to our homes, they would eat in our houses, but we would not eat in theirs and this is a bad thing, which I realize now. If they would come to our houses we would have two utensils in one corner of the house, and we would tell them, pick these up and eat in them; they would then wash them and keep them aside and this was such a terrible thing. This was the reason Pakistan was created.” In, Butalia Urvashi, The Other Side of Silence: Voices from the Partition of India (London: Hurst, 2000), 31.

127 Gandhi, “Speech at Prayer Meeting,” Srirampur, 10 Dec. 1946, CWMG, vol. 86, 214.

128 Gandhi, “Speech at Prayer Meeting,” New Delhi, 23 Sept. 1946, CWMG, vol. 85, 362.

129 Chakrabarty Dipesh, “‘In the Name of Politics’: Sovereignty, Democracy and the Multitude in India,” Economic and Political Weekly, 23 July (2005): 3293–301.

130 Chatterjee Partha, “Development Planning and the Indian State,” in, Chatterjee P., ed., State and Politics in India (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1997), 271–97.

131 Venugopal K. R., Deliverance from Hunger: The Public Distribution System in India (New Delhi: Sage, 1992); Frankel Francine, India's Political Economy: The Gradual Revolution (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977).

132 For an illuminating discussion of how populist political discourse in India draws on earlier political languages of legitimacy, see Sinha Subir, “Lineages of the Developmentalist State: Transnationality and Village India, 1900–1965,” Comparative Studies in Society and History 50, 1 (2008): 5790.

133 Dreze Jean and Sen Amartya, Hunger and Public Action (Oxford: Clarendon, 1989); Banik Dan, Starvation and India's Democracy (London and New York: Routledge, 2007).

134 Barbara Harriss, Child Nutrition and Poverty in South India: Noon Meals in Tamil Nadu (New Delhi: Concept Publishing), 10.

135 Chatterjee Partha, Politics of the Governed: Reflections on Popular Politics in Most of the Word (New York: Columbia University Press, 2004).

137 See Frontline, 25 Apr. 2008.

Acknowledgments: I am very grateful to Emma Rothschild and Chandak Sengoopta for their comments on an earlier draft. The anonymous reports from CSSH reviewers were invaluable in helping me to revise the essay; I have scarcely been able to do justice to their thoughtful critical readings. I am solely responsible for any mistakes and misunderstandings that remain.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Comparative Studies in Society and History
  • ISSN: 0010-4175
  • EISSN: 1475-2999
  • URL: /core/journals/comparative-studies-in-society-and-history
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 6
Total number of PDF views: 69 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 183 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 16th January 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.