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The Jealous Institution: Male Nubility, Conjugality, Sexuality, and Discipline on the Social Margins of Imperial Brazil

  • Peter M. Beattie (a1)

In 1997, an “attempted rebellion” erupted in the Professor Barreto Campelo Penitentiary on Itamaracá Island, Pernambuco. A journalist reported that the suspension of conjugal visits sparked a brawl in which three inmates were stabbed before guards restored order. The warden clarified that conjugal visits had been suspended after fights broke out between rival cellblocks when someone pilfered objects visitors had brought to prisoners. A woman who desired anonymity informed, “The convicts notified us in the afternoon by way of notes that they would fight again that night. I think that the lack of contact with their female companions leaves all of the men agitated.” The warden brokered a truce with the inmates' leaders in part by promising that conjugal visits would resume the next week. The reporter concluded, almost as an afterthought, that inmates renewed protests about the overcrowding of eleven hundred inmates into a jail designed for four hundred.

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1 Jornal do Commercio, Recife, 26 June 1997, 1. I cite other rebellions over conjugal visits in Beattie, “‘Cada homen traz dentro de si sua tragedia sexual’: Visitas Conjugais, Gênero, e Lemos Britto's A Questão sexual nas prisões (1934),” in Clarissa Nunes Maia, Flávio de Sá Neto, Marcos Costa, and Marcos Luiz Bretas, eds., Prisão, prisioneiros e sociedade—sécs. XVIII–XXI, 2 vols. (Rio: Editoria Rocco, 2009), II, 215–47.

2 Scheper-Hughes, Nancy, Death without Weeping: The Violence of Everyday Life in Brazil (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992), 167215. Similar language of bodily hunger, gender, and sex remains part of Brazilian parlance. See, e.g., Parker, Richard, Bodies, Pleasures and Passions: Sexual Culture in Contemporary Brazil, 2d ed. (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 2009), 4647, 121.

3 Abbot, Elizabeth, A History of Celibacy (Cambridge, Mass.: Da Capo Press, 2001).

4 For similar theories in colonial America, see Norton, Mary Beth, Foundational Mothers and Fathers: Gendered Power and the Forming of American Society (New York: Vintage Books, 1996); on Brazil, Costa, Jurandir Freire, Ordem médica e norma familiar, 3d ed. (Rio: Graal, 1989).

5 Authorities allowed single women convicts on Fernando de Noronha to marry if no religious impediments barred a couple's nuptials, but most authorities assumed women to be sexually passive and did not believe that they required sex to maintain their health, unlike men. Indeed, they thought that inappropriate sexual arousal could be hazardous to a woman's health. See, for example, Camillo, Alexandre Augusto de Almeida, O onanismo da mulher, sua influencia sobre o physico e a moral (Rio: Portella, 1886), 39.

6 Melo, Mario Carneiro do Rego, Archipélago de Fernando de Noronha: Geographia physica e política (Recife: Imprensa Industrial, 1916).

7 Garland, , Punishment and Modern Society: A Study in Social Theory (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990), 278.

8 Goffman, , Asylums: Essays on the Social Situation of Mental Patients and other Inmates (Chicago: Aldine Pub. Co., 1961), 1112.

9 Coser, Lewis A., Greedy Institutions: Patterns of Undivided Commitment (New York: The Free Press, 1974); Scott, Joan, “Gender: A Useful Category of Analysis,” American Historical Review 95, 5 (Dec. 1986): 1053–75.

10 Pinheiro, Domingos Firmino, O androphilismo (Bahia: Imprensa Econômica, 1898), 108. I thank Dain Borges for sharing this source.

11 Borges, Dain Edward, The Family in Bahia, Brazil, 1870–1945 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1992), 100–1; Britto, José Gabriel de Lemos, A Questão sexual nas prisões (Rio: J. Ribeiro dos Santos e Cia., 1934); , Miguel Antônio Heredia, “Algumas reflexões sobre a cópula, onanismo, e prostituição” (Rio: Typographia Universal de Laemmert, 1845).

12 Algranti, Leila Mezan, Honradas e devotas: mulheres da colônia (Rio: Editora José Olympio, 1993), 6281; Maxwell, Kenneth, Conflicts and Conspiracies: Brazil and Portugal, 1750–1808 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973), 1516.

13 Peregalli, Henrique, Recrutamento Militar no Brasil Colonial (Campinas: Edition da UNICAMP, 1986), 138–47; Timothy J. Coates compares empires' uses of penal exiles and orphans, in Convicts and Orphans: Forced and State-Sponsored Colonizers in the Portuguese Empire, 1550–1755 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001), xv–xx, 141–62.

14 Bernardo Luis Ferreira Portugal ao Dom Francisco de Souza Coutinho, Pará, 26 Dez., 1797, Biblioteca Nacional, Seção de Manuscritos, código 07-04-041; Rohan, Brigadeiro Henrique de Beaurepaire, “A ilha de Fernado de Noronha,” annexo in Relatorio apresentado á assemblea geral legislativa pelo ministro e secretario de negocios de guerra Visconde de Camamu (Rio: Typ. [Typographia] Laemmert, 1865), 29 [hereafter Relatorio … guerra (minister's name)]; Raimundo José de Souza Lobo, Fernando de Noronha [hereafter, FN indicates correspondence from Fernando de Noronha], 1 July 1852, Arquivo Público de Pernambuco Jordão Emerenciano [hereafter, APPJE], FN-4e, f. 106; Pessoa, Gláucia Tomaz de Aquino, Cadernos de pesquisa: Fernando de Noronha, uma ilha-presídio nos trópicos (Rio: Arquivo Nacional, 1994), 17.

15 Feijó, Diogo Antônio, Diogo Antônio Feijó, Caldeira, Jorge, ed. (São Paulo: Editora 34, 1999), 279357; Serbin, Kenneth P., Needs of the Heart: A Social and Cultural History of Brazil's Clergy and Seminaries (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2006), ch. 2; João José Reis observes that Padre Perereca (Luís Gonçalves dos Santos) penned a pamphlet criticizing Feijó's arguments against clerical celibacy in Death Is a Festival: Funeral Rights and Rebellion in Nineteenth-Century Brazil, H. Sabrina Gledhill, trans. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003), 239; Borges, The Family, 160, n. 27, 28; Bederman, Gail, Manliness and Civilization: A Cultural History of Gender and Race in the United States, 1880–1917 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995); Stoler, Ann Laura, Carnal Knowledge and Imperial Power: Race and the Intimate in Colonial Rule (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002), 145–61.

16 Nabuco, A escravidão (Rio: Nova Fronteira, 1999 [1869]), 8–9, 30–32.

17 Aguirre, Carlos and Salvatore, Ricardo, “The Birth of the Penitentiary in Latin America: Toward an Interpretative Social History of Prisons,” in Aguirre, Carlos and Salvatore, Ricardo, eds., The Birth of the Penitentiary in Latin America (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1996), 143.

18 Though Cesare Lombroso had published earlier, he is probably best known for his Criminal Man, Mary Gibson and Nicole Hahn Rafter, trans. (Durham: Duke University Press, 2006 [1876]).

19 Thomas Klubock argues that North American corporations introduced bourgeois family ideals to Chilean miners by privileging married workers in the El Teniente mines, in Contested Communities: Class, Gender, and Politics in Chile's El Teniente Copper Mine, 1904–1951 (Durham: Duke University Press, 2001). On new efforts to reform the poor in imperial Brazil, see, e.g., Filho, Walter Fraga, Mendigos, moleques, e vadios na Bahia do Século XIX (São Paulo: Editoria Hucitec, 1996); Erica M. Windler, “City of Children: Boys, Girls, Family and State in Imperial Rio de Janeiro,” (PhD diss., University of Miami, Coral Gables, 2003).

20 de Almeida, Rufino Augusto, Estado actual das prisões da província de Pernambuco (Recife: Typ. De M. Figeroa, 1874), 11, 4041; Filho, Antonio Herculano de Souza Bandeira, Informações sobre o presidio de Fernando de Noronha (Rio: Imprensa Nacional, 1880), 3233.

21 Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística [IBGE], Estatísticas históricas do Brasil, 2d ed. (Rio: IBGE, 1990), 31–33.

22 Bandeira, Informações, 18; Fleury, Conselheiro André Augusto de Padua, Parecer sobre o Presídio de Fernando de Nornoha (Rio: Imprensa Nacional, 1880), 5. Peter M. Beattie, “‘Born under the Cruel Rigor of Captivity, the Supplicant Left It Unexpectedly by Committing a Crime’: Categorizing and Punishing Slave Convicts in Brazil, 1830–1897,” The Americas 66, 1 (July 2009): 11–54; Relatorio … Justiça, Conselheiro João Ferreira de Moura (Rio: Typ. Nacional, 1883), 142–43.

23 Relatorio, Fernando de Noronha, 1 Jan. 1876, APPJE, FN-17, f. 145–79; ibid., 1 Jan. 1877, FN-18, f. 300; Bandeira, Informações, 35.

24 Tenente Coronel José Antonio Pinto ao José Bento da Cunha Figueredo, 29 Jan. 1854, APEJE, FN-6, f. 26.

25 Relatorio, 1 Jan. 1877, APPJE, FN-18, f. 300; Bandeira, Informações, 36.

26 Relatorio … Justiça, Lafayette Rodrigues Pereira (Rio: Typ. Preseverança, 1878), 93; Bandeira, Informações, 35.

27 Rohan, “A ilha,” 30; idem., “Considerações acerca da conquista, catechese e civilisação dos selvagens do Brasil,” Guanabara (Rio, 1854), II, 191–92 (my emphasis).

28 Beattie, Peter M., The Tribute of Blood: Army, Honor, Race and Nation in Brazil 1864–1945 (Durham: Duke University Press, 2001).

29 Almeida, José Ricardo Pires de, Homosexualismo (a libertinagem no Rio de Janeiro) (Rio: Laemmert, 1906), 7685.

30 [Agostinho Marques] Perdigão Malheiro, A escravidão no Brasil: ensaio histórico, jurídico, social, 2 vols., 3d ed. [1st ed. 1867–1869] (Petropolis: Vozes, 1976), I, 17–75, 95, 181–83; II, 123–24.

31 See, e.g., Bailey, John, The Lost German Slave Girl (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2003), 99100; Bush, Barbara, Slave Women in Caribbean Society 1650–1838 (Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 1990), 98103; Green, Cecilia A., “‘A Civil Inconvenience’? The Vexed Question of Slave Marriage in the British West Indies, Law and History Review 25, 1 (Spring 2007): 160; Verena Martinez-Alier, Marriage, Class and Colour in Nineteenth-Century Cuba: A Study of Racial Attitudes and Sexual Values in a Slave Society, 2d ed. (London: Cambridge University Press, 1974); Skidmore, Thomas, Black into White: Race and Nationality in Brazilian Thought (London: Oxford, 1974).

32 Slenes, Robert W., Na Senzala uma flor: Esperanças e recordações da família escrava—Brasil, sudeste século XIX (Rio: Nova Fronteira, 1999), 86, 148–80, 188; Debret, Viagem pitoresca e histórica ao Brasil, 2 vols. (São Paulo: Livraria Martins, 1940), II, 180–81; Florentino, Manolo, A Paz das senzalas: famílias escravas e trafico atlântico, Rio de Janeiro, c. 1790–c. 1850 ( Rio: Civilização Brasileira 1997), 147–78; Mattos, Hebe Maria, Das cores do silêncio: Os significados de liberdade no sudeste escravista—Brasil século XIX, 2d ed. (Rio: Nova Fronteira, 1995); Faria, Sheila de Castro, “Família, escrava e legitimidade: estratégias de preservação da autonomia,” Estudos Afro-Asiáticos 23 (1992): 113–31; Barickman, B. J., “A Bit of Land, which They Call ‘Roça’: Slave Provision Grounds in the Bahian Recôncavo, 1780–1860,” Hispanic American Historical Review 74, 4 (Nov. 1994): 649–87; Schwartz, Stuart B., Sugar Plantations in the Formation of Brazilian Society: Bahia 1550–1835 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985), 382–94.

33 Fleury, Parecer sobre, 6; Relação, 1 Jan. 1876, APPJE, FN-17, f. 145–79.

34 Bandeira, Informações, 27; Foucault, Michel, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, Sheridan, Alan, trans. (New York: Pantheon Books, 1977), 135230.

35 “Fernando Noronha: The Penal Settlement of Brazil,” Scribner's Monthly (Feb. 1876): 538–39.

36 Bandeira, Informações, 33, 37, 41.

37 Relatorio … Gusmão Coelho, ibid., f. 2. In 1876, one in fifteen convicts (97 of 1,531) lived with wives, and forty-one with “amazias.” Relação, 1 Jan. 1876, APPJE, FN-17, f. 145–79.

38 Borges, The Family, 46–47, 247–48; Kuznesof, Elizabeth Anne, “Sexual Politics, Race, and Bastard-Bearing in Nineteenth-Century Brazil: A Question of Power or Culture?” Journal of Family History 16, 3 (1991): 241–60; idem., “Who Were the Families of ‘Natural’ Born Children in Nineteenth-Century Rio de Janeiro Brazil: A Comparison of Baptismal and Census Records,” The History of the Family 2, 2 (1997): 171–82; Ramos, Donald, “União consensual e a família no século XIX: Minas Gerais, Brasil,” Estudo Econômicos 20, 3 (1990): 381405; idem., “From Minho to Minas: The Portuguese Roots of the Mineiro Family” Hispanic American Historical Review 73, 4 (Nov. 1993): 639–62.

39 Silvia Maria Jardim Brügger, “Legitmidade, casamento, e relações ditas ilícitas em São João del Rei (1730–1850),” IX Seminário Sobre a Economia Mineira, 48. In Minas, 85 percent of births were classed as legitimate in 1890, whereas in 1844 only 65 percent were. Falla dirigida á Assembléa Legislativa Provincial de Minas Geraes na sessão ordinaria do anno de 1846, pelo presidente da provincia, Quintiliano José da Silva (Ouro Preto: Typ. Imparcial de B. X. Pinto de Sousa, 1846), 124, graph 18; Data organized by Sandra Lauderdale Graham confirms this trend, in House and Street: The Domestic World of Servants and Masters in Nineteenth-Century Rio de Janeiro (London: Cambridge University Press, 1988), 192.

40 Rohan, “A Ilha,” 29.

41 Kuznesof, “Who Were the Families,” 171–82; Barickman, B. J., “Reading the 1835 Parish Census from Bahia: Citizenship, Kinship, Slavery, and Household in Early Nineteenth-Century Brazil,” The Americas 59, 3 (Jan. 2003): 287324; Graham, Sandra Lauderdale, “Honor among Slaves,” in Lipsett-Rivera, Sonya and Johnson, Lyman L., eds., The Faces of Honor: Sex, Shame, and Violence in Colonial Latin America (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1998), 221–28; Silva, Maciel Henrique, “Delindra Maria de Pinho: Uma preta forra de honra no Recife da primeira metade do século XIX,” Afro-Asia 32 (2005): 219–40.

42 de Almeida, Rufino Augusto, Estado actual das prisões da província de Pernambuco (Recife: Typ. De M. Figeroa, 1874), 7.

43 Costa, Marcos Paulo Pedrosa, O caos resurgirá da ordem: Fernando de Noronha e a reforma prisional do império (São Paulo: IBCCRIM, 2009), 159–71.

44 Tenente Coronel José Angelo de Moraes Rego ao Diogo Velho Cavalcante d'Albuquerque, 13 Dec. 1870, APPJE, FN-14, f. 339; Bandeira, Informações, 32–33.

45 Rohan, “A Ilha,” 30; Costa, O caos, 159–71.

46 Almeida, Estado, 11, 40–41.

47 Ibid., 40–41.

48 Beattie, “Cada,” 224.

49 Lynn Hunt, Inventing Human Rights: A History (New York: W. W. Norton, 2007), 142.

50 Almeida, Estado, 40–41; Relatorio … Justiça, Dr. Francisco d'Assis Rosa e Silva (Rio: Imprensa Nacional, 1889), 128–29.

51 Revista Illustrada, Rio, 13 Jan. 1877; José Bonifácio dos Santos Mergulhão ao Manoel Clementino Carneiro da Cunha, 24 Dec. 1876, APPJE, FN-17, f. 278.

52 Bandeira, Informações, 35.

53 Observador, Carta Anomyna [sic], 6 Apr 1877, ANR, IG-85, no f. nos.

54 Relatorio … Justiça, Conselheiro João Ferreira de Moura, 140; Fleury, Parecer sobre, 7; Bandeira, Informações, 12, 29; The War Ministry favored the colony's transfer to the Justice Ministry because most convicts there were civilians. Relatorio … guerra, Duque de Caxias (Rio: Typ. F. Paulo Hildebrandt, 1877), 18; ibid., Relatorio … guerra, Affonso Augusto Moreira Penna, 173; Beattie, “Born,” 11–54.

55 Fleury, Parecer sobre, 7, 15.

56 Ibid., 8.

57 Bandeira, Informações, 34.

58 Ibid., 32–34; Fleury, Parecer sobre, 8.

59 Major José Bonifácio dos Santos Mergulhão ao Manoel Clementino Carneiro da Cunha, 20 Sept. 1876, APPJE, FN-17, f. 209–10.

60 Bandeira, Informações, 32–33.

61 Windler, “City of Children,” 106–7; Fleury, Parecer sobre, 8; Bandeira, Informações, 34.

62 Bandeira, Informações, 32; Captain Antônio Francisco de Costa ao Luis Corrêa de Queiroz Barros, 17 Oct. 1885, APPJE, FN-24, no f. nos.

63 Relatorio … Justiça, Manoel Pinto de Souza Dantas (Rio: Imprensa Nacional, 1882), 157; Relatorio … Justiça, Samuel Wallace MacDowell (Rio: Imprensa Nacional, 1887), 160.

64 Bandeira complains that commanders had no knowledge of penology; Informações, 16.

65 Quartel Commando do Presídio, 25 Aug. 1866, APPJE, FN-12, no f. nos.

66 Francisco Joaquim Pereira Lobo ao João Rodrigues Chaves, 20 May 1885, APPJE, FN-24, no f. nos.; Also, Antonio de Campos Mello ao Henrique Pereira de Lucena, ibid., 8 July 1873, FN-16, f. 146; Sebastião Antonio do Rego Barros ao Francisco d'Assis Pereira Rocha; ibid., 12 July 1870, FN-14, f. 271.

67 J. dos Passos Queiroz ao Innocencio Marques d'Araujo Goes, n.d., APPJE, FN-28, f. 249.

68 Brigadeiro Francisco Joaquim Pereira Lobo ao Jose Manoel de Freitas, 22 Mar. 1884, APPJE, FN-23, no f. nos.; On the mainland, see, e.g., Esteves, Martha de Abreu, Meninas Perdidas: os populares e o cotidiano do amor no Rio de Janeiro da belle époque (Rio: Paz e Terra, 1989).

69 Director José Ignácio Ribeiro Roma ao Ignácio Joaquim de Souza Leão, APPJE, FN-25, 21 Nov. 1886, f. 256 and 258. For similar statements, Francisco Joaquim Pereira Lobo ao Sancho de Barros Pimentel, ibid., 22 Jan. 1885, FN-24, no f. nos.; Director José Ignácio Ribeiro Roma ao Ignácio Joaquim de Souza Leão, 21 Sept. 1886, APPJE, FN-25, f. 257.

70 Joaquim Agripino Furtado Mendonça ao Joaquim José de Oliveira Andrade, 26 May 1888, APPJE, FN-27, f. 131.

71 Alexandre de Barros e Albuquerque ao Presidente Adelino Antonio de Lima Freire, 17 Apr. 1878, APPJE, FN-18, f. 116.

72 Francisco Joaquim Pereira Lobo ao João Rodrigues Chaves, 21 Aug. 1885, APPJE, FN-24, no f. nos.

73 Bandeira, Informações, 33.

74 Protesto de Francisco Joaquim Pereira Lobo ao João Rodrigues Chaves, 4 Sept. 1885, APPJE, FN-24, no f. nos.; ibid., Director Luiz Paulino de Hollanda Valença ao Manoel Alves de Araujo, 6 Nov. 1889, FN-28, f. 466; ibid., Sentenciado pobre Vicente de Assis Tavares ao Director Luiz Paulino de Hollanda Valença, 2 Nov. 1889, FN-28, f. 467–68.

75 Sebastião Antônio do Rego Barros ao Frederico de Almeida e Albuquerque, 20 Jan. 1870, APPJE, FN-14, f. 209.

76 Brigadeiro Hygino José Coelho ao Henrique Pereira de Lucena, 3 Mar. 1875, APPJE, FN-16, f. 361.

77 Joaquim Agripino Furtado de Mendonça ao Barão de Sousa Leão, 15 Jun. 1889, APPJE, FN-28, f. 328.

78 Antonio de Campos M. ao Henrique Pereira de Lucena, 7 July 1873, APPJE, FN-16, f. 140.

79 Major José Bonifácio dos Santos Mergulhão ao Manoel Clementino Carneiro da Cunha, 13 Sept. 1876, APPJE, FN-17, f. 209–10.

80 José Antonio de Oliveira ao Joaquim Agripino Furtado Mendonça, 17 Feb. 1889, APPJE, FN-28, f. 143; ibid., Joaquim Agripino Furtado Mendonça ao Innocencio Marques d'Araujo Goes, 17 Feb. 1889, APPJE, FN-28, f. 144.

81 José dos Passos Queiroz ao Ignácio Joaquim de Souza Leão, 23 May 1889, APPJE, FN-28, f. 294.

82 Pessoa, Cadernos, 54.

83 Foucault, Discipline and Punish; idem., The History of Sexuality, Vol. I (New York: Vintage Press, 1990 [1976]).

84 Andrews, , “Black and White Workers: São Paulo, Brazil, 1888–1928,” Hispanic American Historical Review 68, 3 (1988): 514–18; Stolke, Verena, “Trabalho e moralidade familiar,” 171–215, in da Cunha, Olívia Maria Gomes e Gomes, Flávio dos Santos, eds., Quase cidadão: Histórias e antroplologias da pós-emancipação no Brasil (Rio: Editoria Fundação Getulio Vargas, 2007).

85 “French Convict Marriages,” Chamber's Journal of Popular Literature, Edinburgh, 4 Aug. 1883: 486–87; Redfield, Peter, Space in the Tropics: From Convicts to Rockets in French Guiana (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000), 197.

86 West, John, History of Tasmania, 2 vols. (Launceston: Henry Dowling, 1852), II, 181–82; Pybus, Cassandra, Black Founders: The Unknown Story of Australia's First Black Settlers (Sydney: University of New South Wales Press, 2006), 9192.

87 Sarti, Raffeala, “‘All Masters Discourage the Marrying of Their Male Servants and Admit Not by Any Means the Marriage of the Female’: Domestic Service and Celibacy in Western Europe from the Sixteenth to the Nineteenth Century,” European Historical Quarterly 38, 3 (2008): 417–49. For similar tensions over domestics and living arrangements in Brazil, see Lauderdale Graham, House and Street.

88 See, e.g., Vergara, Angela, Copper Workers, International Business, and Domestic Politics in Cold War Chile (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2008), 3738; Klubock, Contested Communities.

89 Hay, Douglas, “Afterward: Law and Society in Comparative Perspective,” in Salvatore, Ricardo D., Aguirre, Carlos, and Joseph, Gilbert, eds., Crime and Punishment in Latin America: Law and Society since Late Colonial Times (Durham: Duke University Press, 2001), 415–30.

90 Mintz, Sidney, Carribean Transformations (Chicago: Aldine Pub. Co., 1974).

91 Graham, Sandra Lauderdale, Caetana Says No: Women's Stories from a Brazilian Slave Society (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 32; Slenes, Na senzala.

92 Dias, Astor Guimarães, A questão sexual nas prisões (São Paulo: Saraiva, 1955), 70.

93 “‘O Contato dos presos com o mundo exterior’: O Brasil atrás das grades,” Human Rights Watch Website, 1997. (accessed 14 Aug. 2007).

94 Barickman, “Reading the 1835 Parish,” 308.

Acknowledgments: I thank B. J. Barickman, Dain Borges, Marcus Joaquim Maciel de Carvalho, Celso Castilho, Lisa M. Fine, Donna Guy, Elizabeth Anne Kuznesof, the Newberry Library Latin American History Seminar participants, Micol Seigel, Barbara Weinstein, Michigan State University's Last Friday Latin American history group (Edward Murphy, Benjamin T. Smith, David Wheat, and Erica M. Windler) and four anonymous CSSH reviewers for their insightful comments on this manuscript. I claim all rights to any mistakes of fact or interpretation herein. I also thank Fulbright CIES and Michigan State University's Intramural Research Grant Program, the Department of History, and International Studies and Programs for the support that made this research possible.

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