Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Legally Armenian: Tolerance, Conversion, and Name Change in Turkish Courts

  • Ceren Özgül (a1)
Abstract

Over the last fifteen years, hundreds of Muslim citizens claiming Armenian descent have submitted petitions to Turkey's secular legal authorities asking for changes to both their name and religion in the public record. In this article, I discuss the name-change cases of Armenian return converts to further the debates on Turkish secularism and to critique the body of scholarship that welcomes the governing Justice and Development Party's legal reforms as a measure of growing religious tolerance. In the article's first part I analyze the historical foundations of the regulation of religion and name changes in Turkey by fully and explicitly engaging with law as a site where minority difference is constructed, authorized, and challenged. The article's second half offers an alternative reading of how tolerance functions as an aspect of the Justice and Development Party's reforms. Based on my investigation of specific legal forms of argument that converted Armenians and their lawyers put forward in today's secular courts, and how legal officers of the state respond to them, I demonstrate that legal reform has shifted the definition of religion as a marker of minority difference in legal space. I argue that the historical context of name change and religious conversion forces the limits of existing understandings of freedom of religion in Turkey, and that this renders visible historical injustices that cannot be resolved simply through the notion of “religious tolerance” in the courts.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Legally Armenian: Tolerance, Conversion, and Name Change in Turkish Courts
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Legally Armenian: Tolerance, Conversion, and Name Change in Turkish Courts
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Legally Armenian: Tolerance, Conversion, and Name Change in Turkish Courts
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
cozgul@umich.edu
References
Hide All
Abu El-Haj, Nadia. 2012. The Genealogical Science: The Search for Jewish Origins and the Politics of Epistemology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Agrama, Hussein Ali. 2006. Asking the Right Question: Two Engagements with Islam and Modernity. Political Theory 35, 4: 647–56.
Agrama, Hussein Ali. 2010. Secularism, Sovereignty, Indeterminacy: Is Egypt a Secular or a Religious State? Comparative Studies in Society and History 52, 3: 495523.
Akan, Murat. 2011. The Infrastructural Politics of Laiklik in the Writing of the 1961 Turkish Constitution. Interventions: International Journal of Postcolonial Studies 13, 2: 190211.
Akçam, Taner. 2004. From Empire to Republic: Turkish Nationalism and the Armenian Genocide. London: Zed Books.
Algan, Bülent. 2008. The Brand New Version of Article 301 of Turkish Penal Code and the Future of Freedom of Expression Cases in Turkey. German Law Journal 9, 12: 2237–52.
Altınay, Ayşe Gül and Türkyılmaz, Yektan. 2011. Unraveling Layers of Gendered Silencing: Converted Armenian Survivors of the 1915 Catastrophe. In Singer, Amy, Neumann, Christoph K., and Akşin, Selçuk, Somel, eds., Untold Histories of the Middle East: Recovering Voices from the 19th and 20th Centuries. London: Routledge, 2553.
Altınay, Ayşe Gül and Çetin, Fethiye. 2009. Torunlar [Grandchildren]. Istanbul: Iletisim Press.
Asad, Talal. 2003. Formations of the Secular: Christianity, Islam, Modernity. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Asad, Talal. 2006. Trying to Understand French Secularism. In de Vries, Hent and Sullivan, Lawrence E., eds., Political Theologies: Public Religions in a Post-Secular World. Bronx, N.Y: Fordham University Press, 494526.
Aslan, Senem. 2009. Incoherent State: The Controversy over Kurdish Naming in Turkey. European Journal of Turkish Studies (online). At: http://ejts.revues.org/index4142.html (accessed 5 Apr. 2012]).
Aram, Ateşyan. 2012. Türkiyede yıllık 60–70 Ermeni Vaftiz Edilip Hıristiyanlaştırılıyor. Ermenihaber (online). At: http://www.ermenihaber.am/?lang_id=1&news_=4&cur_news=116 (accessed 31 July 2013).
Aybay, Rona. 2004. Vatandaşlık Hukuku [Citizenship law]. Istanbul: Bilgi Üniversitesi Yayinlari.
Azevedo, Eliane S. 1980. Anthropological and Cultural Meaning of Family Names in Bahia, Brazil. Current Anthropology 21, 3: 360–63.
Baer, Marc. 2004. The Double Bind of Race and Religion: The Conversion of the Dönme to Secular Turkish Nationalism. Comparative Studies in Society and History 46, 4: 682708.
Baer, Marc. 2009. The Dönme: Jewish Converts, Muslim Revolutionaries, and Secular Turks. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Baer, Marc, Makdisi, Ussama, and Shryock, Andrew. 2005. Tolerance and Conversion in the Ottoman Empire: A Conversation. Comparative Studies in Society and History 51, 4: 927–40.
Bakar, Diran. 2002. Uygulamada Ayrımcılık Örnekleri ve Azınlık Vakıflarının Sorunları. In Kaboglu, İbrahim O., ed., Ulusal, Ulusalüstü ve Uluslararası Hukukta Azınlık Hakları. İstanbul: İstanbul Barosu İnsan Hakları Merkezi Yayını, 262–75.
Bali, Rıfat N. 1999. Cumhuriyet yillarinda Turkiye Yahudileri: Bir Turklestirme Seruveni, 1923–1945 [Turkish Jews in the Republican Era: An adventure of Turkification, 1923–1945]. Istanbul: Iletisim Yayinlari.
Barkey, Karen. 2008. Empire of Difference: The Ottomans in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Başgöz, İlhan. 1999. The Meaning and Dimension of Change of Personal Names in Turkey. In Silay, Kemal, ed., Turkish Folklore and Oral Literature: Selected Essays of İlhan Başgöz. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Bayır, Derya. 2013. Minorities and Nationalism in Turkish Law. London: Ashgate.
Belge, Ceren. 2006. Friends of the Court: The Republican Alliance and Selective Activism of the Constitutional Court of Turkey. Law and Society Review 40, 3: 653–92.
Bering, Dietz. 1992. The Stigma of Names: Antisemitism in German Daily Life, 1812–1933. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Bloxham, D. and Göçek, Fatma M.. 2008. The Armenian Genocide. In Stone, Dan, ed., The Historiography of Genocide. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 344–72.
Brink-Danan, Marcy. 2010. Names that Show Time: Turkish Jews as “Strangers” and the Semiotics of Reclassification. American Anthropologist 112, 3: 384–96.
Brink-Danan, Marcy. 2011. Jewish Life in Twenty-First-Century Turkey: The Other Side of Tolerance. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Brown, Wendy. 1995. Rights and Losses. In States of Injury: Power and Freedom in Late Modernity. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 96134.
Brown, Wendy. 2006. Regulating Aversion: Tolerance in the Age of Identity and Empire. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Bruck, Gabriele vom and Bodenhorn, Barbara, eds. 2006. The Anthropology of Names and Naming. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cagaptay, Soner. 2006. Islam, Secularism and Nationalism in Modern Turkey: Who Is a Turk? London: Routledge.
Caplan, Jane and Torpey, John C.. 2001. Documenting Individual Identity: The Development of State Practices in the Modern World. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Carucci, Laurence M. 1984. Significance of Change or Change of Significance: A Consideration of Marshallese Personal Names. Ethnology 23, 2: 143–55.
Clifford, James. 1988. Identity in Mashpee. In The Predicament of Culture: Twentieth-Century Ethnography, Literature, and Art. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 277348.
Comaroff, John and Comaroff, Jean. 2004. Criminal Justice, Cultural Justice: The Limits of Liberalism and the Pragmatics of Difference in the New South Africa. American Ethnologist 31, 2: 188204.
Connolly, Jennifer. 2009. Forbidden Intimacies: Christian-Muslim Intermarriage in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. American Ethnologist 36, 3: 492506.
Connolly, William E. 1999. Why I Am not a Secularist. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Coutin, Susan Bibler. 1995. Smugglers or Samaritans in Tucson, Arizona: Producing and Contesting Legal Truth. American Ethnologist 22, 3: 549–71.
Dadrian, Vahakn. 1995. The History of the Armenian Genocide: Ethnic Conflict from the Balkans to Anatolia to the Caucasus. Providence and Oxford: Berghahn Books.
Demiralp, Tunç. 2003. Nesep Nüfus ve Kişisel Hukuk Davaları [Personal status, and civil registry cases]. Istanbul: Alfa Basim Yayim Dağıtım.
Deringil, Selim. 2000. “There Is no Compulsion in Religion”: On Conversion and Apostasy in the Late Ottoman Empire: 1839–1856. Comparative Studies in Society and History 42, 3: 547–75.
Deringil, Selim. 2012. Conversion and Apostasy in the Late Ottoman Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ekşi, Nuray. 2008. Vatandaşlık Hukukumuzda Türkçe Olmayan Ad ve Soyad Meselesi [The issue of non-Turkish first and last names in our citizenship law]. İstanbul: Beta Yayinlari.
Ergin, Ayşe Dicle. 2010. Azinlik Dillerinin Kullanimi Konusunda Türkiye Nerede Duruyor? [Where does Turkey stand with regard to the use of minority languages?]. AUHFD (journal of Ankara University Law School) 59, 1: 134.
Esen, Selin and Gonenç, Levent. 2008. Religious Information on Identity Cards: A Turkish Debate. Journal of Law and Religion 23, 2: 579603.
European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI). 1999. First Report on Turkey (online). At: http://hudoc.ecri.coe.int/XMLEcri/ENGLISH/Cycle_01/01_CbC_eng/01-cbc-turkey-eng.pdf (accessed 31 Jan. 2014).
European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI). 2001. Second Report on Turkey. (online). At: http://hudoc.ecri.coe.int/XMLEcri/ENGLISH/Cycle_02/02_CbC_eng/02-cbc-turkey-eng.pdf (accessed 31 Jan. 2014).
European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI). 2005. Third Report on Turkey (online). At: http://hudoc.ecri.coe.int/XMLEcri/ENGLISH/Cycle_03/03_CbC_eng/TUR-CbC-III-2005-5-ENG.pdf (accessed 31 Jan. 2014).
Fernando, Mayanthi L. 2010. Reconfiguring Freedom: Muslim Piety and the Limits of Secular Law and Public Discourse in France. American Ethnologist 37, 1: 1935.
Gordillo, Gastón. 2006. The Crucible of Citizenship: ID-Paper Fetishism in the Argentinean Chaco. American Ethnologist 33, 2: 162–76.
Gözaydın, İştar B. 2009. Diyanet: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti'nde Dinin Tanzimi. İstanbul: İletişim Publishing.
Hamilton, Jennifer 2009. Indigeneity in the Courtroom: Law, Culture, and the Production of Difference in North American Courts. New York: Routledge.
Hız, Yüksel and Yılmaz, Zekeriya. 2004. Ad, Adın Çeşitleri, Kazanılması, Değiştirilmesi ve Ad Üzerindeki Hakkın Korunması. Adalet Dergisi [journal of the Justice Ministry] 18. At: http://www.yayin.adalet.gov.tr/18_sayi.htm (accessed 5 Apr. 2014).
Turizmi, İnanç. n.d. Mersin Il Kultur ve Turizm Mudurlugu Website (online). At: http://www.mersinkulturturizm.gov.tr/TR,73394/inanc-turizmi.html (accessed 8 Sept. 2013).
Karaca, Banu. 2011. Images Delegitimized and Discouraged: Explicitly Political Art and the Arbitrariness of the Unspeakable. New Perspectives on Turkey 45: 155–83.
Karahanoḡulları, Özlem E. 2010. Danıṣtay Kararlarinda Din, Vicdan ve Düṣünce Özgürlüḡü (online). At: http://www.Yargıtay.gov.tr/abproje/belge/sunum/rt5/Karahanogullari_DinOzgurlugu.pdf (accessed 24 Apr. 2013).
Kaya, Ayhan. 2013. Europeanization and Tolerance in Turkey: The Myth of Toleration. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan.
Khatib, Syed Malik. 1995. Personal Names and Name Changes. Journal of Black Studies 25, 3: 349–53.
Kılınç, Ümit. 2010. İsim ve Soyisim Hakkinin Avrupa İnsan Haklari Sözleşmesi Kapsaminda Korunmasi [Protection of right to a name and a surname under the European Convention on Human Rights]. TBMM Dergisi [journal of the Turkish Grand National Assembly] 89: 242–76.
Kirişci, Kemal. 2009. Mirage or Reality: Post-National Turkey and Its Implication for Immigration. In EUI RSCAS 2009/14, CARIM Research Report.
Koğacıoğlu, Dicle. 2004. Progress, Unity and Democracy: Dissolving Political Parties in Turkey. Law and Society Review 38, 3: 433–61.
Asım, Köksal, M.. 2004. Peygamberler Tarihi [History of the Prophets]. Istanbul: Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı Yayınları.
Konuralp, Okan. 2010. Artık kimliklerine Hıristiyan yazdırıyorlar. Hurriyet Newspaper (online) 21 Sept. At: http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/gundem/15828167.asp (accessed 5 Apr. 2013).
Kravel-Tovi, Michal. 2012. Rite of Passing: Bureaucratic Encounters, Dramaturgy, and Jewish Conversion in Israel. American Ethnologist 39, 2: 371–88.
Kurban, Dilek. 2003. Confronting Equality: The Need for Constitutional Protection of Minorities on Turkey's Path to the European Union. Columbia Human Rights Law Review 151, 35: 151214.
Kuru, Ahmet. 2009. Secularism and State Policies toward Religion: The United States, France, and Turkey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Law to Change Certain Articles of the Population Register Law No: 4826. 2003. Official Gazette of the Republic of Turkey: At: http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2003/03/20030320.htm (accessed 31 Jan. 2014).
Longman, Timothy. 2001. Identity Cards, Ethnic Self-Perception, and Genocide in Rwanda. In Caplan, Jane and Torpey, John, eds., Documenting Individual Identity: The Development of State Practices in the Modern World. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 345–59.
Mahmood, Saba. 2012. Religious Freedom, the Minority Question, and Geopolitics in the Middle East. Comparative Studies in Society and History 15, 2: 418–46.
Mazower, Mark. 2004. The Strange Triumph of Human Rights, 1933–1950. Historical Journal 47, 2: 379–98.
McClay, Wilfred M. 2001. Two Concepts of Secularism. Journal of Policy History 13, 1: 4772.
Merry, Sally E. 2000. Colonizing Hawaìi: The Cultural Power of Law. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Mills, Amy. 2010. Streets of Memory: Landscape, Tolerance, and National Identity in Istanbul. Athens: University of Georgia Press.
Molokotos-Liederman, Lina. 2007. The Greek ID Card Controversy: A Case Study of Religion and National Identity in a Changing European Union. Journal of Contemporary Religion 22, 2: 187203.
Mouffe, Chantal. 2005. On the Political. New York: Routledge.
Navaro-Yashin, Yael. 2002. Faces of the State: Secularism and Public Life in Turkey. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Noiriel, Gerard. 2001. The Identification of the Citizen: The Birth of Republican Civil Status in France. In Caplan, Jane and Torpey, John, eds., Documenting Individual Identity: The Development of State Practices in the Modern World. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2848.
Ölmez, Mehmet. 2000. Dil Devrimi Sonrası Ad ve Soyadlarımız [Our first and last names after the language revolution]. Türklük Bilgisi Araştırmaları 24, 2: 107–17.
Özgül, Ceren. 2013. From Muslim Citizen to Christian Minority: Tolerance, Secularism and Return Conversions in Turkey. PhD diss., Department of Anthropology, The Graduate Center, City University of New York.
Özuzun, Yervant. 2006. Gitmek mi Zor, Kalmak mı? Gidenler Kalanlar ve ‘Dönenler!’ [Is it hard to leave or stay? The ones who left, the ones who stayed, and the ones who “converted!”]. Hyetert (online) At: http://www.hyetert.com/yazi3.asp?s=0&AltYazi=Makaleler%20%3E%20Genel&Id=249&Sayfa=1&DilId=1 (accessed 9 Dec. 2010).
Özyürek, Esra. 2006. Nostalgia for the Modern: State Secularism and Everyday Politics in Turkey. Durham: Duke University Press.
Özyürek, Esra. 2009a. Convert Alert: German Muslims and Turkish Christians as Threats to Security in the New Europe. Comparative Studies in Society and History 51, 1: 91116.
Özyürek, Esra. 2009b. Christian and Turkish: Secularist Fears of a Converted Nation. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 29, 3: 398412.
Pandey, Gyanendra. 1999. Can a Muslim Be an Indian? Comparative Studies in Society and History 41, 4: 608–29.
Parla, Ayşe. 2005. Terms of Belonging: Turkish Immigrants from Bulgaria in the Imagined Homelan. PhD diss., Department of Anthropology, New York University.
Parla, Ayşe. 2011. Undocumented Migrants and the Double Binds of Rights Claims. Differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 22 1: 6489.
Parla, Taha. 2002. Türkiye'de Anayasalar [Constitutions in Turkey]. Istanbul: Iletisim Yayınları.
Parla, Taha and Davison, Andrew. 2008. Secularism and Laicism in Turkey. In Jakobsen, Janet R. and Pellegrini, Ann, eds., Secularisms. Durham: Duke University Press, 5875.
Population Register Law No. 1587. 1972. Official Gazette of the Republic of Turkey. At: http://www.nvi.gov.tr/Files/File/Mevzuat/Yururlukten_Kaldirilanlar/Kanun/pdf/1587%20say%C4%B1l%C4%B1%20N%C3%9CFUS%20KANUNU.pdf (accessed 31 Jan. 2014).
Population Register Law No. 5490. 2006. Official Gazette of the Republic of Turkey. At: http://www.tbmm.gov.tr/tutanaklar/KANUNLAR_KARARLAR/kanuntbmmc090/kanuntbmmc090/kanuntbmmc09005490.pdf (accessed 31 Jan. 2014).
Povinelli, Elizabeth A. 2002. The Cunning of Recognition: Indigenous Alterities and the Making of Australian Multiculturalism. Durham: Duke University Press.
Resmen ‘Ermeni’ olmak için gitti. 2008. Samanyolu Haber (online). At: http://www.samanyoluhaber.com/gundem/Resmen-Ermeni-olmak-icin-gitti/187268/ (accessed 5 Feb. 2013).
Rodrigue, Aron, 1995. Difference and Tolerance in the Ottoman Empire. Interview by Nancy Reynolds. Stanford Humanities Review 5: 8192.
Scassa, Teresa. 1996. National Identity, Ethnic Surnames and the State. Canadian Journal of Law and Society 11, 2: 167–91.
Scott, J. C., Tehranian, J., and Mathias, J.. 2002. The Production of Legal Identities Proper to States: The Case of the Permanent Family Surname. Comparative Studies in Society and History 44, 1: 444.
Seeman, Don. 2009. One People, One Blood: Ethiopian-Israelis and the Return to Judaism. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.
Sevinçli, Efdal. 2006. Adlarimiz ve Soyadlarimizda Yasayan Dil Devrimi [The Language revolution that survives in our first and last names]. Journal of Yasar University 1, 3: 277–92.
Shambayati, Hootan and Kirdis, Esen. 2009. In Pursuit of “Contemporary Civilization”: Judicial Empowerment in Turkey. Political Research Quarterly. 62, 4: 767–80.
Steedly, Mary Margaret. 1996. The Importance of Proper Names: Language and “National” Identity in Colonial Karoland. American Ethnologist 23, 3: 447–75.
Sullivan, Winnifred Fallers. 2005. The Impossibility of Religious Freedom. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Suny, Ronald Grigor and Göçek, Fatma Müge. 2011. Introduction: Leaving It to the Historians. In Suny, Ronald Grigor, Göçek, Fatma Muge, and Naimark, Norman M., eds., A Question of Genocide: Armenians and Turks at the End of the Ottoman Empire. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sutherland, Anne. 1994. Gypsy Identity, Names, and Social Security Numbers. PoLAR: Political and Legal Anthropology Review 17, 2: 7584.
Tambar, Kabir. 2010. The Aesthetics of Public Visibility: Alevi Semah and the Paradoxes of Pluralism in Turkey. Comparative Studies in Society and History 52, 3: 652–79.
Taşpınar, Ömer. 2007. The Old Turks' Revolt: When Radical Secularism Endangers Democracy. Foreign Affairs 86, 6: 114–30.
Taylor, Charles. 1994. The Politics of Recognition. In Gutmann, Amy, ed., Multiculturalism: Examining the Politics of Recognition. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Taylor, Charles. 1998. Modes of Secularism. In Bhargava, R., ed., Secularism and Its Critics. Dehli: Oxford University Press, 3153.
Treaty with Turkey and other Instruments Signed at Lausanne. 1923. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Turkey (website). At: http://www.mfa.gov.tr/treaty-with-turkey-and-other-instruments-signed-at-lausanne.en.mfa (accessed 3 Jan. 2014).
Trenz, Hans J. 2007. Reconciling Diversity and Unity—Language Minorities and European Integration. Ethnicities 7, 2: 157–85.
Tuḡal, Cihan. 2009. Passive Revolution: Absorbing the Islamic Challenge to Capitalism. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Turkey's Leader Counters French Law with Accusations of Colonial-Era Genocide. 2011. New York Times, 24 Dec. At: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/24/world/europe/turkey-lashes-out-over-french-bill-about-genocide.html?_r=0 (accessed 29 Dec. 2013).
Türköz, Meltem. 2007. Surname Narratives and the State-Society Boundary: Memories of Turkey's Family Name Law of 1934. Middle Eastern Studies 43, 6: 893908.
Ünal vs. Turkey. Judgment of 16 November 2004, No. 48616/99. 2004. At: http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/sites/eng-press/pages/search.aspx?i=003-1190332-1236514 (accessed 29 Dec. 2013).
Üngör, Uḡur Ümit. 2011. The Making of Modern Turkey: Nation and State in Eastern Anatolia, 1913–50. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
U.S. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, Department of State. 2001. International Religious Freedom Report, Turkey. At: www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2001/5694.htm (accessed 30 Aug. 2013).
U.S. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, Department of State. 2011. International Religious Freedom Report, Turkey. At: http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/irf/2011/eur/192871.htm (accessed 30 Aug. 2013).
van der Veer, Peter. 2001. Imperial Encounters: Religion, Nation, and Empire. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Viswanathan, Gauri. 1998. Outside the Fold: Conversion, Modernity, and Belief. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Watson, Rubie S. 1986. The Named and the Nameless: Gender and Person in Chinese Society. American Ethnologist 13, 4: 619–31.
White, Jenny. 2013. Muslim Nationalism and the New Turks. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Yavuz, M. Hakan. 2003. The Case of Turkey. Daedalus 132, 3 (special issue, “Secularism and Religion”): 5961.
Yeğen, Mesut. 2004. Citizenship and Ethnicity in Turkey. Middle Eastern Studies 40, 5: 682708.
Yngvesson, Barbara and Coutin, Susan Bibler. 2006. Backed by Papers: Undoing Persons, Histories, and Return. American Ethnologist 33, 2: 177–90.
Yudice, George. 2003. The Expediency of Culture: Uses of Culture in the Global Era. Durham: Duke University Press.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Comparative Studies in Society and History
  • ISSN: 0010-4175
  • EISSN: 1475-2999
  • URL: /core/journals/comparative-studies-in-society-and-history
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 34
Total number of PDF views: 119 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 530 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 22nd July 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.