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Patron—Client Relations as a Model of Structuring Social Exchange

  • S. N. Eisenstadt (a1) and Louis Roniger (a2)

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The study of patronage and of patron-client relations has come lately to the fore in anthropology, political science and sociology, and has exerted a great fascination for scholars in these spheres. From a topic of relatively marginal concern it has become a central one, closely connected to basic theoretical problems and controversies in all the social sciences.

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The origins of this paper are in a seminar on Comparative Patron-Client Relations in the Department of Sociology of The Hebrew University, given in 1974–75 by S. N. Eisenstadt and J. Azmon, in a framework of seminars on Comparative Civilizations. Two papers based on this seminar have already been published: Burkolter, V., The Patronage System, Theoretical Remarks, Basel, Social Strategies, 1976; and Brumer, Anita, ‘O Sistema Paternalista no Brasil,” Revista do Instituto de Filosofia e Ciencias Humanas da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sol, IV (1976), 5779. Prof. J.S. Coleman of the University of Chicago and Prof. R. Breiger of Harvard University have commented in detail on earlier drafts of this paper, and problems have been discussed by S.N. Eisenstadt with Patti Cox and Beth Hevens at Harvard. Preliminary presentations of this paper have been made by the senior author at Cambridge University and the University of Manchester. He is greatly indebted to the discussions there.

1 Thus in anthropology they were connected with the study of such phenomena as ritual kinship or friendship, and anthropologists tended to concentrate on the institutionalized types of personal patron-client relationship, above all in tribal settings or in small rural communities. Among the best-known studies are Mintz, S.W. and Wolf, E.R., ‘An Analysis of Ritual Coparenthood (Compadrazgo),”Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 6:4 (Winter 1950). 341–68; Foster, G.M., ‘Cofradia and Compadrazgo in Spain,”ibid., 9:1 (Spring 1953), 1–28; Tegnaeus, H., Blood Brothers, New York, Philosophical Library, 1952; Ishino, I., ‘The Oyabun-Kobun: A Japanese Ritual Kinship Institution,” American Anthropologist, 55:1 (1953). 695707; Pitt-Rivers, J., The People of the Sierra, London, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1954; idem.Ritual and Kinship in Spain,” Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, Series 2:20 (1958), 424–31; Kenny, M., A Spanish Tapestry: Town and Country in Castile, New York, Harper and Row, 1966 (1961); Hutchinson, H.W., Village and Plantation Life in Northeastern Brazil, Seattle, University of Washington Press, 1957; Freed, S.H., ‘Fictive Kinship in a North Indian Village,” Ethnology, 2 (1963), 86104; Foster, G.M.. ‘The Dyadic Contract: A Model for the Social Structure of a Mexican Peasant Village,” American Anthropologist, 63:6 (1961), 1173–92; and idem. ‘The Dyadic Contract in Tzintzuntzan II: Patron-Client Relationship,” ibid., 65:6 (1963), 1280–94. In sociology, the study of patronage was closely related to ‘primary” groups and relations in more formalized settings such as bureaucracies. See the Hawthorne Studies in the 1930s: Roethlisberger, F.J. and Dickson, W.J., Management and the Worker: An Account of a Research Program, conducted by the Western Electric Co., Hawthorne Works, Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1970 (1939); Warner, L.W. and Lunt, P.S., The Social Life of a Modern Community, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1941; Whyte, W.F., Street Corner Society: The Social Structure of an Italian Slum, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1958; Shils, E., ‘Primordial, Personal, Sacred and Civil Ties,” in idem.Center and Periphery, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1975, 111–26; idem. 'Primary Groups in American Army,” in ibid., 384–405; Katz, E. and Lazarfeld, P.F., Personal Influence, Glencoe, IL, The Free Press, 1955. In political science the study of patronage was initially concentrated on political machines and ‘bossism” in more developed societies, gradually extending to the study of corruption in developing countries. See for instance Carmen, H.J. and Luthin, R.J., Lincoln and the Patronage, New York, 1943; Sorauf, F.J., ‘Patronage and Party,” Midwest Journal of Political Science, 3:2 (05 1959); Wilson, J.Q., ‘The Economy of Patronage,” Journal of Political Economy, 69:4 (08. 1961), 369–80; Mandelbaum, S., Boss Tweed's New York, New York, Wiley and Sons, 1965; Banfield, E. and Wilson, J.Q., City Politics, Cambridge, Harvard University Press and M.I.T. Press, 1963. In the literature on those phenom- ena in developing countries at this stage see Wraith, R. and Simkins, E., Corruption in Developing Countries, London, G. Allen and Unwin, 1963; Smith, M.G., ‘Historical and Cultural Conditions of Political Corruption among the Hausa,” Comparative Studies in Society and History, 6:1 (01. 1964), 164–94; Greenstone, J.D., ‘Corruption and Self-interest in Kampala and Nairobi,”ibid., 8:1 (Jan. 1966), 199–210; Nash, M., ‘Party Building in Upper Burma,” Asian Survey, 3:4 (04 1963), 197202; and idem, The Golden Road to Modernity, New York, Wiley and Sons, 1965; Lande, C.H., Leaders, Factions and Parties: The Structure of Philippine Politics, New Haven, Yale University Press, Southeast Asian Studies, 1965.

2 For illustrations of the conceptualization of patron-client relationships since the late sixties see for instance Wolf, E., “Kinship, Friendship, and Patron-Client Relationships in Complex Societies.” in Banton, M., ed., The Social Anthropology of Complex Societies, London, Tavistock. 1966, Monographs, A.S.A., 122; Weingrod, A., ‘Patrons, Patronage, and Political Parties,” Comparative Studies in Society and History, 7:4 (10. 1968), 377400; the issue of Sociologische Gids that deals with patron-client relations. 16:6 (11–12. 1969); Lemarchand, R. and Legg, K., ‘Political Clientelism and Development: A Preliminary Analysis,” Comparative Politics, 4:2 (01. 1972), 149–78; Stuart, W.T., ‘The Explanation of Patron-Client Systems: Some Structural and Ecological Perspectives,” in Strickon, A. and Greenfield, S.. eds.. Structure and Process in Latin America: Patronage, Clientage and Power Systems, Albuquerque, New Mexico University Press, 1972, 1942; Kaufman, R., ‘The Patron-Client Concept and Macropolitics: Prospects and Problems,” Comparative Studies in Society and History, 16:3 (07 1974), 284308; Grazziano, L., A Conceptual Framework for the Study of Clientelism, New York, Cornell University Western Societies Program Occasional Papers, 1974/1975: La Fontaine, J.S.. ‘Unstructured Social Relations,” The West African Journal of Sociology and Political Science, 1:1 (10. 1975), 5181; Gellner, E. and Waterbury, J., eds., Patrons and Clients in Mediterranean Societies, London, Duckworth, 1977, esp. the following papers: Gellner, E., ‘Patrons and clients,” 16; Scott, J., ‘Patronage or exploitation?,” 2140; Weingrod, A., ‘Patronage and power,” 4152; and Waterbury, J., ‘An attempt to put patrons and clients in their place.” 329–42; Davis, J., People of the Mediterranean. An Essay in Comparative Social Anthropology, London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1977, ch. 4; Schmidt, S.W., Guasti, L., Lande, C.H. and Scott, J.C., eds., Friends, Followers, and Factions, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1976.

3 The wide occurrence of patron-client relationships encompassed a great variety of links. Multipurpose, diffusely defined clusters of multiple dyadic ties were found between landholders and landless strata in search of share-cropping arrangements in the agrotowns of Italian latifundist Mezzogiorno; in Central Italy Mezzadrian signori and mezzadri paternalistic patronage; in Spain, where the link was either normatively anchored in the moral values of the pueblos and confused with friendship or was oppressive and labeled as caciquismo; in the Middle Eastern smiyya patronage with its stress on the social visibility of the patron and his power in institutional markets, as shown in Egyptian futuwwa as ibn el-balad, Lebanese muqati'ji and Iraqi al-Taba 'iyya. Patrons can use the links in many markets or center their use upon a single institutional sphere as happened with South Italian political single clientelismo of the Notables or with the Spanish caciques. For these patterns see Rossi-Doria, M., ‘The Land Tenure System and Class in Southern Italy,” American Historical Review, 64 (1958), 4653; Schneider, P., ‘Honor and Conflict in a Sicilian Town,” Anthropological Quarterly, 42:3 (07 1969), 130–54; idem, Coalition Formation and Colonialism in Western Sicily,” Archives Europeennes de Sociologie, 13 (1972), 255–67; Tarrow, S.G., Peasant Communism in Southern Italy, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1967; Grazziano, L., ‘Patron-Client Relations in Southern Italy,” European Journal of Political Research, 1:1 (1973), 334; Allum, P. A., Politics and Society in Postwar Naples, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1973; Silverman, S.F., ‘Patronage and Community-Nation Relationship in Central Italy,” Ethnology, 4:2 (1965), 172–89; idem, Exploitation in Rural Central Italy: Structure and Ideology in Stratification Study,” Comparative Studies in Society and History, 12:3 (07 1970), 327–39; Pitt-Rivers, J., The People of the Sierra; Kenny, M., ‘Patterns of Patronage in Spain,” Anthropological Quarterly, 33 (01. 1960), 1423; idem, A Spanish Tapestry; Aya, R., The Missed Revolution. The Fate of Rural Rebels in Sicily and Southern Spain, 1840–1950, Amsterdam University, Papers on European and Mediterranean Societies, No. 3, 1975; Kern, R., ed., The Caciques. Oligarchical Politics and the System of Caciquismo in the Luso-Hispanic World, Albuquerque, New Mexico University Press, 1973; el-Messiri, S.. ‘The changing role of the futuwwa in the social structure of Cairo,” in Gellner, and Waterbury, , Patrons and Clients, 239–54; Khalaf, S., ‘Changing forms of political patronage in Lebanon,”ibid. 185–206; and Rassam, A.. ‘Al-Taba'iyya: Power, patronage and marginal groups in Northern Iraq,”ibid. 157–66. More organizationally oriented patterns are found in Southern Italy, where clientelismo and party-directed bossism were strengthened in a continuing political competition, a widening distribution of wealth and the transference of the locus of political articulation to higher levels of political contest. Such pyramidal chain-to-center structure also characterized Spanish caciquismo after the 1874 Restoration. The pattern becomes more impersonal and instrumental and less dependent on ideological prescriptions of solidarity. Unipurpose patterns are found also in Greece and in Latin America, focused either in the political sphere as in Spain or in the instrumental sphere; they are centered on the preferential access of patrons to second-order resources and are built on connections with ruling parties and State bureaucracies or on officeholding. Such links are reported as well for the Middle East (in Morocco for instance) and for Southeast Asian and black African unions and political arenas; in these cases there seem to be greater pressures for congruence between the incumbents” standing in subcollectivities and their position in institutional markets, as well as less ideological strain in the contractation and functioning of the ties. Similar patterns are found in the Japanese yuryokusha political patronage, in a sphere conceived as marginal for the societal and cosmic order and in a frame of weakened primordial territorial and kinship ties. See for instance Aya, R., The Missed Revolution; Costa, J., ‘Ohgarquia y caciquismo como la forma actual de gobierno en Espana,” in idem, Oligarquia v caciquismo. Colectivismo agrario y olros escritos. Madrid. Alianza Editorial, 1967, 1545; Pike, F.B., Hispanismo. 1898–1936, Notre Dame, University of Notre Dame Press. 1971; Romero-Maura, J.. ‘Caciquismo as a political system,” in Gellner, and Waterbury, , Patrons and Clients, 5362; Kern, R., The Caciques; Campbell, J. K.. Honour, Family and Patronage, A Study of Institutions and Moral Values in a Greek Mountain Community, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1964; Legg, K.R., Politics in Modern Greece, Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1969; and idem, Political Change in Clientelistic Polity, The Failure of Democracy in Greece.” Journal of Political and Military Sociology, 1:2 (Fall 1973), 231–46; Waterbury, J.. The Commander of the Faithful: The Moroccan Political Elite, London, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1970; Burke, E.. ‘Morocco and the Near East.” Archives Europeennes de Sociologie, 10 (1969), 7094; Gellner, E., ‘The Great Patron: A Reinterpretation of Tribal Rebellions,”ibid., 61–69; Akarly, E. and Dor, G. Ben, eds., Political Participation in Turkey, Istambul, Bogazici University Publications, 1975; Shor, E., ‘The Thai Bureaucracy,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 5:6 (1960), 6686; Leeds, A., ‘Brazilian Career and Social Structures: An Evolutionary Model and Case History.” American Anthropologist, 66:6 (1964), 1321–47; Poitras, G.E., ‘Welfare Bureaucracy and Clientelistic Politics in Mexico,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 18:1 (03 1973). 1826; Sandbrook, R., ‘Patrons, Clients, and Factions: New Dimensions of Conflict Analysis in Africa,” Canadian Journal of Political Science, 5:1 (03 1972), 104–19; and idem, Patrons, Clients, and Unions: The Labour Movement and Political Conflict in Kenya,” Journal of Commonwealth Political Studies, 10:1 (03 1972), 327; Ike, N., Japanese Politics. Patron-Client Democracy, New York, Knopf, 1972 (1957); and Flanagan, S.C., ‘Voting Behavior in Japan: The Persistence of Traditional Patterns.” Comparative Political Studies, 1:3 (10. 1968), 391412. See also Zuckerman, A., Political Clienteles in Power: Party Factions and Cabinet Coalitions in Italy, Beverly Hills, Sage Publications, 1975. Greater coerciveness and violence is found in Sicilian mafiosi brokerage between urban absentee landlords and the Western Sicilian hinterland; mafiosi competed among themselves and vis-à-vis lower-standing sectors for greater shares of wealth, while attempting to undermine the control of landlords. A similar trend was found in Northeast Brazilian patrimonial relations between the owners of plantations and sugar-refineries and rural workers; in Egyptian futuwwa as baltagi, and in the case of Lebanese qabadat acting on behalf of zu'ama. See Blok, A., The Mafia of a Sicilian Village, 1860–1960. A Study of Violent Peasant Entrepreneurs, Oxford, B. Blackwell, 1974; Hess, H., Mafia and Mafiosi. The Structure of Power, Westmead Farnborough, Saxon House, 1973 (1970); Gelzer, M., The Roman Nobility, Oxford, B. Blackwell, 1969, 62111; Freire, G., The Masters and the Slaves: A Study in the Development of Brazilian Civilization, New York, Knopf, 1956; Hutchinson, B., ‘The Patron-Dependent Relationship in Brazil: A Preliminary Examination,’; Sociotogia Ruralis, 6 (1966), 330; and Johnson, M., “Political bosses and their gangs: Zu'ama and qabadayat in the Sunni Muslim quarters of Beirut,” in Gellner, and Waterbury, , Patrons and Clients, 207–24. Corporated patron-client relations are reported on kinship, territorial-kinship and civil-like bases. An example of the first is found in the Cyrenaican link between Saadi families and Mrabtin as-Sadgan lacking land and water rights; an example of corporated incumbency to the patron role on a civil-based criterion is reported for the Republican State's foreign clientelae to civitas liberae; on a territorial kinship-like base in Japanese dozoku. The corporate character of incumbency was linked to the semi- or quasi-legal statement of the high dissimilarity of the roles, freeing these from their propensity to instability according to changes in the market positions of the incumbents. Similar are some ritualized patterns, often described as clientelistic: the Japanese oyabun-kobun and the Christian compadrazgo. The link found among the Interlacustrine Bantu of East Africa resembles this aspect; here the ceremonial formalization makes the link no longer vulnerable to the transactional actual interests of the partners. On this range of patterns see among others Peters, E.L., ‘The Tied and the Free (Lybia),” in Peristiany, J., ed., Contributions to Mediterranean Sociology, Paris-The Hague, Mouton, 1968, 167–88; Badian, E., Foreign Clientelae (246–70 B.C.), Oxford, Clarendon Press. 1958; Beardsley, R.K. et al. , Village Japan, Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 1959; Ishino, I., ‘The Oyabun-Kobun,” Nakane, C., Japanese Society, London, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1970; Foster, G.M.. ‘Cofradia and Compadrazgo'; Mair, L.P., ‘Clientship in East Africa,” Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines, 2:6 (1961), 315–26; and Steinhart, F., ‘Vassal and Fief in three Lacustrine Kingdoms,”ibid., 7:28 (1967), 606–23. Patron-client ties and similar relations were reported in traditional China, India, Ireland, Hungary, the East Arctic, Nepal, Malta, and the Balkans. See for instance Folsom, K.E., Friends, Guests and Colleagues: The Mu-fu System in the late Ch'ing Period, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1968; Breman, J., Patronage and Exploitation: Changing Agrarian Relations in South Gujarat, India, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1974; Bax, M., ‘Patronage Irish Style: Irish Politicians as Brokers,” Sociologische Gids, 17 (0506 1970), 179–91; Fél, E. and Hofer, T., Proper Peasants: Traditional Life in a Hungarian Village, Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology, No. 46, Chicago, Aldine, 1969; Paine, R., ed., Patrons and Brokers in the East Arctic, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Institute of Social and Economic Research, 1971, Newfoundland Social and Economic Papers No. 2; Caplan, L., ‘Cash and Kind: Two media of “Bribery” in Nepal,” Man N.S., 6 (1971), 266–78; Boissevain, J., Saints and Fireworks: Religion and Politics in Rural Malta, London, Athlone Press, 1965; and Hammel, E.A., Alternative Social Structures and Ritual Relations in the Balkans, Englewood Cliffs, Prentice Hall, 1968. Ephemeral ties and transient patterns, as in the U.S. and the Soviet Union, are discussed below.

4 See for instance Ike, N., Japanese Politics: Patron-Client Democracy; Galjart, B., ‘Old Patrons and New: Some Notes on the Consequences of Patronage for Local Development Projects,” Sociologia Ruralis, 1 (1967), 335–46; Weingrod, A. and Morin, E., ‘Post Peasants: The Character of Contemporary Sardinian Society,” Comparative Studies in Society and History, 13:3 (07 1971), 301–24; Blok, A., ‘Peasants, Patrons and Brokers in Western Sicily,’ Anthropological Quarterly, 42:3 (07 1969), 155–70; Allum, P.A., Politics and Society in Postwar Naples; Bax, M., “Patronage Irish Style’; Khalaf, S., ‘Changing forms of political patronage in Lebanon.” For a broad treatment of the adaptability of patron-client relations, see Powell, J.D., ‘Peasant Society and Clientelistic Politics,” American Political Science Review, 64:2 (06 1970), 411–25; Scott, J.C., ‘Corruption, Machine Politics, and Political Change,”ibid., 63:4 (Dec. 1969), 1142–58; Lemarchand, R. and Legg, K., ‘Political Clientelism and Development: A Preliminary Analysis,” Comparative Politics, 4:2 (01. 1972), 149–78; Scott, J.C., ‘Patron-Client Politics and Political Change in Southeast Asia,” American Political Science Review, 66:1 (03 1972), 91113; Landé, C.H., ‘Networks and Groups in Southeast Asia: Some Observations on the Group Theory of Politics,”ibid., 67:1 (March 1973), 103–27; Schneider, P., Schneider, J. and Hansen, E., ‘Modernization and Development: The Role of Regional Elites and Noncorporated Groups in the European Mediterranean,” Comparative Studies in Society and History, 14:3 (07 1972), 328–50; Legg, K.R., Patrons, Clients and Politicians. New Perspectives on Political Clientelism, Beverly Hills, Institute of International Studies. Working Papers on Development, No. 3, n.d.

5 These controversies are analyzed in Eisenstadt, S.N. and Curelaru, M., The Form of Sociology, Paradigms and Crises, New York, Wiley and Sons, 1976, esp. chs. 8 and 9; and in idem, Macrosociology. Theory, Analysis and Comparative Studies,” Current Sociology, 25:2 (1977), esp. chs. II and III.

6 For the approach of ‘classical” functionalist anthropology on this point see Radcliffe-Brown, A.R., ‘On the Concept of Function in Social Science” and ‘On Social Structure,” in idem, ed., Structure and Function in Primitive Society, London, Cohen and West, 1952, 178204; and Gluckman, M., Custom and Conflict in Africa, Oxford, B. Blackwell, 1955. On the structural functional approach see for instance Parsons, T. and Shils, E., eds., Toward a General Theory of Action, Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1951; Parsons, T., The Social System, New York, The Free Press, 1964; and Parsons, T. and Smelser, N.J., Economy and Society, New York, The Free Press, 1965. For the emphasis put on interpersonal relations and exchange by scholars who dealt with patron-client relations see Wolf, E., ‘Kinship, Friendship, and Patron-Client Relationships’; Boissevain, J., Friends of Friends, Networks, Manipulators, and Coalitions, Oxford, B. Blackwell, 1974; Mayer, A. C., ‘The Significance of Ouasi-Groups in the Study of Complex Societies,” in Banton, M., ed., The Social Anth apology of Complex Societies, 122; Swartz, M.J., Local-Level Politics: Social and Cultural Perspectives, Chicago, Aldine, 1966, esp. 5368, 199204, 227–41, 243–69; Boissevain, J., ‘The Place of Non-Groups in Social Sciences,” Man, N.S., 3:4 (1968), 542–56; Pitt-Rivers, J., ‘The Kith and the Kin,” in Goody, J., Character of Kinship, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1973, 89105; Boissevain, J. and Mitchell, J.C., eds., Network Analysis. Studies in Social Interaction, Paris-The Hague, Mouton, 1973; Landé, C.H., ‘Networks and Groups in Southeast Asia: Some Observations on the Group Theory of Polities’; idem, Group Politics and Dyadic Politics: Notes for a Theory,” in Schmidt, et al. Friends, Followers, and Factions, 506–10; Weingrod, A.. ‘Patronage and power,” in Gellner, and Waterbury, , Patrons and Clients, 4152; and Scott, J.C., ‘Political Clientelism: A Bibliographical Essay,” in Schmidt, et al. , Friends, Followers and Factions, 488–89.

7 On the concept of honor in societies in which patron-client relations can also be found, see Peristiany, J.G., ed., Honour and Shame: The Values of Mediterranean Society, London, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1965; Schneider, P., ‘Honour and Conflict in a Sicilian Town’; Campbell, J.K., Honour, Family, and Patronage: Pitt-Rivers, J., ‘Honour and Social Status,” in Peristiany, J.G., ed., Honour and Shame, 1978; idem. ‘Honor,” in Shills, D.L., ed., International Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences, New York; Macmillan and Free Press, 1968, Vol. 6, 503–10; Davis, J., ‘Honour and Politics in Picticci,” Proceedings of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 1969, 6481; Schneider, J., ‘Of Vigilance and Virgins. Honour, Shame and the Access to Resources in Mediterranean Societies,” Ethnology, 10:1 (01. 1971), 124. On the Image of Limited Good see Foster, G., ‘Peasant Society and the Image of Limited Good.” American Anthropologist, 67:2 (04 1965), 293315. For controversies about the concept see for instance: Kaplan, D. and Saler, B., ‘Foster's Image of the Limited Good: An Example of Anthropological Explanation,” American Anthropologist, 68:1 (01. 1966), 202–05; Bennett, J.W., ‘Further Remarks on Foster's Image of Limited Good,”ibid., 206–09; and Foster's reply, ibid., 210–14. See also Piker, S., ‘The Image of Limited Good: Comments on an Exercise in Description and Interpretation,” American Anthropologist, 68:5 (10. 1966), 1202–11; Foster, G.M., ‘A Second Look at Limited Good,” Anthropological Quarterly, 45:2 (04 1972), 5764; and Gregory, J.R., ‘Image of Limited Good or Expectation of Reciprocity?,” Current Anthropology, 16:1 (03 1975), 7392. On ‘amoral familism” see Banfield, E., The Moral Basis of a Backward Society, Glencoe, IL, The Free Press, 1958: Wichers, A.J., ‘Amoral Familism Reconsidered,” Sociologia Ruralis, 4:2 (1964), 167–81; and Pizzorno, A., ‘Amoral Familism and Historical Marginality,” International Review of Community Development, 15:16 (1966), 5566.

8 Landé, C.H., ‘Introduction. The Dyadic Basis of Clientelism,” in Schmidt, et al. , Friends, Followers, and Factions, XIII–XXXVII.

9 See for instance Zuckerman, A., Political Clienteles, Tarrow, S., From Center to Periphery. Alternative Models of National-Local Policy Impact and an Application to France and Italy, Ithaca, Cornell University Western Societies Program Occasional Papers, No. 4 (1976); Legg, K.R., Patrons, Clients and Politicians, New Perspectives on Political Clientelism; Waterbury, J., The Commander of the Faithful. The Moroccan Political Elite. A Study in Segmented Politics, London, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1970; Grazziano, L., A Conceptual Framework for the Study of Clientelism; and the contributions to the Conference on Patronage held Nov. 1974 in Rome by the Center for Mediterranean Studies of the American Universities Field Staff and included in Gellner, E. and Waterbury, J., Patrons and Clients, esp.Gellner, E., ‘Patrons and Clients,” 16.

10 See for instance the bibliographical essay of Scott, J.C., in Schmidt, et al. , Friends, Followers, and Factions, 483505, and the literature quoted in preceding notes.

11 Homans, G.C., Social Behaviour. Its Elementary Forms, New York, Harcourt Brace and World, 1961; Blau, P., ‘Justice in Social Exchange,” Sociological Inquiry, 34:1–2 (Spring 1964), 193206; idem, Exchange and Power in Social Life, New York, Wiley and Sons, 1964. A treatment of these different orientations in social exchange theory can be found in Ekeh, P., Social Exchange Theory, The Two Traditions, Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1964. See also Turner, J.H., The Structure of Sociological Theory, Homewood, IL, The Dorsey Press, 1974, 211320.

12 Mauss, M., The Gift, Forms and Functions of Exchange in Archaic Societies, London, Cohen and West, 1954 [Essai sur le don,” Année sociologique, n.s., 1 (1925), 30126]; Levi-Strauss, C., The Elementary Structures of Kinship, Boston, Beacon Press, 1969 (1949); Parsons, T., ‘On the Concept of Influence,” Public Opinion Quarterly, 27 (Spring 1963), 3762; idem, ‘Rejoinder to Bauer and Coleman,” ibid., 83–92; idem, On the Concept of Political Power,” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 103:3 (1963), 232–62; Coleman, J.S., ‘Political Money,” The American Political Science Review, 64:4 (12. 1970), 1074–87.

13 The difference between specific and generalized exchange as presented here is not identical to the difference between restricted and generalized exchange as presented above all by C. Levi-Strauss. The latter distinction refers mostly to the scope and ‘directedness” of the exchange of the restricted one as against the indirection of the latter. Specific exchange can be both direct (barter) and indirect, and the more indirect it is the more dependent it is on generalized media of exchange: money, political loyalties or influence. The proper functioning of such media does in a way exacerbate the problem of trust and the importance of appropriate mechanisms of generalized exchange. Generalized exchange is almost always less direct, but the scope of the persons or spheres it involves may vary greatly.

14 Durkheim, E., On the Division of Labor in Society, New York, Macmillan. 1933. For further treatment of the precontractual elements of social life see for instance Parsons, T., The Structure of Social Action, esp. 301–38, 460–70 and 708–14: Davis, J.A.. ‘Structural Balance, Mechanical Solidarity, and Interpersonal Relations,” American Journal of Sociology, 68:4 (01. 1963), 444–62; and Befu, H., ‘Gift-Giving and Social Reciprocity in Japan,” France-Asie/Asia, 188 (Hiver 1966/1967), 161–77. See also Parsons, T., ‘Durkheim on Religion Revisited: Another Look at the Elementary Forms of Religious Life,” in Glock, C. Y. and Hammond, P. E., eds., Beyond the Classics: Essays in the Scientific Study of Religion, New York, Harper and Row, 1973, 156–81.

15 Fortes, M., Kinship and the Social Order, Chicago, Aldine, 1965. On the societal significance of this aspect of reliability as connected to the ‘moral” realm of kinship see Bloch, M., ‘The Long Term and the Short Term: The Economic and Political Significance of Kinship,” in Goody, J., The Character of Kinship, 7589.

16 On unconditionalities and titles see Eisenstadt, S.N., Social Differentiation and Stratification, Glenview, IL, Scott Foresman and Co., 1971, and idem, ‘Prestige, Participation and Strata Formation,” in Jackson, J.A., ed., Social Stratification, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1968, 62103.

17 On public goods see Kuhn, A., The Study of Society. A Unified Approach, Homewood, IL, The Dorsey Press, 1963; Olson, M., The Logic of Collective Action, New York, Schocken, 1968; Williamson, O.E., ‘Market and Hierarchies: Some Elementary Considerations,” American Economic Review, 63:2 (05 1973), 316–25; and idem, Some Notes on the Economics of Atmosphere, Fels Discussion Papers No. 29, University of Pennsylvania, The Fels Center of Government, 1973. See also Eisenstadt, S.N. and Curelaru, M., The Form of Sociology. Paradigms and Crises, New York, Wiley and Sons, 1976, 364 ff.

18 On hospitality see Pitt-Rivers, J., The Stranger, the Guest and the Hostile Host: Introduction to the Study of the Laws of Hospitality,” in Peristiany, J.G., ed., Contributions, 1330; and the issue of Anthropological Quarterly dealing with ‘Visiting Patterns and Social Dynamics in Eastern Mediterranean Communities.” 47:1 (01. 1974). On ritual kinship and friendship see Eisenstadt, S.N., ‘Ritualized Personal Relations.” Man, N.S., 96 (1956), 16: Gudeman, S., ‘The Compadrazgo as a Reflection of the Natural and Spiritual Person,” The Curl Prize Essay 1971, Proceedings of the Royal Anthropological Institute, (1971), 4571; Goody, E.N., ‘Forms of Pro-Parenthood,” in Goody, J., ed. Kinship. Harmondsworth, Penguin Modern Sociology Series, 1971, 331–45; Pitt-Rivers, J.. ‘Kinship: III-Pseudo-Kinship,” in International Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences, vol. 8, 406–13; and the contributions by Wolf, Foster, Ishino, Wolf and Mintz quoted in note 1. For the structuring of societal trust as related to friendship and kinship see Eisenstadt, S.N., ‘Friendship and the Structure of Trust and Solidarity in Society,” in Leyton, E., ed., The Compact. Selected Dimensions of Friendship, Newfoundland Social & Economic Papers No. 3, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1974, 138–45. The fluidity of these mechanisms in respect to their ideological conceptualization and application in social relations is analyzed in African context by La Fontaine, J.S., ‘The Mother's Brother as Patron,” Archives Europeennes de Sociologie, 16 (1975), 7692; and idem, Unstructured Social Relations,” The West African Journal of Sociology and Political Science, 1:1 (10. 1975), 5181.

19 On reciprocity and exchange in primitive societies see Sahlins, M., ‘On the Sociology of Primitive Exchange,” in Banton, M., ed., The Relevance of Models for Social Anthropology, New York, Praeger, 1965, 139236; and idem.Tribesmen, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 1968. chs. 4 and 5.

20 Parsons, T. et al. , eds., Theories of Society, Glencoe, IL, The Free Press, 1961; idem, On the Concept of Value Commitment,” Sociological Inquiry, 38:2 (Spring 1968), 135–60; Mayhew, L., ‘Ascription in Modern Societies,”ibid., 105–20; Turner, T.S., ‘Parson's Concept of “Generalized Media of Social Interaction” and its Relevance for Social Anthropology,”ibid., 121–34.

21 On the pluralistic model and open market bureaucratic societies see Eisenstadt, S.N., ed., Political Sociology, 488521; and idem, ‘Bureaucracy, Bureaucratization, Markets and Power Structure,” in idem, Essays on Comparative Institutions, New York, Wiley and Sons, 1965, 177215. On the totalitarian model see Brzezinski, Z., ‘The Nature of the Soviet System,” Slavic Review, 20:3 (10. 1961), 354–68; Lowenthal, R., ‘The Logic of One-Party Rule,” in Brumberg, A., ed., Russia under Krushchev; An Anthology from Problems of Communism, New York, Praeger, 1962; Rigby, T.H., ‘Traditional, Market, and Organizational Societies and the USSR,” World Politics, 16:4 (07 1964), 539–57; and Linz, J.J., ‘Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes,” in Greenstein, F.I. and Polsby, N.W., eds., Handbook of Political Science, Reading, MA, Addison-Wesley, 1975, 175411. On caste systems see Dumont, L., Homo hierarchicus: Essai sur le systeme des castes, Gallimard, 1966; idem, ed., Contributions to Indian Sociology, Paris-The Hague, Mouton, 1966; Singer, M., ‘The Social Organization of Indian Civilization,” Diogenes, 45 (Winter 1964), 84119; idem, ed.. Traditional India: Struclure and Change, Austin, American Folklore Society, University of Texas Press, 1959; Srinivas, M.N., Caste in Modern India, New York, Asia Publishing House, 1962; and David, K., ‘Hierarchy and Equivalence in Jaffna, North Sri Lanka: Normative Codes as Mediator,” in idem, ed., The New Wind. Changing Identities in South Asia, Paris-The Hague, Mouton, 1976, 179226. On feudal models see Eisenstadt, S.N., Political Sociology, ch. 7. On consociational models see Daalder, H., ‘The Consociational Democracy Theme,” World Politics, 26;4 (07 1974), 604–21; Liphart, A., ‘Consociational Democracy,”idem, 21 (1969); idem, The Politics of Accommodation: Pluralism and Democracy in the Netherlands, Beverly Hills, California; University Press, 1968. See also Lembruch, G., Proporzdemokratie: Politische System und Politische Kultur in der Schweiz und Oesterreich, Tubingen, Mohr, 1968; idem, Konkordanzdemokratie im Politische System der Schweiz,” Vierteljahresschrift, 9:3 (1968); and idem.Konkordanzdemokratie im Internationalen System,” Politische Vierteljahresschrift, Vol. 10, Sonderheft; and Eisenstadt, S.N., ‘Bureaucracy, Bureaucratization, Markets and Power Structure.’

22 See for example Weingrod, A., ‘Patrons, Patronage and Political Parties’; Hall, A., ‘Concepts and Terms. Patron-Client Relationship,” Journal of Peasant Studies, 1 (1974), 506–09; Grazziano, L., A Conceptual Framework for the Study of Clientelism; Boissevain, J., ‘Patrons and Brokers’; Blok, A., ‘Variations in Patronage,” Sociologische Gids, 16:6 (1112. 1969), 365–78. For notable applications of such an approach to case studies see Allum, P.A., Politics and Society in Postwar Naples; Silverman, S.F., ‘Patronage and Community-Nation Relationships in Central Italy,” Ethnology, 4:2 (1965), 172–89; Boissevain, J., ‘When the saints go marching out. Reflections on the decline of patronage in Malta,” in Gellner, E. and Waterbury, J., Patrons and Clients, 8196. Compare these definitions with Gellner, E., ‘Patrons and Clients’; Waterbury, J., ‘An attempt to put patrons and clients in their place’; and Wolf, E., ‘Kinship, Friendship and Patron-Client Relationships.’

23 On corporatism in Latin America see Malloy, J., “Authoritarianism and Corporatism in Latin America: The Modal Pattern,” in idem, ed., Authoritarianism and Corporatism in Latin America, Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Press, 1977, 319; Chalmers, D.A., ‘The Politi- cized State in Latin America,” in ibid., 23–46; O'Donnell, G.A., ‘Corporatism and the Question of the State,” in ibid., 47–87; Schwartzman, S., ‘Back to Weber: Corporatism and Patrimonialism in the Seventies,” in ibid., 89–106; and Kaufman, R.R., ‘Corporatism, Clientelism, and Partisan Conflict: A Study of Seven Latin American Countries,” in ibid., 109–48; Stephen, X., ed., Authoritarian Brazil. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1973.

24 For examples of the limitation in scope and convertibility of the free flow of resources in these societies see Aya, R., The Missed Revolution. The Fate of Rural Rebels in Sicily and Southern Spain 1840–1950; Campbell, J.K., ‘Two Case-Studies of Marketing and Patronage in Greece,” in Peristiany, J.G., ed., Contributions to Mediterranean Sociology, Paris-The Hague, Mouton, 1968, 143–54; Sayari, S., ‘Political Patronage in Turkey,” in Gellner, and Waterbury, , Patrons and Clients, 103–13. For the pressures on patronalistic arrangements in these societies see Boissevain, J., ‘Poverty and Politics in a Sicilian Agrotown,” International Archives of Ethnography, 50 (1966), 198236; Tarrow, S., ‘Economic Development and the Transformation of the Italian Party System,” Comparative Politics, 1:2 (01, 1969), 161–83; and idem, Local Constraints on Regional Reform. A Comparison of Italy and France,” Comparative Politics, 7:1 (10. 1974), 136. For a general treatment of this subject see Eisenstadt, S.N., ‘Beyond Classical Revolution—Processes of Change and Revolution in Neo-patrimonial Societies,” in idem. Revolution and the Transformation of Societies. A Comparative Study of Civilizations, New York: The Free Press, 1978, 273310; see also below.

25 On these aspects of patron-client relations and especially on their fragility, see among others Blok, A., The Mafia of a Sicilian Village; Wolf, E., ‘On Peasant Rebellions,” International Social Science Journal, 21:2 (1969), 286–93; Gellner, E., ‘How to live in anarchy,” The Listener, 3:4 (1958), 579–83; idem, ‘Patrons and Clients,” Cardoso, F.H., ‘Tensoes sociais no campo e reforma agraria,” Revista brasileira de estudos poiiticos, 12 (10. 1961), 726; Friedrich, P., Agrarian Revolt in a Mexican Village, Englewood Cliffs, Prentice-Hall, 1970; Hottinger, A., ‘Zuama in Historical Perspective,” in Binder, L., ed., Politics in Lebanon, New York, Wiley and Sons, 1966, 85105; Pool, D.The Politics of Patronage: Elites and Social Structure in Iraq; and el-Messiri, S., ‘The changing role of the futuwwa.’

26 On possibilities of severing the relationship, see for instance Blok, A., ‘Mafia and Peasant Rebellion as Contrasting Factors in Sicilian Latifundism,” Archives Europeennes de Sociologie, 10 (1969), 95116; Singelmann, P., ‘The Closing Triangle: Critical Notes on a Model for Peasant Mobilization in Latin America.” Comparative Studies in Society and History, 17:4 (10. 1975), 389409. The quasi-legal or quasi-ritual fixation of incumbency to roles may provide a way of avoiding the above possibility. See Peters, E.L., ‘The Tied and the Free (Lybia),” in Peristiany, J.G., ed., Contributions to Mediterranean Sociology, 167–88; and Ishino, I., ‘The Oyabun-Kobun.’

27 For these concepts see Polanyi, K.E. et al. , eds., Trade and Market in Early Empires, New York, The Free Press, 1957; Dalton, G., Primitive, Archaic and Modern Economies: Essays of Karl Polanyi, New York, Anchor Books, 1968. On the economic structure and process in these societies see Eisenstadt, S.N., Traditional Patrimonialism and Modern Neopatrimonialism, Beverly Hills, Sage Research Papers in the Social Sciences, 1973; for illustrative materials see Rivlin, B. and Szyliowicz, J.S., eds., The Contemporary Middle East: Traditions and Innovations, New York, Random House, 1965, esp. 297324, 368–74; Golay, F.H. et al. , eds., Underdevelopment and Economic Nationalism in Southeast Asia, Ithaca, Cornell University, Department of Asian Studies, 1967; Soedjatmoko, , Economic Development as a Cultural Problem, Ithaca, Cornell University, Department of Asian Studies, 1968; Silcock, T.H., ed., Readings in Malayan Economics, Singapore, Eastern Universities Press, 1961; Jaguaribe, H., Desenvolvimento economico e desenvolvimento politico, Rio de Janeiro, Fundo de Cultura, 1962; and Schneider, J. and Schneider, P., Culture and Political Economy in Western Sicily.

28 Hoselitz, B.F., Sociological Aspects of Economic Growth, New York, The Free Press, 1960, 85114.

29 On these polities see Eisenstadt, S.N., The Political System of Empires, New York, The Free Press, 1963, esp. ch. 7, and idem, Political Sociology.

30 See Wallerstein, I.M., ed., Social Change. The Colonial Structure, New York, Wiley and Sons, 1969. Eisenstadt, S.N., Traditional Patrimonialism and Modern Neopatrimonialism contains detailed bibliographical notes on these topics. On illustrations specifically from the literature on patron-client relations, see for instance Schneider, J. and Schneider, P., Culture and Political Economy in Western Sicily: Snowden, F., ‘On the Social Origins of Agrarian Fascism in Italy,” Archives Europeennes de Sociologie, 13:2 (1972), 268–95; Schneider, J., ‘Family Patrimonies and Economic Behaviour in Western Sicily,” Anthropological Quarterly, 42:3 (09. 1969), 109–29; Hess, H., Mafia and Mafiosi; Feder, E., Violencia y despojo del campesino: ellatifundismo en America Latina, Mexico, Siglo xxi, 1975 (1971); Stavenhagen, R., ‘Social Aspects of Agrarian Structure in Mexico,” Social Research, 33:3 (1966), 463–85; Rossi-Doria, M., ‘The Land Tenure System and Class in Southern Italy.’

31 Bauer, P.T. and Yamey, B.S., The Economics of Underdeveloped Countries, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1957; Belshaw, C.S., ‘Approaches to Articulation in the Economy,” in idem, Traditional Exchange and Modern Markets, Cliffs, Englewood, Hall, Prentice, 1965, 84107. See also Eisenstadt, S.N., Traditional Patrimonialism and Modern Neopatrimonialism.

32 The concept of the dual character of these economies in colonial settings was formulated originally by Boeke, J.H., Tropisch-Koloniale Staathuishoudkunde, 1910. For its treatment see Furnivall, J.S., Netherlands India. A Study of Plural Economy, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1939; Boeke, J.H., The Structure of the Netherlands Indian Economy, New York, Institute of Pacific Relations, 1942; and idem, Economics and Economic Policy of Dual Societies. New York, Institute of Pacific Relations, 1953. On patterns of dependency in some of these societies see Furtado, C., Obstacles to the Development of Latin America, New York, Anchor Books, 1970; Furnivall, J.S., Colonial Policy and Practice: A Comparative Study of Burma and Netherlands India, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1948; Turner, V., ed., Colonization in Africa 1870–1960, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1971; Eisen-stadt, S.N., Essays on Social and Political Aspects of Economic Development, Paris-The Hague, Mouton, 1958; Schwartzman, S., São Paulo e o Estado Nacional, São Paulo, DIFEL, 1975; Schneider, P., ‘Coalition Formation and Colonialism in Western Sicily’; Guasti, L., ‘Peru: Clientelism and Internal Control,” in Schmidt et al., Friends, Followers and Factions, 422–38; Stallings, B., Economic Dependency in Africa and Latin America, Hills, Beverly, Sage Professional Papers in Comparative Politics, 1972.

33 This point can be found in Banfield, E., The Moral Basis of a Backward Society; Wolf, E., Peasants, Cliffs, Englewood, Prentice-Hall, , 1966; Schneider, J., ‘Of Vigilance and Virgins’; Alavi, H., ‘Peasant Classes and Primordial Loyalties,” Journal of Peasant Studies, 1:1 (Oct. 1973), 2362; Powell, J.D., ‘Peasant Society and Clientelism’; Blok, A., ‘Coalitions in Sicilian Peasant Society,” in Boissevain, J. and Mitchell, C., eds., Network Analysis Studies in Human Interaction, Paris-The Hague, Mouton, 1973, 151–66; Johnson, M., ‘Political bosses and their gangs’; and Lynch, F., Four Readings in Philippine Values, Quezon City, Institute of Philippine Culture Papers No. 2, Ateneo de Manila Press, 1964.

34 On the distinction between strong and weak centers see Eisenstadt, S.N., Political Sociology; idem, Social Differentiation and Stratification, esp. ch. 8; and idem, Traditional Patrimonialism and Modern Neopatrimonialism. Further elaboration can be found in idem, Revolution and the Transformation of Societies, esp. chs. IV, V. The structurally weak character of those centers was a recurrent theme in the literature. See for instance Tarrow, S., From Center to Periphery, idem, ‘Local Constraints'; Silverman, , ‘Patronage and Community-Nation Relationships’; Landé, C.H., ‘Networks and Groups in Southeast Asia’; and Scott, J.G., ‘Patron-Client Politics and Political Change.” On the symbolic institutional characteristics of center and periphery see Roth, G., ‘Personal Rulership, Patrimonialism and Empire Building in the New States,” World Politics, 20:2 (Jan. 1968), 194206; Zolberg, A.R., Creating Political Order: The Party States of West Africa 1870–1960, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1971; Riggs, F.W., Thailand: The Modernization of a Bureaucratic Polity, Honolulu, East West Center Press, 1966; Thaung, , ‘Burmese Kinship in Theory and Practice under the Reign of King Mindon,” Journal of the Burma Research Society, 42:2 (1959), 171–85; Schrieke, B., Indonesian Sociological Studies, The Hague-Bandung, Hoeve, W. Van, 1957; Lear, J.C. Van, Indonesian Trade and Society, The Hague-Bandung, Hoeve, W. Van, 1955, 1221; Whitmore, J.K., Vietnamese Adaptations of Chinese Government Structure in the Fifteenth Century, New Haven, Yale University Southeast Asian Studies, 1970; Heine-Geldern, R., ‘Conception of State and Kinship in Southeast Asia.” Southeast Asian Program Data paper No 18, Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1956, 113; Hanke, L., ed., History of Latin American Civilization, 2 vols., Boston, Little Brown, 1967; Sarfatti, M., Spanish Bureaucratic Patrimonialism in America, Berkeley, University of California Press, Institute of International Studies, Politics of Modernization Series No. 1, 1966; Haring, C.H., The Spanish Empire in America, New York, Oxford University Press, 1947.

35 See for instance Landé, C.H., ‘Networks and Groups'; Boissevain, J., ‘Poverty and Polities’; Gilmore, D., ‘Class, Culture and Community Size in Spain’; Meertens, D., ‘South from Madrid: Regional Elites and Resistance,” in Boissevain, J. and Friedl, J., eds., Beyond the Community: Social Process in Europe, European-Mediterranean Study Group of the University of Amsterdam, 1975, 6574.

36 See for example Powell, J.D.. ‘Peasant Society and Clientelistic Politics,” 411–25; Aya, R., The Missed Revolution, 2223; Waterbury, J., The Commander of the Faithful; Tarrow, S., Peasant Communism in Southern Italy. In Sicily and other regions the overlapping and intermingling of occupational roles and identities can hamper the formation of broad categorical commitments. For Sicily see Schneider, J., ‘Family Patrimonies and Economic Behaviour in Western Sicily,” and Blok, A., The Mafia of a Sicilian Village 1860–1960, Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1974. See also Note 33.

37 On bilateral kinship and its societal implications see Pehrson, R.H., ‘Bilateral Kin Groupings as a Structural Type,” Journal of East Asiatic Studies, 3 (1954), 199202; Davenport, W., ‘Nonunilineal Descent and Descent Groups,” American Anthropologist, 61 (1959), 557–72; Blehr, O., ‘Action Groups in a Society with Bilateral Kinship. A Case Study of the Faroe Islands,” Ethnology, 3:3 (07 1963), 269–75; Pitt-Rivers, J., ‘The Kith and the Kin;’Landé, C.H., “Kinship and Politics in Pre-Modern and Nonwestern Societies,” in McAlister, J. T. Jr, ed., Southeast Asia: The Politics of National Integration, New York, Random House, 1973, 219–33; and idem, ‘Networks and Groups in Southeast Asia.” On the structure of kinship in the clientelistic societies see Swanson, E., Rules of Descent. Studies in the Sociology of Parentage, Arbor, Ann, University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, Anthropological Papers, 1969; Murdock, G.P., ‘Cognatic Forms of Social Organizations,” in idem, ed., Social Structure in Southeast Asia, Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology, No. 29 (1960), 1–14; Khaing, M.M., Burmese Family, Bombay, , Longmans Green, 1947; Wolf, E., ‘Society and Symbols in Latin Europe and the Islamic Near East,” Anthropological Quarterly, 42:3 (07 1969), 287301; Moss, L.W. and Thompson, W.H., ‘The South Italian Family: Literature and Observations,” Human Organization, 18: 1 (1959), 3541; Lewis, O., The Children of Sanchez: An Autobiography of a Mexican Family, New York, Random House, 1961.

38 On the structuring of social hierarchies in some societies see Sarfatti, M. and Bergman, A.E., Social Stratification in Peru, Berkeley, University of California Institute of International Studies, Politics of Modernization Series No. 5, 1969, 43, 5254; Burnett, B.G. and Johnson, R.F., eds., Political Forces in Latin America, Belmont, Wadsworth, 1968; Graciarena, J., Poder y closes sociales en el desarollo de América Latina, Buenos Aires, Paidos, 1968; Heath, D.B. and Adams, R., eds., Contemporary Cultures and Societies in Latin America, New York, Random House, 1965, esp. part 3; Bourricaud, F., ‘Structure and Function of the Peruvian Oligarchy,” Studies in Comparative International Development, 2:2 (1966), 1731; Touraine, A., ‘Social Mobility, Class Relations, and Nationalism in Latin America,”ibid., 1:3 (1965), 19–25; Fernandez, J.A., The Political Elite in Argentina, New York, New York University Press, 1970; Touraine, A. and Pecaut, D., ‘Working Class Consciousness and Economic Development,” Studies in Comparative International Development, 3:4 (19671968), 7184; Benda, H.J., ‘Political Elites in Colonial Southeast Asia: An Historical Analysis,” Comparative Studies in Society and History, 7:2 (04 1965), 233–51; and idem, Non Western Intelligentsia as Political Elites,” in Eisenstadt, S.N., Political Sociology, 437–45; Singer, M.R., The Emerging Elite: A Study of Political Leadership in Ceylon, Cambridge, MIT Press, 1964; and Lissak, M., A Socio-Political Hierarchy in a Loose Social Structure. The Structure of Stratification in Thailand, Jerusalem, Academic Press, 1973.

39 To be found for instance in Argentina. See Strickon, A., ‘Class and Kinship in Argentina,’ Ethnology, 1:4 (1962), 500–15.

40 Good examples of this pattern of segregation can be found in Friedl, E., Vassilika, A Village in Modern Greece, New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1962; Pitt-Rivers, J., The People of the Sierra, and Campbell, J.K., Honour, Family and Patronage. See also Baroja, J. Caro, ‘El sociocentrismo de los pueblos españoles,’ Separata del homenaje a F. Krueger, Madrid-Mendoza, U.N.C., Tomo 2, 1954. For a criticism see Gilmore, D., ‘Class, Culture and Community Size in Spain.’ On the weakness of categorial organization see among many others Landé, C.H., ‘Group Politics and Dyadic Politics: Notes for a Theory.’ For the presence of shifting allegiances in the political sphere see for instance Zuckerman, A., Political Clienteles in Power.

41 See on this Lemieux, V., Le Patronage politique. Une étude comparative, Québec, , Les Presses de L'Université Laval, 1977;Wolf, E., Peasants, 8195;Boissevain, J., ‘Patrons as Brokers,” Sociologische Gids, 16:6 (1969), 379–86;Davis, J., People of the Mediterranean, ch. 4;Legg, K.R., Patrons, Clients and Politicians; A. Rassman, ‘Al-Taba'yya: Power, Patronage and Marginal Groups in Northern Iraq,” in Gellner, E. and Waterbury, J., Patrons and Clients, 157–66;Sandbrook, R., ‘Patrons, Clients, and Factions';Lemarchand, R., ‘Political Exchange, Clientelism and Development in Tropical Africa,” Culture et Developpemenl, 4:3 (1972), Bruxelles, , 483516; as well as, among a profuse literature, the works of Hess, Zuckerman, Boissevain and Blok quoted elsewhere.

42 Wolf, E., ‘Society and Symbols in Latin Europe and in the Islamic Middle East: Some Comparisons,” Anthropological Quarterly, 42:3 (07 1969), 287301.

43 For a broad treatment of these concepts see Eisenstadt, S.N. and Curelaru, M., Macro- Sociology;idem, The Form of Sociology; and Eisenstadt, S.N., ‘The Implications of Weber's Sociology of Religion for Understanding Processes of Change in Contemporary Non-Eufo- pean Societies and Civilizations,” in Glock, C.Y. and Hammond, P.E., eds., Beyond the Classics, 131–55. On the above conceptions see Hahha, S.A. and Gardner, G.H., eds., Arab Socialism, London, E.J. Briell, 1969;Matz, A.J.D., ‘The Dynamics of Change in Latin America.” Journal of Inter-American Studies, 9:1 (01 1966), 6676;Gallagher, C.F., ‘The Shaping of the Spanish Intellectual Tradition,” American Universities Field Staff Reports, 9:8 (1976);Worcester, D.E., ‘The Spanish-American Past. Enemy of Change,” Journal of Inter- American Studies, 11:1 (01 1969), 6675;Silvert, K., ‘Latin America and its Alternative Future,” International Journal, 24:3 (Summer 1969), 403–44;Evers, H.D., Kulturwandel in Ceylon, Baden-Baden, Verlag Lutzeyer, 1964;Sarkisyanz, R., Buddhist Backgrounds of the Burmese Revolution, The Hague, , NijhorT, M., 1965;Gallagher, C.F., ‘Contemporary Islam; A Frontier of Communalism. Aspects of Islam in Malaysia.” American Universities Field Staff Reports, Southeast Asia Series, 14:10 (1966);Peacock, J., Rites of Modernization: Symbols and Social Aspects of Indonesian Proletarian Drama, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1968; and Milton, R.N., ‘The Basic Malay House,” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Malay Branch, 29:3 (1965), 145–55.

44 See on this in greater detail Eisenstadt, S.N., Revolution and the Transformation of Societies, esp. chs. IV, V, IX.

45 The case of the mafiosi is only an outstanding example of the continuous struggle and imbalance in relations and terms of exchange found in these societies. Examples for Morocco, Latin America, Southeast Asia and Africa proliferate in the literature; for references see Notes 4,33,36,41.

46 Paine, R., “A Theory of Patronage,” in idem, ed., Patrons and Brokers in the East Arctic, 3–21.

47 This aspect of social ‘insurance” was already emphasized in the work of scholars of Southeast Asia at the end of the sixties and beginning of the seventies (see Scott, J.C., ‘Patron-Client Politics,” as well as the work of R. Lemarchand and K. Legg).

48 On ritual friendship see Notes 1 and 18. On the giri system see H. Befu, ‘Gift Giving and Social Reciprocity in Japan’; and Nakane, C., Japanese Society. On ‘pure’ friendship, see Eisenstadt, S.N., ‘Friendship and the Structure of Trust and Solidarity in Society’;Paine, R., ‘Anthropological Approaches to Friendship,” in Leyton, E., ed., The Compact, 114; and La-Fontaine, J.S., ‘Unstructured Social Relations.'

49 An example of the coercive trend can be found in S. el-Messiri, ‘The changing role of the futuwwa.” On the second possibility see among others Gilmore, D., ‘Patronage and Class Conflict in Southern Spain,” Man, N.S., 12: 34(1978), 446–58.

50 On machine politics in the U.S. see Wolfinger, R. and Field, J., ‘Political Ethos and the Structure of City Government,” American Political Science Review, 60:2 (1966), 306–26;Banfield, E., ed., Urban Government, New York, The Free Press, 1969, esp. ch. 3 and 5, 165265 and 365425; and Wolfinger, R., ‘Why Political Machines.’ On Western Europe see Bax, M., Harpstrings and confessions: A n anthropological study of politics in Rural Ireland, Amsterdam, University of Amsterdam, 1973;Richards, P.G., Patronage in British Government, London, Allen and Unwin, 1963;Zeldin, T., The Political System of Napoleon III, London, Macmillan, 1958. For the Soviet Union see Frank, P., ‘How to get on in the Soviet Union,” New Society, 5 06 1969, 867–68; and Ionescu, G., ‘Patronage under communism,” in Gellner, E. and Waterbury, J., Patrons and Clients, 97102. On China see Folsom, K. E., Friends, Guests, and Colleagues: The Mu-fu System in Late Ch';ing Period, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1968; and Fried, M., Fabric of Chinese Society, New York, Praeger, 1973. For the Canadian Arctic see Paine, R., ed., Patrons and Brokers in the East Arctic. For the jajmani system see for instance Breman, J., Patronage and Exploitation, Changing Agrarian Relations in South Gujarat, India, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1974.

51 See for instance Heidenheimer, A., ed., Political Corruption: Readings in Comparative Analysis, New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1970.

52 For these trends in pluralistic societies see Dahl, R. A., Polyarchy, Participation and Opposition, New Haven and London, Yale University Press, 1971; and idem, ‘Patterns of Opposition,” in idem, ed., Political Opposition in Western Democracies, New Haven and London, Yale University Press, 1966,332–47, and ‘Epilogue,” in ibid., 387–401. For the Soviet Union see Fainsod, M., Smolensk under Soviet rule, Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1958. For the caste systems see Bailey, F. G., Caste and the Economic Frontier, Manchester University Press, 1957;Isaacs, H. R., India's Ex-Untouchables, Bombay, Asia publishing House, 1965;Béteille, A., ‘The Future of the Backward Classes,” in idem, Castes: Old and New, London, Asia Publishing House, 1969,103–45; and David, K., ‘Hierarchy and Equivalence in Jaffna.'

53 On the patterns of revolt see Miller, N. and Aya, R., eds., National Liberation: Revolution in the Third World, New York, Free Press, 1971;Cough, K. and Sharma, H. P., eds., Imperialism and Revolution in South Asia, New York, Monthly Review Press, 1973;Solomon, R. L., ‘Saya San and the Burmese Rebellion,” Modern Asian Studies, 3:3 (1969), 209–33. Gobron, G., History and Philosophy ofCaodaism, Paris, Dervy, 1949;Goulet, G., Les soci`;tes secretes en terre d'Annam, Saigon, C. Ardin, 1926;Guerrero, M. C., ‘The Colorum Uprisings 1924–1931,’ Asian Studies, 5:1 (1967), 6578;Kartodiridjo, S., The Peasants’ Revolt ofBanten in 1888, Its Conditions, Course, and Sequel: A Case Study of Social Movements in Indonesia, The Hague, M. Nijhoff, 1966;Benda, H. J. and Castles, L., ‘The Samin Movement,’ Bijdragen Tot de Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde, 125:3 (1969), 207–40;Benda, H. J. and McVey, R., eds., The Communist Uprisings of 1926–1927 in Indonesia: Key Documents, Ithaca, Cornell Univer- sity Press, 1960;Migdal, J., Peasants, Politics and Revolution, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1974; and Ross, S. R., ed., Is the Mexican Revolution Dead?, New York, Knopf, 1966. See also below.

54 Hobsbawm, E.Primitive Rebels, Studies in Archaic Forms of Social Movements in the 19th and 20th Centuries, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1971 (1959);idem, Bandits, London, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1969; Cf. Blok, A., ‘On Brigandage, with Special Refer- ence to Peasant Mobilization,” Sociologische Gids, 18:2 (1971), 208–16.

55 de-Queiroz, M. I. Pereira, ‘Brazilian Messianic Movements: A Help or a Hindrance to “Participation”?,Bulletin of the International Institute for Labor Studies, 7 (1970), 93121;idem, La ‘guerre sainte” au Brésil: Le mouvement messianique du ‘contestado,” Sāo Paulo, University of Sāo Paulo, Arts and Sciences Bulletin No. 187. Sociologia I, 5 (1957);idem, Messianismo e conftito social: A guerra sertaneja do contestado, 1912–1916, Janeiro, Rio de, Civiliza¸ão brasileira, 1966;Benda, H. J., ‘Peasant Movements in Colonial Southeast Asia,” Asian Studies, 3:3 (1965), 420–34;Hills, F., ‘Millenarian Machines in South Vietnam,” Com- parative Studies in Society and History, 13:3 (07 1971), 325–50;Dahm, B., ‘Leadership and Mass Response in Java, Burma and Vietnam,” Paper presented to the International Congress of Orientalists, Canberra, Jan. 1971, on file at Kiel University; M. Osborne, Region of Revolt: Focus on Southeast Asia, Oxford, Pergamon, 1970; and van-der-Kroef, J., ‘Javanese Messianic Expectations: Their Origin and Cultural Context,” Comparative Studies in Society and History, 1:4 (10. 1959), 299323.

56 Scott, J. C., ‘The Erosion of Patron-Client Bonds and Social Change in Rural Southeast Asia,” Journal of Asian Studies, 32:1 (10 1972), 537.

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