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Photography as Event: Power, the Kodak Camera, and Territoriality in Early Twentieth-Century Tibet

  • Simeon Koole (a1)

This article rethinks the nature of power and its relation to territory in the photographic event. Focusing on thousands of photographs taken during the British Younghusband Expedition to Lhasa between 1903 and 1904, it reorients understandings of photography as either reproducing or enabling the “negotiation” or contestation of power inequalities between participants. It shows how, in the transitory relations between Tibetans, Chinese, and Britons during and after photographic events, photography acted as a means by which participants constituted themselves as responsible agents—as capable of responding and as “accountable”—in relation to one another and to Tibet as a political entity. Whether in photographs of Tibetans protesting British looting or of their “reading” periodicals containing photographs of themselves, photography, especially Kodak photography, proposed potential new ways of being politically “Tibetan” at a time when the meaning of Tibet as a territory was especially indeterminate. This article therefore examines how the shifting territorial meaning of Tibet, transformed by an ascendant Dalai Lama, weakening Qing empire, and Anglo-Russian competition, converged with transformations in the means of visually reflecting upon it. If photography entailed always-indeterminate power relations through which participants constituted themselves in relation to Tibet, then it also compels our own rethinking of Tibet itself as an event contingent on every event of photography, rather than pre-existing or “constructed” by it.

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1 Azoulay Ariella, Civil Imagination: A Political Ontology of Photography, Bethlehem Louise, trans. (London, 2012), 1415 . I have found Azoulay's theorization of photography especially influential and engage with it throughout this paper. See also Kelsey Robin, Photography and the Art of Chance (London, 2015), 611 .

2 Nietzsche Friedrich, “On the Uses and Disadvantages of History for Life,” in Untimely Meditations, Breazeale Daniel, ed., Hollingdale R. J., trans. (Cambridge, 1997), 120 .

3 PRC scholarship prefers to see Tibet as always having been “integral” to China rather than a “vassal state” of the Chinese Empire. Tibetan scholarship instead claims that Tibet's relation to China was one of a priest to a patron (mchod-yon); a personal relationship between the Dalai Lama and the emperor in which the former offered spiritual guidance and the latter provided protection with neither dominance nor subordination. Sperling Elliot, The Tibet-China Conflict: History and Polemics (Washington, D.C., 2004), 69 , 16–19; Kapstein Matthew, The Tibetans (Malden, 2006), 146–50; Ruegg D. Seyfort, “ mchod yon, yon mchod, and mchod gnas/yon gnas: On the Historiography and Semantics of a Tibetan Religio-Social and Religio-Political Concept,” in McKay Alex, ed., The History of Tibet, 3 vols. (London, 2003), II, 366–68.

4 Petech Luciano, Aristocracy and Government in Tibet, 1728–1959 (Rome, 1973), 710 .

5 Smith Warren W.Jr., China's Tibet? Autonomy or Assimilation (Lanham, 2008), 8 . For an example, see Bell Charles, Portrait of the Dalai Lama: The Life and Times of the Great Thirteenth (London, 1946), 5354 .

6 Sanderson Henry, “Transgression of the Frontier: An Analysis of Documents Relating to the British Invasion of Tibet,” Inner Asia 14 (2012): 3233 . Dalai Lamas reach their majority at age eighteen.

7 Official exclusion of Europeans in practice applied only to central Tibet, however. McKay Alex, “Tibet and the Myth of Isolation,” in McKay Alex, ed., The History of Tibet, 3 vols. (London, 2003), III, 638–39.

8 McKay argues, though, that isolationism equally served Chinese purposes by, for example, suppressing possible competition threatened by British Indian tea from Darjeeling; “Tibet and the Myth of Isolation”, 637.

9 Lamb Alastair, British India and Tibet, 1766–1910 (London, 1986), 183 , 205–9; Shaumian T. L., Tibet: The Great Game and Tsarist Russia (New Delhi, 2000), 1617 . See also Andreyev Alexander, “Russian Buddhists in Tibet, from the End of the Nineteenth Century–1930,” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 11, 3 (2001): 349–62.

10 Lamb, British India and Tibet, 196–209.

11 Allen Charles, Duel in the Snows: The True Story of the Younghusband Mission to Lhasa (London, 2004), 178–79.

12 Meyer Pamela Deuel and Meyer Kurt, In the Shadow of the Himalayas: Tibet, Bhutan, Nepal, Sikkim: A Photographic Record by John Claude White, 1883–1908 (Ahmedabad, 2005), 9 .

13 Frederick Bailey, Letters, 30 Oct. and 17 Nov. 1903, British Library, MSS Eur F157/163. On the FPK3 camera, see Anglo-Boer War correspondent Shelley's H. How to Buy a Camera (London, 1902), 2829 ; Pritchard Michael, A History of Photography in 50 Cameras (London, 2014), 52 .

14 Chhodak T., “The 1901 Proclamation of H. H. Dalai Lama XIII,” in Alex McKay, ed., The History of Tibet, 3 vols. (London, 2003), III, 39–40; Tuttle Gray, Faith and Nation: Tibetan Buddhists in the Making of Modern China (New York, 2005), 39 .

15 Bishop Peter, The Myth of Shangri-La: Tibet, Travel-Writing and the Western Creation of Sacred Landscape (London, 1989), 189 .

16 Lopez Donald, Prisoners of Shangri-La: Tibetan Buddhism and the West (Chicago, 1998); McKay Alex, “‘Truth,’ Perception, and Politics: The British Construction of an Image of Tibet,” in Dodin Thierry and Räther Heinz, eds., Imagining Tibet: Perception, Projections, and Fantasies (Boston, 2001), 8384 . For the instrumentalizing power of colonial photography, see for example Ryan James, Picturing Empire: Photography and the Visualisation of the British Empire (London, 1997). For photography as a colonial propaganda tool, see Harrington Peter, “Pictorial Journalism and the Boer War: The London Illustrated Weeklies,” in Gooch John, ed., The Boer War: Direction, Experience, and Image (London, 2000), 224–44. The relation between photography and colonial power is readdressed in Jay Martin and Ramaswamy Sumathi, eds., Empires of Vision: A Reader (Durham, 2014), though the volume sometimes slips back to a model of the gaze along an axis of dominance and resistance.

17 Edwards Elizabeth, “Tracing Photography,” in Banks Marcus and Ruby Jay, eds., Made to Be Seen: Perspectives on the History of Visual Anthropology (Chicago, 2011), 170–72. Exemplars include Bourdieu Pierre, Photography: A Middle-Brow Art, Whiteside Shaun, trans. (Cambridge, 1990); Green David, “Veins of Resemblance: Photography and Eugenics,” Oxford Art Journal 7 (1984): 316 ; Green-Lewis Jennifer, Framing the Victorians: Photography and the Culture of Realism (Ithaca, 1996); Allan Sekula, “The Body and the Archive,” October 39 (1986): 3–64; Tagg John, The Burden of Representation: Essays on Photographies and Histories (Basingstoke, 1988).

18 Addy Premen, Tibet on the Imperial Chessboard: The Making of British Policy towards Lhasa, 1899–1925 (Calcutta, 1984); Allen Charles, Duel in the Snows: The True Story of the Younghusband Mission to Lhasa (London, 2004); Fleming Peter, Bayonets to Lhasa: The First Full Account of the British Invasion of Tibet in 1904 (London, 1961). For critiques, see Elden Stuart, The Birth of Territory (Chicago, 2013), 118 , 322–30; Brenner Neil, “Beyond State-Centrism? Space, Territoriality, and Geographical Scale in Globalization Studies,” Theory and Society 28 (1999): 3978 .

19 Edwards, “Tracing Photography,” 172–75.

20 Ricoeur Paul, Freud and Philosophy: An Essay on Interpretation, Savage Denis, trans. (New Haven, 1970), 3236 . For photographic theory's “mistrust” of photography's power/knowledge relation, see Linfield Susie, The Cruel Radiance: Photography and Political Violence (Chicago, 2010), 2930 .

21 Harris Clare, The Museum on the Roof of the World: Art, Politics, and the Representation of Tibet (Chicago, 2012), 108–15.

22 Ibid., 82.

23 Ibid., 3–6.

24 Linrothe Rob, “Travel Albums and Revisioning Narratives: A Case Study in the Getty's Fleury ‘Cachemire’ Album of 1908,” in Behdad Ali and Gartlan Luke, eds., Photography's Orientalism: New Essays on Colonial Representation (Los Angeles, 2013), 171–84; Harris Clare, “The Photograph Reincarnate: The Dynamics of Tibetan Relationships with Photography,” in Edwards Elizabeth and Hart Janice, eds., Photographs, Objects, Histories: On the Materiality of Images (London, 2004), 139–55.

25 On the struggle between particularizing and generalizing interpretations of photographs, see Thomas Julia Adeney, “The Evidence of Sight,” History and Theory 48 (Dec. 2009): 151–68.

26 Chakrabarty Dipesh, Provincializing Europe: Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference (Princeton, 2008 [2000]), 6 , 21–22, 249–55.

27 On the circulation of photographs, see Poole Deborah, Vision, Race, and Modernity: A Visual Economy of the Andean Image World (Princeton, 1997), 611 , 140–41. On appropriation of photography, see Pinney Christopher, “Introduction: ‘How the Other Half…,’” in Pinney Christopher and Peterson Nicholas, eds., Photography's other Histories (Durham, 2003), 13 ; Strassler Karen, Refracted Visions: Popular Photography and National Modernity in Java (Durham, 2010), 4 , 19, 23, 147–48; Pinney Christopher, “The Prosthetic Eye: Photography as Cure and Poison,” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 14 (2008): 533–46. On negotiation within photography, see Smith Shawn Michelle, Photography on the Color Line: W.E.B. DuBois, Race, and Visual Culture (Durham, 2004), 2 .

28 For a subtle reorientation, see Mueggler Erik, “Bodies Real and Virtual: Joseph Rock and Enrico Caruso in the Sino-Tibetan Borderlands,” Comparative Studies in Society and History 53, 1 (2011): 637 .

29 Latour Bruno, Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network Theory (Oxford, 2005), 5859 .

30 Azoulay, Civil Imagination, 21, 26–27.

31 Ibid., 5

32 Ibid., 3, 23–25, 44.

33 Ariella Azoulay, The Civil Contract of Photography (New York, 2008), 11–14.

34 Azoulay addresses this potential for participants to challenge the terms under which they are treated as citizens, but this interpretation remains within an understanding of agency as existing prior to the event rather than constituted by, and derived from, the interaction of self and other (ibid., 17–20, 117).

35 Ricoeur Paul, Oneself as Another, Blamey Kathleen, trans. (Chicago, 1992), 16 ; Abel Olivier, “Paul Ricoeur's Hermeneutics: From Critique to Poetics,” in Kaplan David, ed., Reading Ricoeur (Albany, 2008), 190–93.

36 Badiou Alain, with Tarby Fabien, Philosophy and the Event, Burchill Louise, trans. (Cambridge, 2013), 910 , 48–49.

37 This focus on the ontological novelty of the event, and its importance for the initial participants, parts company with Azoulay in Civil Imagination, 26.

38 Sperling, China-Tibet Conflict, 4.

39 Nietzsche, “On the Uses and Disadvantages of History,” 61–64, 110, 120.

40 Major monasteries were divided into tratsang (colleges) with their own abbots, but no single abbot presided over the whole monastery. Goldstein Mervyn, A History of Modern Tibet, 1913–1951: The Demise of the Lamaist State (Berkeley, 1989), 2627 .

41 White John Claude, Tibet and Lhasa, 2 vols. (Calcutta, 1908), I, “The Abbot at Kham-pa-Jong.”

42 Younghusband Francis, India and Tibet (London, 1910), 125–27.

43 Harris, Museum on the Roof, 112.

44 Graham Sandberg, Tibet and the Tibetans (London, 1906), 121. Goldstein puts the figure slightly lower, at a maximum of 20 percent of males; History of Modern Tibet, 5.

45 Pamela Deuel Meyer and Kurt Meyer, In the Shadow of the Himalayas: Tibet, Bhutan, Nepal, Sikkim (Ahmedabad, 2005), 9.

46 Tuttle, Faith and Nation, 70–71.

47 Harris, Museum on the Roof, 44–45.

48 Laurence Waddell, Lhasa and Its Mysteries (London, 1905), 27–30.

49 Laurence Waddell, The Buddhism of Tibet, or Lamaism (London, 1895), 227–31; Kapstein, Tibetans, 135–41; Ardy Verhaegen, The Dalai Lamas: The Institution and Its History (New Delhi, 2002), 12–13; Rebecca French, The Golden Yoke: The Legal Cosmology of Buddhist Tibet (Ithaca, 1995), 69–72.

50 This system of government was expressed in the phrase chösi nyitrel, “religious and political affairs joined together”; Goldstein, History of Modern Tibet, 2.

51 Candler Edmund, The Unveiling of Lhasa (London, 1905), 246 , 278.

52 The medieval trope was playfully interpreted by Lieutenant Norman Rybot's Tapisserie de Yatunge, a series of illustrations painted during the expedition between January and April 1904, in the style of the Bayeux Tapestry, which depicted the British as picaresque Normans entering Tibet. Mg N07/09K, Royal Geographical Society, London. See also Henry Newman, “Monks of the Middle Ages,” Sphere, 22 Oct. 1904: 78.

53 Younghusband Francis, “Lamaism in Tibet,” Sociological Review 4, 2 (1911): 98109 , 98.

54 Candler, Unveiling of Lhasa, 246; Lopez, Prisoners of Shangri-La, 43.

55 Landon, Lhasa, I, 302.

56 Charles Taylor, “Paul Ricoeur's Philosophical Anthropology,” Golden Jubilee Lecture at the Centre for the Study of Developing Societies, Delhi, 25 Nov. 2013, (accessed 22 Feb. 2015).

57 Landon, Lhasa, I, 226.

58 Ibid., 227. The subversive imperative behind Landon's photographs is shown by the contrasting description of immured monks given by Swedish explorer Sven Hedin, who found immurement to be the monk's choice and an instance of “fortitude” and “patience” beyond conception. Hedin Sven, Trans-Himalaya: Discoveries and Adventures in Tibet, 3 vols. (London, 1909–1913), II, 5.

59 Barthes Roland, Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography, Howard Richard, trans. (London, 2000), 9596 .

60 Lieutenant Frederick Bailey's photographs of wounded Tibetans were reprinted in Candler's Unveiling of Lhasa, facing page 130. For the photographs outside Candler's retrospective triumphalism, see Bailey's personal album: Frederick Bailey, photograph album, Tibet 1903–04, British Library, Photo/1083/13 (135–37).

61 Landon, Lhasa, I, 157.

62 Azoulay Ariella, The Civil Contract of Photography (New York, 2008), 9899 .

63 Ibid., 138–42. For a similar argument, see Hevia James, “The Photography Complex: Exposing Boxer-Era China (1900–1901), Making Civilization,” in Morris Rosalind, ed., Photographies East: The Camera and Its Histories in East and Southeast Asia (Durham, 2009), 112 .

64 Copinger Walter Arthur, The Law of Copyright, […], Easton J. M., ed., 4th ed. (London, 1904), 366–70; Scrutton Thomas Edward, The Law of Copyright, 4th ed. (London, 1903), 179–92.

65 Lord Justice Cotton, in Nottage v. Jackson (1883), cited in Copinger, Law of Copyright, 371.

66 Beegan Gary, The Mass Image: A Social History of Photomechanical Reproduction in Victorian London (Basingstoke, 2008), 166–68 n32.

67 Ward Henry Snowden and Ward Catherine Weed Barnes, Photography for the Press: By the Editors of “The Photogram” (London, 1901), 20 ; Beegan, Mass Image, 171.

68 Azoulay, Civil Imagination, 24–25, 17.

69 Ibid., 52–53; Azoulay, Civil Contract, 85.

70 Myatt Tim, “Looting Tibet: Conflicting Narratives and Representations of Tibetan Material Culture from the 1904 British Mission to Tibet,” Inner Asia 14, 1 (2012): 6197 , 65.

71 Harris, Museum on the Roof, 58–70.

72 Ibid., 63.

73 It has unfortunately been impossible to trace the copyright holder of this image to obtain permission to reproduce it. Anon., “Monks in Gyantse Monastery running away from the camera,” unpublished photograph album owned by Charles Bell, 50.31.153, 16, Liverpool World Museum, Liverpool.

74 Younghusband, India and Tibet, 228.

75 Also reproduced in Harris, Museum on the Roof, 67.

76 I am grateful to Clare Harris for mentioning this point to me.

77 Azoulay, Civil Imagination, 44.

78 Das Sarat Chandra, Journey to Lhasa and Central Tibet (London, 1902), 80 .

79 Lamb, British India and Tibet, 122.

80 Colman Macaulay, Report on a Mission to Sikkim and the Tibetan Frontier, with a Memorandum on Our Relations with Tibet (1885), Royal Commonwealth Society Library, Cambridge, GBR/0115/Y302592A, 61.

81 Sandberg, Tibet and the Tibetans, 113.

82 Hedin, Trans-Himalaya, I, 364–65.

83 Frederick Bailey, photograph album, Tibet 1903–04, British Library, Photo/1083/17 (218–34).

84 See Sidkeong Namgyal's role in Frederick Bailey's letter to his father, 12 July 1903, British Library, MSS Eur F157/163.

85 McKay Alex, “The British Invasion of Tibet, 1903–04,” Inner Asia, 14, 1 (2012): 525 , 7.

86 O'Connor Frederick, On the Frontier and Beyond: A Record of Thirty Years’ Service (London, 1931), 3031 .

87 “The Roads into Tibet,” Black and White, 5 Dec. 1903: 828. Waters also notes the mediating role of “a Sikkimese police sub-officer who could talk the lingo”; Robert Waters, “Notes of a Diary Kept by Robert Sidney Waters, July, August, and September, thro’ Sikkim and Thibet,” National Army Museum, 1972-01-41-2, 4 Sept. 1903.

88 Ricoeur Paul, “The Problem of the Will and Philosophical Discourse,” in Edie James M., Parker Francis H., and Schrag Calvin O., eds., Patterns of the Life-World: Essays in Honor of John Wild (Evanston, 1970), 273–89; Ricoeur, Oneself as Another, 4–16.

89 Kaplan David M., Ricoeur's Critical Theory (Albany, 2003), 8283 .

90 Ricoeur, Oneself as Another, 154–57.

91 Ibid., 143.

92 Kaplan, Ricoeur's Critical Theory, 83.

93 Ricoeur, Oneself as Another, 157.

94 Gerard Davys album, Royal Geographical Society, F005/015850.

95 Morris Rosalind C., “Photographies East: The Camera and Its Histories in East and Southeast Asia,” in Morris Rosalind, ed., Photographies East: The Camera and Its Histories in East and Southeast Asia (Durham, 2009), 12 .

96 Kaplan, Ricoeur's Critical Theory, 95.

97 Ibid., 93–94.

98 Ibid., 93–95.

99 Taylor, “Paul Ricoeur's Philosophical Anthropology.” This understanding of the involved nature of action builds on Ricoeur's linkage between narrative as the mimesis of action and “within-time-ness” elaborated in Heidegger's Being and Time. Ricoeur Paul, Time and Narrative: Volume I, Mclaughlin Kathleen and Pellauer David, trans., 3 vols. (Chicago, 1984), I, 6063 .

100 Ricoeur Paul, “The Hermeneutical Function of Distanciation,” in Hermeneutics and the Human Sciences: Essays on Language, Action, and Interpretation, Thompson John P., trans. (Cambridge, 1981), 139–42.

101 Paul Ricoeur, “What Is a Text? Explanation and Understanding,” 158; and “Appropriation,” 182–83; both in Hermeneutics and the Human Sciences: Essays on Language, Action, and Interpretation, Thompson John P., trans. (Cambridge, 1981).

102 Kaplan, Ricoeur's Critical Theory, 89.

103 A photograph, like every text, moves from an ostensive to a non-ostensive reference from its utterance. It creates a “world” that exceeds its original sense and fuses with the world in which it is received. It is because of the circular referentiality between the world of the text and that of its reader, because a text, like the action it re-presents, is always within the world and time, that it can “bear on” the world, that participants of photographs, confronted with their action as text, become subject to that action. Ricoeur, Time and Narrative, I, 77–79.

104 Landon, Lhasa, II, notes 250–53.

105 Frederick Bailey, photograph album, Tibet 1903–04, British Library, Photo/1083/11 (82).

106 Landon, Lhasa, I, 365.

107 Edgar John, Report on a Visit to Sikhim and the Thibetan Frontier: in October, November, and December, 1873 (New Delhi, 1874 [1969]), 55 ; Macaulay, Report on a Mission, 31, 49. Some photographers persisted with glass-plate cameras even after rollfilm was introduced: Landor Arnold, Tibet and Nepal (London, 1905), 74 .

108 Frederick Bailey, letters, 6 July and 17 July 1903, British Library, MSS Eur F157/163; letters, 20 Jan., 24 Jan., 3 Feb., and 1 Apr. 1904, British Library, MSS Eur F157/164. See photograph of “The Mail Bags of the British Mission on Their Way South to India,” “With the British Mission in Tibet,” Sphere, 1 Oct. 1904: 15.

109 Frederick Bailey, letter to father, 17 Nov. 1903, British Library, MSS Eur F157/163. See also letters of 24 July and 26 Aug. 1903, British Library, MSS Eur F157/163.

110 Frederick Bailey, letters of 2 Aug., 12 Aug., and 5 Sept. 1903, British Library, MSS Eur F157/163; 14 Jan. 1904, British Library, MSS Eur F157/164.

111 G. Preston, letter to wife, 10 Sept. 1904, National Army Museum, photograph scrapbook, diaries, and letters associated with Tibet, 1965-10-111-2; Lieutenant H. Mitchell sent versions of these from Tibet to his sister Sylvia in February 1904: H. Mitchell and W. Mitchell, letters and photographs associated with Tibet and other campaigns, 2006-12-60 (15).

112 Virk D. S., Postal History of Indian Military Campaigns: Sikkim-Tibet, 1903–1908 (New Delhi, 1989), 2934 .

113 “Lhassa at Last,” Sphere, 20 Aug. 1904: i–iv (supplement).

114 Frederick Bailey, letter to father, 20 Sept. 1903, British Library, MSS Eur F157/163. For a fractional sample, see “The Theocracy in the Clouds: Buddhist Monasteries in Tibet,” Illustrated London News, 21 May 1904, 764; “With Younghusband in Tibet: Difficulties and Dangers of the Advance,” Illustrated London News, 6 Aug. 1904, 194; “With the British in Tibet: The Monks of Gyangtse Promising to Assist the Mission with Supplies,” Daily Graphic, 2 Aug. 1904: 4; “Tibetans Making Way for the British Mission at Phari Fort,” Black and White, 2 Apr. 1904: 508; “The Tibetan Advance,” Black and White, 9 Apr. 1904: 533.

115 The Daily Graphic published Bailey's photograph of the Chinese man “Wong,” sent from Tibet a month earlier, and repeated his claim that the man was later deported for aiding the expedition. The letter to his mother further explained that the man had asked Bailey to take the photograph as “he hadnt [sic] been home for 20 years”; Bailey “never gave him the photo.” “The Younghusband Expedition,” Daily Graphic, 30 Jan. 1904: 4; Bailey, letter to mother, 22 Dec. 1903, British Library, MSS Eur F157/163.

116 Frederick Bailey, letter to mother, 24 Feb. 1904, British Library, MSS Eur F157/164; Francis Younghusband, Press Photographs relating to the Tibet Frontier Commission, 1904, British Library, MSS Eur F197/524.

117 Frederick Bailey, letter to father, 14 Jan. 1904, British Libarry, MSS Eur F157/164.

118 Frederick Bailey, letter to mother, 2 Aug. 1903, British Library, MSS Eur F157/163.

119 Frederick Bailey, letter to mother, 17 June 1904, British Library, MSS Eur F157/164.

120 “The British Mission to Tibet,” Daily Graphic, 21 May 1904: 761–63.

121 Letter from the tsongdu to amban Yu-tai, 3 July 1904, in Sanderson, “Transgression,” appendix II. Although not disinterested, the autobiography of the son of the amban’s secretary gives several incidences where the Tibetans directly overrode the amban’s demands. Chen Ts'an-chih, “The Autobiography of Ts'an-chih Chen,” in Richardus Peter, ed., Tibetan Lives: Three Himalayan Autobiographies (Richmond, 1998), 170 ; Captain William Ottley corroborates in his claim that the amban was even attacked and some of his retinue killed in Lhasa during the expedition. Ottley William, With Mounted Infantry in Tibet (London, 1906), 86 .

122 Shakabpa Wangchuk Deden, Tibet: A Political History (New Haven, 1967), 195 ; Frederick O'Connor, “Appendix D: The Present Condition and Government of Tibet,” in Landon, Lhasa, II, 352–53.

123 Shakabpa, Tibet, 208.

124 Ibid.; Landon, Lhasa, II, 10.

125 Pledge of all Tibetan lay and monk officials on how to resist the foreigners, 25 Jan. 1903; and report to the Dalai Lama from the tsongdu on how to resist the British Army, 12 June 1904, both in Sanderson, “Transgression,” appendix II, and 37–42.

126 Palace Wendy, The British Empire and Tibet, 1900–1922 (London, 2005), 9 , 152 n23.

127 Landon, Lhasa, II, 302–3.

128 Ibid., 304.

129 White John, “World's Strangest Capital,” National Geographic Magazine 24 (Mar. 1916): 281; Younghusband, India and Tibet, 309.

130 Report to the Dalai Lama from the tsongdu, in Sanderson, “Transgression.”

131 Landon, Lhasa., 315–16.

132 See Thomson John and Smith Adolphe, Street Life in London (London, 1877).

133 Younghusband, India and Tibet, 309.

134 Alexander André, The Temples of Lhasa: Tibetan Buddhist Architecture from the 7th to the 21st Centuries (Chicago, 2005), 2829 , 60; mK'yen brtse's Guide to the Holy Places of Central Tibet, Ferrari Alfonso, Petech Luciano, and Richardson Hugh, eds. (Rome, 1958), 3940 .

135 Dowman Keith, The Power-Places of Central Tibet: The Pilgrim's Guide (London: New York, 1988), 4849 .

136 Henss Michael, The Cultural Monuments of Tibet: The Central Regions, 2 vols. (Münich, 2014), I, 4588 .

137 Landon, Lhasa, II, 302.

138 Badiou, Philosophy and the Event, 43.

139 Written statement submitted by the International Fellowship of Reconciliation, a non-governmental organization with special consultative status, UN Human Rights Council, 22nd session, Feb. 2013, 2–4; Special Topic Paper: Tibet, 2008–2009, United States Congressional-Executive Commission on China (Oct. 2009), 32–33.

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