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Towards a Critical History of Connection: The Port of Colombo, the Geographical “Circuit,” and the Visual Politics of New Imperialism, ca. 1880–1914

  • Sujit Sivasundaram (a1)
Abstract
Abstract

Connections, circuits, webs, and networks: these are concepts that are overused in today's world histories. Working from a commitment to reflexive historicization, this paper points to one moment in the consolidation of these terms: the late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century visual politics of “new imperialism.” Utilizing photographs, engravings, postcards, letters, and colonial documents, the paper argues that connection was mesmerizing and can still mesmerize the historian. Being connected became possible because of visual and infrastructural projects that allowed the production and consumption of lines that literally cut sea and land. At a time of high empire, and in accordance with the dictates of Imperial Geography, particular locales or “nodes” were thus positioned in the “global.” To mount this critique of our language, the paper focuses on the infrastructural development of the port of Colombo, alongside the thinking of Halford Mackinder, the building of breakwaters in Colombo, the arrival of mass tourism, projections of capitalist improvement for the business of transshipment, and the use of the port by Indian laborers on their way to Ceylon's highland plantations. By attending to the place where connection is wrought, its material workings, and its traces in the visual, intellectual, and capitalist archive, it is argued that connectivity's forgettings and displacements come more forcefully into view. If connection had an evacuating character and could be so imperialist, what of its status in our writings?

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References
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1 There is a large literature on the history of port cities. For ports and cosmopolitanism see Harper Tim and Amrith Sunil, “Sites of Interaction,” Modern Asian Studies 46 (2012), special issue, 249481 . For a comparative account of Singapore and Calcutta, see Tan Y. T., “Port Cities and Hinterlands,” Political Geography 26 (2007): 851–65. For long-distance comparisons, see Green Nile, “Maritime Worlds and Global History: Comparing the Mediterranean and Indian Ocean through Barcelona and Bombay,” History Compass 11 (2013): 513–23; and Bayly C. A. and Fawaz Leila, eds., Modernity and Culture from the Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean 1890–1920 (New York: Columbia University Press, 2002). For the history of labor and emancipation in an Indian Ocean port, see Ewald Janet J., “Crossers of the Sea: Slaves, Freedmen, and other Migrants in the Northwestern Indian Ocean, c. 1750–1914,” American Historical Review 105 (2000): 6991 . For the history of port cities of the Indian Ocean set in the precolonial context and in colonial economic and strategic contexts, see Basu Dilip K., ed., The Rise and Growth of the Colonial Port Cities in Asia (Lanham: University Press of America, 1985); and Broeze Frank, Brides of the Sea: Port Cities of Asia from the 16th–20th Centuries (Kensington: New South Wales University Press, 1989).

2 Bayly C. A. describes ports as such, for the global age of revolutions, in “The ‘Revolutionary Age’ in the Wider World, c. 1790–1830,” in Bessel Richard, Guyatt Nicholas, and Rendall Jane, eds., War, Empire and Slavery, 1770–1830 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), 2143 , 23.

3 Driessen Henk, “Mediterranean Port Cities: Cosmopolitanism Reconsidered,” History and Anthropology 16 (2005): 129–41, 131.

4 See Amrith Sunil, Crossing the Bay of Bengal: The Furies of Nature and the Fortunes of Migrants (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2013); Morieux Renaud, The Channel: England, France and the Construction of a Maritime Border in the Eighteenth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016); Sivasundaram Sujit, Islanded: Britain, Sri Lanka and the Bounds of an Indian Ocean Colony (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013); and Dusinberre Martin and Wenzlhuemer Roland, eds., “Being in Transit: Ships and Global Incompatibilities,” Journal of Global History 11, 2 (2016): 155–62.

5 Appadurai Arjun, “Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy,” Theory, Culture & Society 7 (1990): 295310 .

6 Heyman Josiah and Campbell Howard, “The Anthropology of Flows: A Critical Reading of Appadurai's ‘Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy,’Anthropological Theory 9 (2009): 131–48, 140.

7 Tsing Anna, Friction: An Ethnography of Global Connection (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005), 6.

8 Candea Matei, “Arbitrary Locations: In Defence of the Bounded Field-Site,” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 13 (2007): 167–84, 172.

9 See, for instance, Lambert David and Lester Alan, eds., Colonial Lives across the British Empire: Imperial Careering in the Long Nineteenth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006); Schaffer Simon et al. , eds., The Brokered World: Go-Betweens and Global Intelligence, 1770–1820 (Sagmore Beach, Mass.: Science History Publications, 2009); Driver Felix and Gilbert David, eds., Imperial Cities (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2003); Ballantyne Tony, Webs of Empire: Locating New Zealand's Colonial Past (Wellington: Bridget Williams Books, 2012); and Ogborn Miles, Global Lives: Britain and the World, 1550–1800 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008).

10 Latour Bruno, Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor Network Theory (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), 190.

11 Dharmasena K., “Colombo: Gateway and Oceanic Hub of Shipping,” in Broeze Frank, Brides of the Sea: Port Cities of Asia from the 16th–20th Centuries (Kensington: New South Wales University Press, 1989), 152–72. For this statistic, see also “Colombo's Place amongst the Great Ports of the World,” in “Report of the Principal Collector of Customs for 1910–11,” in “Administration Reports, 1910–11,” CO 57/189, The National Archives, Kew (hereafter TNA). For the history of the port of Colombo and its development, see Dharmasena K., The Port of Colombo, 1860–1939 (Colombo: Lake House Printers, 1980); and Captain J. Donnan, “A Short History of the Colombo Harbour Works,” 1898, in CO 57/135, TNA. For an account of the development of the port set against the broader history of the city of Colombo, see Roberts Michael, “The Two Faces of the Port City: Colombo in Modern Times,” in Broeze Frank, ed., Brides of the Sea: Port Cities of Asia from the 16th–20th Centuries (Kensington: New South Wales University Press, 1989), 173–87.

12 For some starting points on the visual history of Sri Lanka, see Ismeth Raheem, A Catalogue of an Exhibition of Paintings, Engravings, Drawings of Ceylon by 19th Century Artists (pamphlet, issued by British Council, Colombo, 1986); and a recent exhibition catalogue from the National Museum in New Delhi for an exhibition of the Alkazi photograph collection: Allana Rahaab, ed., Imaging the Isle Across: Vintage Photography from Ceylon (Delhi: National Museum, 2015).

13 Graphic, 24 Feb. 1883.

14 This color lithograph is from the series “Our Trade with the East,” by Kenneth Shoesmith, Manchester Art Gallery (commissioned by the Empire Marketing Board; printed by Waterlow & Sons. Ltd. for Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1930), MAN 464426.

15 Ingold Tim, Lines: A Brief History (London: Routledge, 2007).

16 Bell Duncan, The Idea of Greater Britain: Empire and the Future of the World Order, 1860–1900 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007).

17 For Mackinder's definition, see Democratic Ideals and Reality: A Study in the Politics of Reconstruction (London: Constable and Constable, 1919), 136. Historical geography and strategic studies have large literatures on Mackinder. For a biography of Mackinder, see, Parker W. H., Mackinder: Geography as an Aid to Statecraft (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982). For the argument that his theory of geopolitics remains relevant, see, Hughes R. Gerald and Heley Jesse, “Between Man and Nature: The Enduring Wisdom of Sir Halford Mackinder,” Journal of Strategic Studies 38 (2015): 898935 . For a long-term history of the “heartland thesis,” see Sloan Geoffrey, “Sir Halford J. Mackinder: The Heartland Theory Then and Now,” Journal of Strategic Studies 22 (1999): 1538 . For a special issue devoted to Mackinder's geographical thought, see Dodds Klaus and Sidaway James D., eds., “Halford Mackinder and the ‘Geographical Pivot of History,’Geographical Journal 170 (2004): 292376 .

18 The Teaching of Geography from an Imperial Point of View, and the Use which could and should be Made of Visual Instruction,” Geographical Teacher 6 (1911): 7986 , 80, 86.

19 Mackinder, “Teaching of Geography,” 81–83.

20 Kennedy Paul, “Mahan versus Kennedy: Two Interpretations of British Sea Power,” in Strategy and Diplomacy, 1870–1945 (London: Allen & Unwin, 1984), 4385 .

21 Quoted in Kearns Gerry, Geopolitics and Empire: The Legacy of Halford Mackinder (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), 132 (my italics).

22 Mackinder Halford, “The Geographical Pivot of History,” Geographical Journal 23 (1904): 421–37, 422 (my italics).

23 Bell, Idea of Greater Britain, 83–89.

24 Mackinder Halford, Britain and the British Seas (London: William Heineman, 1902), 11.

25 See the chapter on this in ibid.

26 Kearns, Geopolitics and Empire, 142–43.

27 Mackinder devoted a long footnote to clarifying the distinction between “world” and “globe,” in Britain and the British Seas, 12–13.

28 Mackinder, Democratic Ideals, 86.

29 Mackinder, Britain and the British Seas, 46.

30 Livingstone David N., The Geographical Tradition: Episodes in the History of a Contested Discipline (Oxford: Blackwell, 1992), 192.

31 Mackinder Halford, Eight Lectures on India, with Lantern Illustrations (London: Waterloo & Sons, 1910), 3. “Ceylon” is used here as the colonial term for Sri Lanka, the island's name from 1972 onward.

32 Sargent A. J., The Sea-Road to the East (London: George Philip, 1912), 5657 .

33 For further details, see Ryan James R., “Visualizing Imperial Geography: Halford Mackinder and the Colonial Office Visual Instruction Committee, 1902–11,” Ecumene 1 (1994): 157–76, 159. See also the pamphlet “Pictures from the Dust,” Royal Commonwealth Society Library Notes 149 (May) (London: Royal Commonwealth Society, 1969). The work of Fisher and Mackinder on the Visual Instruction Committee is also discussed in Ryan James R., Picturing Empire: Photography and the Visualization of the British Empire (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997), ch. 6.

34 See F.H.H. Guillemard, “The Years that the Locusts Have Eaten,” author's typescript, compiled ca. 1922–1932, Bodleian Library, Oxford, 55. For details on Guillemard, see: Obituary,” Geographical Journal 83 (1934): 350–52; and “Obituary,” Ibis 76 (1934): 398–99. For how Guillemard modeled his voyage on Wallace, see letter to John from the Moluccas, 6 Oct. 1883, PPC/GUI/04/01, Gonville and Caius College Archive.

35 Letter to Caroline from the Red Sea, Easter Sunday, 9 Apr. 1882, PPC/GUI/04/02, Gonville and Caius College Archive.

36 For the significance of the ports in the transition from Dutch to British rule, see Sivasundaram, Islanded, ch. 2.

37 After Fisher arrived in Colombo, he took his own photographs, whereas Guillemard's photographs were taken by others. In addition to Skeen & Co., Guillemard's staged-shots emerge from the work of Charles T. Scowen & Co and A.[?] Lawton & Co., the other photographic outfits whose names have been left on the images, alongside the watermark of B.F.K. Rives.

38 Fisher letter to Mackinder from Grand Oriental Hotel, 13 Nov. 1907, “Diary Letters, 1907–8,” RCMS 10, Royal Commonwealth Society Collection, Cambridge (hereafter RCS), 71.

39 Fisher letter to Mackinder from Colombo, 3 Dec. 1907, “Diary Letters, 1907–8,” RCMS10, RCS, 208.

40 F.H.H. Guillemard, Add 7957/6/82, Ceylon VI, RCS.

41 Fisher letter to Mackinder, 3 Dec. 1907, 208–9, “Diary Letters, 1907–8,” RCMS10, RCS (my italics).

42 Roberts, “Two Faces,” 178–79.

43 Dharmasena, “Colombo.”

44 “Ships According to Nationality,” Ceylon Administration Reports 1910–11, CO 57/189, TNA. A decade earlier, in 1899, the main callers were still British and British Colonial, and then German, French, Japanese, Russian, and Austrian; “Nationality of Vessels Inwards and Outwards during 1899 for the Island,” “Customs and Shipping,” Ceylon Administration Reports, 1899, CO 57/140, TNA.

45 This describes the first two pages of the album, eight photographs in total; nos. 1–8, Fisher 1, “Volume 1: Outward Journey, Ceylon, October–December 1907,” RCS.

46 This describes the album's next four pages, sixteen photographs in total; ibid., nos. 9–24.

47 Ryan, “Visualizing Imperial Geography,” especially 170–71.

48 Nos. 18 and 22, Fisher 1, “Volume 1: Outward Journey, Ceylon, October–December 1907,” RCS.

49 The argument about the repeated use of paths of passage in these photographs might be read alongside a recent claim about the recurrence of climbing the coconut tree as a visual motif in photographs and films of Sri Lanka; Montrescu-Mayes Annamaria, “The Ascent of (Wo)man: Visual Priming in Early Photographs and Films of Ceylon, 1880s–1930s,” in Allana Rahaab, ed., Imaging the Isle Across: Vintage Photography from Ceylon (Delhi: National Museum, 2015), 90105 .

50 No. 45, Fisher 1, “Volume 1: Outward Journey, Ceylon, October–December 1907,” RCS.

51 “Additional Descriptive Notes to His Photographs,” RCMS 10, RCS. This missing photograph is described in detail in a Fisher letter to Mackinder written on his journey to Kurunegala (pronounced “Corneygale”) from Anuradhapura, 19 Nov. 1907, in “Diary Letters, 1907–8,” RCMS 10, RCS, 95–96.

52 Fisher letter to Mackinder, 19 Nov. 1907, “Diary Letters, 1907–8,” RCMS 10, RCS, 95.

53 F.H.H. Guillemard, Add 7957/6/51, Ceylon VI, RCS.

54 F.H.H. Guillemard, Add 7957/6/12, and Add 7957/6/42, Ceylon VI, RCS.

55 F.H.H. Guillemard, Add 7957/6/84, Ceylon VI, RCS.

56 F.H.H. Guillemard, Add 7957/6/76, Ceylon VI, RCS.

57 Fisher letter to Mackinder, 13 Nov. 1907, “Diary Letters, 1907–8,” 68–69.

58 Ibid., 71.

59 No. 171, Fisher 2, “Volume II: Ceylon, South India and Burma, December 1907,” RCS.

60 Fisher letter to Mackinder, 19 Nov. 1907, “Diary Letters, 1907–8,” 91.

61 See Dharmasena (Port of Colombo, 14) for the argument that “shippers and planters” pushed the development of the port. In the late 1890s, the main countries that goods were transshipped to and from included British India, Mauritius, England, China, and Australia. See “Statement of Goods Transshipped and Reshipped from the Port of Colombo, to Different Countries, and the Increase or Decrease Compared with 1896,” in “Customs and Shipping,” Ceylon Administration Reports, 1897, CO 57/130, TNA; “Statement of Goods Brought for Transshipment and Reshipment to the Port of Colombo from Different Countries during the Year 1899” and “Statement of Goods Transshipped and Re-Shipped from the Port of Colombo to Different Countries and the Increase or Decrease as Compared with 1898,” both in “Customs and Shipping,” Ceylon Administration Reports, 1899, CO 57/140, TNA.

62 Colombo Harbour: Proceedings in the Ceylon Chamber of Commerce, 3rd November 1893 and a Report of the Mercantile Deputation to H. E. Governor, 11th Nov. 1893, Reprinted from the “Ceylon Observer” (Colombo: Ceylon Chamber of Commerce, 1893).

63 Ferguson J., The Harbour of Colombo, Ceylon and a Railway to Connect Southern India with Colombo (Colombo: A. M. & J. Ferguson, 1897), 3.

64 Ibid., 6.

65 Dharmasena, Port of Colombo, 23. In 1874 there were 132,906 man-days of convict labor on the works, and 101,117 man-days in 1879 (ibid., 25); see also Kyle John, “Colombo Harbour Works, Ceylon,” Minutes of the Proceedings of the Institute of Civil Engineering 87 (1886): 7691 , 81.

66 Dharmasena, Port of Colombo, 43.

67 Postcard postmarked 19 Aug. 1910, 9.15 a.m., with image titled “Colombo Breakwater,” in black and white. Authors' collection, eBay purchase, 24 Aug. 2013.

68 Postcard dated 10 Jan. 1910, signed “Be,” with image titled “Colombo Breakwater (S. W. Monsoon),” in black and white. Authors' collection, eBay purchase 24 Aug. 2013.

69 Postcard sent to Mr. A. Jenner, 375 Rochdale Road, Shaw, Lancashire, England, with image titled “Street Scene, Colombo,” in black and white, copyrighted by Plate & Co., Ceylon, author's collection, eBay purchase, 24 Aug. 2013.

70 Postcard postmarked “Colombo, 7, 1 Dec,” sent to Miss Bridgeman, 29 Dundonald Road, Kensal Rise, London, England, with image titled “Street Scene, Colombo,” in black and white, copyrighted by Plate & Co., Ceylon, author's collection, eBay purchase, 24 Aug. 2013.

71 Postcard postmarked London , 4 Sept. 1920, sent to Miss D. Lee, 22 Bergholt Crescent, Stamford Hill, London N, titled “Red Sea, Apprg’ Suez” and “Posted at Sea,” with image titled, “View along Coast Looking towards Mt. Lavinia,” in color, copyrighted by Plate & Co., Colombo, author's collection, eBay purchase, 24 Aug. 2013. Postcard postmarked “Freemantle 25th April” (rest illegible), titled “Indian Ocean,” with image titled, “Colombo … Harbour,” in black and white, copyrighted by Plate & Co., Ceylon, author's collection, eBay purchase. Postcard dated 29 Aug. 1913, sent to Mrs. Bunting, c/o Bunting & Miller, Felixstowe, England, titled “Bombay,” with image titled, “Government House, Colombo,” in black and white, author's collection, eBay purchase, 24 Aug. 2013.

72 Postcard with three postmarks, from Colombo, Tuticorin, and Villupuram, all from 1907, sent to Miss J. Hert, Villupuram, S. India, with image titled, “Cigarette,” in black and white, copyrighted by Plate & Co., Ceylon, author's collection, eBay purchase, 24 Aug. 2013.

73 PC/Ceylon No. 9, Ceylon Postcard Collection, RCS.

74 Macmillan Allister, Seaports of India and Ceylon (London: W. H. & L. Collingridge), 488.

75 Postcard postmarked Colombo, 1 Dec., sent to Mr. A. Bridgeman, 139 Bouverie Road, Stoke Newington, London N., with image titled, “River scene Ceylon,” in black and white, author's collection, eBay purchase, 24 Aug. 2013.

76 “Report of the Postmaster-General and Director of Telegraphy, 1906,” CO 57/167, TNA.

77 “Report of the Postmaster-General and Director of Telegraphs, 1901,” CO 57/174, TNA.

78 Mackinder, Britain and the British Seas, 190.

79 Mackinder, “Geographical Pivot,” 422; Frank Barlow, “E. A. Freeman,” in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Online, Jan. 2011: http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/10146 (accessed 26 Sept. 2013). For a recent collection of essays on Freeman, see Bremner G. A. and Conlin Jonathan, eds., Making History: Edward Augustus Freeman and Victorian Cultural Politics (Oxford: British Academy and Oxford University Press, 2015).

80 Fisher letter to Mackinder, 9 Nov. 1907, and also what follows after this extract, in “Diary Letters 1907–8,” RCMS 10, RCS.

81 All quotations in previous paragraph, and thus far in this paragraph, are from Fisher Alfred Hugh, Through India and Burmah with Pen and Brush (London: T. Werner Laurie, 1911), 57 .

82 “Indian Coolies on board the Lindula in Bay of Bengal, crossing to work on Burma paddy fields,” box III, RCMS 10, UL. This was reproduced facing page 2 in Fisher, Through India and Burmah.

83 This quotation and those in the next paragraph are from: Report of the Port Surgeon, Ceylon Administration Reports, 1897, CO 57/134, TNA.

84 Report of the Port Surgeon, Ceylon Administration Reports, 1905, CO 57/162, TNA.

85 “Correspondence Regarding Quarantine Regulation in Ceylon,” 1897, CO 57/135, TNA.

86 Dharmasena, Port of Colombo, 44.

87 Huber Valeska, Channelling Mobilities: Migration and Globalisation in the Suez Canal Region and Beyond, 1869–1914 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013), 3.

88 Dharmasena, Port of Colombo, 36. For a visual and aerial view of the changes to the harbor layout, see the Colombo Harbour from Surveys Supplied by Sir John Coode (London, 1885, map at British Library), and compare it with Colombo Harbour (London: Admiralty, 1908, map at British Library).

89 Colombo Harbour: Proceedings, 7.

90 Graphic, 15 Jan. 1887.

91 Of course, there were plenty of photographers of laborers at work, but they were often set in the plantations rather than at the port, once they were safely employed within the rigors of the plantation complex cycle.

92 Roberts Michael, Raheem Ismeth, and Colin-Thomé Percy, People in Between (Ratmalana: Sarvodaya Publishing, Sri Lanka), 108.

93 Frost Mark, “‘Wider Opportunities’: Religious Revival, Nationalist Awakening and the Global Dimension in Colombo, 1870–1920,” Modern Asian Studies 36 (2002): 937–67.

94 Roberts, Raheem, and Colin-Thomé, People in Between, 106.

95 Jayawardena Kumari, The Rise of the Labor Movement in Ceylon (Durham: Duke University Press, 1972), 218–9, 286ff.

96 Bell, Idea of Greater Britain, 84.

97 de Groot Joanna, Empire and History Writing in Britain, c. 1750–2012 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2013), chs. 3–4. For more information on the rise of imperial history in Britain, see Hyam Ronald, Understanding the British Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013), Part VI, “Imperial Historians.”

98 Kuklick Henrika, The Savage Within: The Social History of British Anthropology, 1885–1945 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991); Sera-Shriar Efram, The Making of British Anthropology 1813–1871 (London: Pickering and Chatto, 2013). For the history of geography and empire, see Livingstone, Geographical Tradition; Driver Felix, Geography Militant: Cultures of Exploration and Empire (Oxford: Blackwell, 2001).

99 For the rise of “area studies,” see, for instance, Szanton David L., ed., The Politics of Knowledge: Area Studies and the Disciplines (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004).

100 As one influential review recently put it: “It has been a matter of applying, even to quite distant historical periods, the controlling metaphor of the digital age: the ‘network.’” David Bell wrote, “This is what happens when historians overuse the idea of the network”; New Republic, 25 Oct. 2013. For a defense of World History as a method, see Bayly Chris A., Remaking the Modern World, 1900–2015: Global Connections and Comparisons (Wiley, forthcoming 2017), Introduction.

101 Pinney Christopher, “Introduction,” in Pinney Christopher and Peterson Nicolas, eds., Photography's Other Histories (Durham: Duke University Press, 2003), 67 . For other work on colonial photography, see Ryan, Picturing Empire; Morton Christopher and Edwards Elizabeth, eds., Photography, Anthropology and History: Expanding the Frame (Farnham: Ashgate, 2009); Ramaswamy Sumathi and Jay Martin, eds., Objects/Histories: Empires of Vision. A Reader (Durham: Duke University Press, 2014). For a useful survey of recent work in the field in this journal, see Spyer Patricia, “Photography's Framings and Unframings. A Review Article ,” Comparative Studies in Society and History 43 (2001): 181–92.

102 Ryzova Lucie, “Mourning the Archive: Middle Eastern Photographic Heritage between Neo-Liberalism and Digital Reproduction,” Comparative Studies in Society and History 56 (2014): 1027–61.

103 I take the idea of “leaking out” from Pinney, “Introduction,” 10.

104 For an elaboration of how the layering of materialities gave rise to World History in this period, see Sujit Sivasundaram, “Materialities in the Making of World Histories: South Asia and the South Pacific,” in Sarah Carter and Ivan Gaskell, eds., Oxford Handbook to World Material Cultures, forthcoming.

105 See, for instance, “Not in String of Pearls: Sri Lanka,” Hindu, 14 Dec. 2012; “The White Elephant in Hambantota” Sunday Leader (Colombo), 16 Apr. 2011; “Is Sri Lanka Becoming a Key Player in China's String of Pearls?’ Sunday Leader (Colombo), 9 June 2013; “Rock on Seabed Delays Sri Lanka's Hambantota Port,” BBC News, 5 Aug. 2011: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-14418114 (accessed 26 Sept. 2013); and “Rock Blasting in Hambantota Creates Tremors,” Lanka News Web, 6 June 2012: http://www.lankanewsweb.com/news/2375-rock-blasting-in-hambantota-causes-earth-tremors (accessed 26 Sept. 2013).

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