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The Traveling Panopticon: Labor Institutions and Labor Practices in Russia and Britain in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries

  • Alessandro Stanziani (a1)

Between 1780 and 1787 Samuel and Jeremy Bentham were asked to manage a large Russian estate owned by Prince Grigorii Potemkin, one of the closest advisors of Catherine II. They had to face two related but distinct problems: Russian peasants were unskilled, while British skilled workers and supervisors were hard to control. It was the problem of controlling skilled English workers in Russia (and not the Russian serfs) that led the Bentham brothers to reflect on the relation between free and forced labor, and then between labor and society. Before and after Foucault, the Panopticon has been seen as a response to social deviance, and in relation to prisons and the emergence of a global surveillance system in modern societies. According to Foucault, the Panopticon is not just a model for institutions, but something whose principles are those of power in society at large. I want to challenge this view by arguing that the Panopticon project actually was a system for controlling wage labor, which drew inspiration from a particular image of Russian serfdom and from the Bentham brothers' experiences in that country. Those experiences have been the subject of several papers and books. The first aim of this paper is not to recall these, but rather to integrate them into a broader intellectual debate. In particular, I will evoke the origins of the Benthams' experiences in Russian, British, and European debates of the period about the legal status of labor. The way that “western” thought conceived of labor in general and positioned itself vis-à-vis Russia necessitates a reexamination of the thesis that the principal schools of western thought were misunderstood in Russia. I will argue, instead, that Russian authors and reformers relied on ambiguities in western thinking about labor when they advanced their own images of serfdom and proposals for reform.

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1 Foucault Michel, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (Paris, 1975, and in English translation by Sheridan A. for Harmondsworth, 1985). Identification of Foucault's understanding of the Panopticon in terms of mere surveillance has recently been challenged by Anne Brunon-Ernst, “When Foucault Reads Bentham,” paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the the Law and Society Association, Berlin, 25 July 2007,

2 Let me provide just a few references from the huge bibliography about Foucault and his interpretation of the Panopticon: McKinlay Alain and Starkey Ken, eds., Foucault, Management and Organization Theory: From Panopticon to Technologies of Self (London: Sage Publications, 1998); Semple Janet, “Foucault and Bentham: A Defence of Panopticism,” Utilitas, 4, 1 (1992): 105–20; Grenier Jean-Yves and Orléan André, “Michel Foucault, L'économie politique et le libéralisme,” Annales HSC 5 (2007): 1155–82; Abélès Marc, Anthropologie de l'Etat (Paris: Payot, 1990); Louise Warriar, Andrew Robert, and Jennifer Lewis, Surveillance: An Analysis of Jeremy Bentham and Michel Foucault and Their Present-Day Relevance,

3 Simon Werrett, “Potemkin and the Panopticon: Samuel Bentham and the Architecture of Absolutism in Eighteenth-Century Russia,” The Philosophic Age Almanac 9 (issue on “The Science of Morality: Jeremy Bentham and Russia”) (1999): 106–35. See also Christie Ian R., The Benthams in Russia, 1780–1791 (Oxford: Berg, 1993); Christie Ian R., “Samuel Bentham and the Western Colony at Krichev, 1784–1787,” Slavonic and East European Review 48, 111 (1970): 232–47; Montefiore Simon Sebag, “Prince Potemkin and the Benthams: The Project to Create an English Village with Modern Factories in Belorussia,” History Today 52, 8 (Aug. 2003): 3843; Montefiore Simon Sebag, Prince of Princes: The Life of Potemkin (London: Phoenix Press, 2001); Cross Alexander G., By the Banks of the Neva: Chapters from the Lives and Careers of the British in Eighteenth-Century Russia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).

4 Blum Jerome, Lord and Peasant in Russia from the Ninth to the Nineteenth Century (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1961); Gershenkron Alexander, Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1962); Crisp Olga, Studies in Russian Economy before 1914 (London: Cambridge University Press, 1976); Bartlett Roger, “Serfdom and State Power in Imperial Russia,” European History Quarterly 33, 1 (2003): 2964; Hellie Richard, Enserfment and Military Change in Muscovy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971); Kolchin Peter, Unfree Labour: American Slavery and Russian Serfdom (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987); Bush Michael, ed., Serfdom and Slavery: Studies in Legal Bondage (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1996); Field Daniel, The End of Serfdom: Nobility and Bureaucracy in Russia, 1855–1861 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1976).

5 I have developed these points elsewhere. On historical intellectual debates in Russia and the “West” in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries on slavery, serfdom, and labor constraints, see: Stanziani Alessandro, “Free Labor-Forced Labor: An Uncertain Boundary? The Circulation of Economic Ideas between Russia and Europe from the 18th to the Mid-19th Century,” Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 9, 1 (2008): 2752. On the historical practices of slavery in Russia as compared to other forms of slavery and bondage, see: Stanziani Alessandro, “Serfs, Slaves, or Wage Earners? The Legal Status of Labour in Russia from a Comparative Perspective, from the Sixteenth to the Nineteenth Century,” Journal of Global History 3, 2 (July 2008): 183202.

6 For my sources, I have utilized contemporary works published in Britain, Russia, and other European countries, including legal sources such as laws, case-law, and jurisprudence, and Russian archival sources. The latter are mostly estate archives and local courts litigations available at the Russian State Archives of Ancient Acts (RGADA), and the Central State Historical Archive in Moscow (TsGIAM).

7 Ekaterina non: Zakalinskaia Evgeniia P., Votchinnye khoziaistva Mogiliovskoi gubernii vo vtoroi polovine XVIII veka (Noble estates in the province of Mogilyov during the second half of the eighteenth century) (Mogilyov: Mogilevskii oblast' Kraeved. muzei, 1958), 27, 34.

8 Montefiore “Prince Potemkin.”

9 Bentham Jeremy, The Correspondence of Jeremy Bentham, 12 vols., Sprigge Timothy L. S., ed. (London: Athlone Press, 1968–2006), v. 2, 504; The Works of Jeremy Bentham, 11 vols., John Bowring, ed. (Edinburgh: William Tait, 1838–1843), v. 10, 161; Werrett, “Potemkin and the Panopticon”; Christie, Benthams in Russia; Christie, “Samuel Bentham and the Western Colony”; Montefiore, “Prince Potemkin.”

10 Bowring, Works of Jeremy Bentham, v. 10, 161.

11 Bentham, Correspondence, v. 3, 498.

12 Ibid., 503, 509–12.

13 Bowring, Works of Jeremy Bentham, v. 4, 41.

14 Bentham J., The Panopticon Writings, Bozevic Miran, ed. (London: Verso, 1995), letter 1.

15 Bentham Jeremy, “Panopticon”: or, the Inspection-House … in a Series of Letters, Written in the Year 1787, from Crechoff in White Russia, to a Friend in England, 1 vol. (Dublin: Thomas Byrne, 1791; and in 2 vols., London: T. Payne, 1791).

16 Werrett, “Potemkin and the Panopticon.”

17 Blum, Lord and Peasant; Dennison Tracy K., “Did Serfdom Matter? Russian Rural Society, 1750–1860,” Historical Research 79, 203 (2003): 7489.

18 Confino Michael, Domaines et seigneurs en Russie vers la fin du XVIIIe siècle: Étude de structures agraires et de mentalités économiques (Paris: Institut d'études slaves de l'Université de Paris, 1963), 39, et seq.; Sivkov K. V., “Nakazy upraviteliiam XVIII v. kak istochnik dlia istorii sel'skogo khoziaistva v Rossii” (Eighteenth-century estate regulation as a source for the history or rural economy in Russia), in Sbornik akademika B. D. Grekova ko dniu 70-letiia (Moskva: Nauka, 1952), 241–46; Sivkov K. V., “Istochniki po istorii sel'skogo khoziaistva Evropeiskoi Rossii vo vtoroi polovine XVIII veka” (Sources of the history of agriculture of European Russia during the second half of the eighteenth century), Problemy istochnikovedeniia (Problems of historiography) VIII (Moskva: Nauka, 1959); Rubinshtein Nikolai L., Sel'skoe khoziaistvo Rossii vo vtoroi polovine XVIII v. (Russian agriculture during the second half of the eighteenth century) (Moskva: Nauka, 1957); Edgar Melton, Enlightened Seigniorialism and Its Dilemma in Serf Russia, 1750–1830, Journal of Modern History 62, 4 (1990): 675–708.

19 Confino, Domaines et seigneurs, 40.

20 Confino, Domaines et seigneurs; Melton, “Enlightened Seigniorialism”; Rubinshtein, Sel'skoe khoziaistvo; Sivkov “Istochniki po istorii.”

21 Aleksandrov Viktor A., Sel'skaia obshchina v Rossii, XVIII–nachalo XIXe veka (The agrarian commune in Russia, eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries) (Moskva: Nauka, 1976).

22 Dennison, 2003; Confino, Domaines et seigneurs.

23 Raeff Marc, The Well-Ordered Police State: Social and Institutional Change through Law in the Germanies and Russia, 1600–1800 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983).

24 Confino, Domaines et seigneurs; Melton, “Enlightened Seigniorialism.” As examples, see: Mikhail Golitsyn, “Polozhenie dlia krest'ian Efremovskoi votchiny sela Mikhailovskogo derevni Varvarovki 1839 g.” (The conditions of peasants of the estate Efremovskii, village of Varvarovki in 1839), in M. V. Dovnar-Zapol'skii, ed., Materialy dlia istorii votchonnogo upravleniia v Rossii (Kiev: Tipography Imperatorskogo Universiteta, n.d.), 276–80.

25 Confino, Domaines et seigneurs; Bush , Serfdom and Slavery (London and New York: Longman, 1996).

26 Confino, Domaines et seigneurs, 44; Kliengstaedt T. I., “Iz'iasnenie sposoba k pooshchreniiu zemledel'tsov k trudoliubiiu” (Encouraging attitudes to labor of rural populations), Trudy IVEO XVI (1770): 248.

27 Dennison Tracy and Ogilvie Sheilagh, “Serfdom and Social Capital in Bohemia and Russia,” Economic History Review 60, 3 (2007), 513–44.

28 See, for example, Confino, Domaines et seigneurs; Melton, “Enlightened Seigniorialism,” 702–4; and the special issue of Istoricheskie zapiski 37 (1951). Also see Bohac Rodney, “Everyday Forms of Resistance: Serf Opposition to Gentry Exactions, 1800–1861,” in Kingston-Mann Esther and Mixter Timothy, eds., Peasant Economy, Culture and Politics of European Russia, 1800–1921 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991), 230–60; Wirtschafter Elise Kimerling, Structures of Society: Imperial Russia's “People of Various Ranks” (DeKalb: University of Illinois Press, 1994); Wirtschafter Elise Kimerling, Social Identity in Imperial Russia (DeKalb: University of Illinois Press, 1997).

29 Police archives reproduced in Materialy dlia istorii krepostnogo prava v Rossii: Izvlecheniia iz sekretnykh otchetov ministerstva vnutrennykh del za 1836–1856 gg (Berlin: Behrs Buchnandlung, 1873). Also see: Zaĭonchkovskiĭ Petr Andreevich, Otmena krepostnogo prava v Rossii, 3d ed (Moskva: Izd-vo Kniga, 1968), and its English translation: The Abolition of Serfdom in Russia, Susan Wobst, ed. and trans. (Gulf Breeze, Fl.: Academic International Press, 1978).

30 Confino, Domaines et seigneurs; Moon David, The Abolition of Serfdom in Russia, 1762–1907 (New York: Longman, 2001).

31 Vorontsov R., “O sposobakh k ispravleniiu sel'skogo domostroitel'estva,” Trudy IVEO 5 (1765): 113; Melton, “Enlightened Seigniorialism,” 692.

32 The archive of this estate is in RGADA, fond 1287 Sheremetevy, opis' 3, chast' 2. On this, see: Wirtschafter, Social Identity; Hartley Janet, “Catherine's Conscience Court—An English Equity Court?” in Cross A. G., ed, Russia and the West in the Eighteenth Century (Newtonville, Mass.: Oriental Research Partners, 1983), 306–18; Kamenskii A. B., “Soslovnaia politika Ekateriny II,” Voprosy Istorii 3 (1995): 4142.

33 R. Vorontsov, “O sposobakh”; Indova E. I., “Instrukciia kniazia M. Shcherbatova prikazchikam ego iaroslavskikh votchin” (Instructions of Prince Shcherbatov for his domain in Iaroslav), Materialy po istorii sel'skogo khoziaistva SSSR 6 (1965), article 44: 460. Rubinshtein, Sel'skoe khoziaistvo.

34 Confino, Domaines et seigneurs; Melton, “Enlightened Seigniorialism.”

35 Christie, “Samuel Bentham and the Western Colony.”

36 Among estate archives, see: Lievens' Estates, Province of Kostroma, British Library, additional manuscripts 47422-8, exploited by Melton, “Enlightened Seigniorialism.” The notarial and patrimonial funds (votchinnye fondy) include documents such as the podvornye opisi collected by the votchinnaia administratsiia. These opisi were made by representatives of the zemskii sud (rural law court) with the help of dvoriany representatives, as scheduled in Svod zakonov (1842, t. X, st 3823, 9253). Juridical and administrative concerns linked to these sources were objects of dispute among administrations, in particular between the ministries of interior and finance. They were solved by the eighth section of the Senate, whose archives are in RGIA (Russian Imperial Archives), fond 1584. In Moscow, archives (TsGIAM) are available for the funds of the Moskovskii gubernsk. Pravelenie, concerning transactions on estates and including details on capital, buildings, population, and so forth. Detailed estate archives in RGADA include: f. 1252, opis' 1: Abamelek-Lazarevy (Tula province); f. 1282, Tolstye-kristi (Riazan province); f. 1262, opis' 1 (Gagarin estates in the provinces of Saratov and Tambov); opis'4, Gagarin's estate at Oetrovskoe; f. 1273, opis' 1, Orlov-Davydov's estate in staraia gat', province of Tula; f. 1290, opis' 3, Iusupovs' estates in provinces of Orlov, Kursk, and Voronezh; f. 1281, opis' 1, Talyzins' estate at Samara; RGIA, f. 1584, Chebyshevs' estate, Tula. On these sources, see Indova E. I., Krepostnoe khoziaistvo v nachale XIXe veka (Serfdom economics in the early nineteenth century) (Moskva: Izdatel'stvo AN SSSR, 1951), 154, and appendix III; Koval'chenko I. D., Russkoe krepostnoe krest'ianstvo v pervoi polovine XIXe v (Russian serfdom economy during the first half of the nineteenth century) (Moskva: Nauka, 1967).

37 On serf-entrepreneurs, see Rudolph R., “Agricultural Structure and Proto-Industrialization in Russia: Economic Development with Unfree Labour,” Journal of Economic History 45, 1 (1985): 4769; Prokov'eva Lidia S., Krest'ianskaia obshchina v Rossii vo vtoroi polovine XVIII–pervoi polovine XIX v (The peasant commune in Russia, second half of the eighteenth century–first half of the nineteenth century) (Leningrad: Nauka, 1981); Tikhonov Iurii A., Pomeshchichi krest'iane v Rossii: Feodal'naia renta v XVII–nachale XVIII v (Private landlords' peasants in Russia: feudal rent, seventeenth–early eighteenth centuries) (Moskva: Nauka, 1974).

38 Confino, Domaines et seigneurs, 207, et seq. On the urban activities of private peasants: RGADA, f. 294, opis' 2 and 3; f. 1287, opis' 3. TsGIAM, opis' 2, dela 31, 40, 82, 124, 146.

39 Melton Edgar, “Proto-Industrialization, Serf Agriculture and Agrarian Social Structure: Two Estates in Nineteenth-Century Russia,” Past and Present 115 (May 1987): 69106.

40 Examples in RGADA: f. 294, opis' 2, several dela; TsGIAM, opis' 2, dela 31, 50, 82, 124, 146.

41 Strumilin Serguei, Ocherki ekonomicheskoi istorii Rossii i sssr (Studies on Russian and Soviet economic history) (Moskva: Ekonomika, 1966), 330–33; RGADA, f. 199 (G. F. Miller); Indova E. I., “O rossiskikh manufakturakh vtoroi poloviny XVIII v.” (On Russian manufactures during the second half of the eighteenth century), Istoricheskaia geografiia Rossii: XIX–nachalo XX v. (Moskva: Nauka, 1975), 248345; Indova E. I., Dvortsovoe khoziaistvo v Rossii (The court economy in Russia) (Moskva: Nauka, 1964); Pavlenko N. I., Istoriia metallurgii v Rossii XVIIIveka: Zavody i zavonodatel'stvo (History of metallurgy in eighteenth-century Russia: Firms and rules) (Moskva: Nauka, 1962).

42 Sbornik svedenii po istorii statistike vneshnei torgovli Rossi (St. Petersburg: Izd. Min. Vnesh. Otn., 1902); Mironov Boris, Vnutrennyi rynok rossii vo vtoroi polovine XVVV veka-pervoi polovine XIXe v. (Leningrad: Nauka, 1981).

43 Mironov, Vnutrennyi rynok rossii; Tarkovskaia V. P., Torgovlia Rossii perioda pozdnego feodalizma (torgovye krest'iane vo vtoroi polovine XVII–nachale XVIII v.) (Trading in Russia during the end of feudalism: Peasant trade from the second half of the seventeenth–first half of the eighteenth centuries) (Moscow: Nauka, 1988). Kula Witold, Théorie économique du système féodal (Paris: Mouton, 1970); Wallerstein Immanuel, The Modern World System, 2 vols. (New York: Academic Press), 1980 [1974].

44 Mironov Boris Nikolaevich and Leonard Carol S., “In Search of Hidden Information: Some Issues in the Socio-Economic History of Russia in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries,” Social Science History 9, 4 (Autumn, 1985): 339–59; Mironov, Vnutrennyi rynok rossii.

45 Mironov, Vnutrennyi rynok rossii, 153–54.

46 Volkonskii N. S., Usloviia pomeshchich'ego khoziaistva pri krepotsnom prave (Riazan: n.p., 1898); Skazkin Serguei D., “Osnovnye problemy tak nazivaemogo ‘vtorogo izdaniia krepostnichestva’ v Srednei i vostochnoi evrope,” Voprosy istorii 2 (1958): 96119.

47 Confino, Domaines et seigneurs. Izmes'eva T. F., Rossiia v sisteme evropeiskogo rynka. Konets XIXe–nachalo XX v (Moskva: Nauka, 1991); Pokrovskii Vassilii I., Ocherk istorii vneshnei torgovlii Rossii (St. Petersburg: Tipografiia Gold'berg, 1902). All the estate archives I cite above confirm this trend. Skazkin, Osnovnye problemy.

48 Gestwa Klaus, Proto-industrialisierung in Russland, vandenhoeck und ruprecht, (Göttingen: n.p., 1999); Serbina K. N., Krest'ianskaia zhelezodelatel'naia promyshlennost' tsentral'noi rossii XVI–pervoi poloviny XIXe vekoi (Peasant metallurgy in Central Russia, sixteenth century–first half of the nineteenth century) (Leningrad: Nauka, 1978); Kashin B. N., Kres'ianskaia promyshlennost' (Peasants manufactures), 2 vols. (Moscow and Leningrad: Gosizdat, 1935).

49 Mironov Boris, Russkii gorod v 1740–1860 gody (The Russian town, 1740–1860) (Leningrad: Nauka, 1990); Mironov Boris, “Consequences of the Price Revolution in Eighteenth-Century Russia,” Economic History Review 45, 3 (1992): 457–78.

50 Dennison, “Did Serfdom Matter?”

51 Hoch Steven, Serfdom and Social Control in Russia: Petrovskoe, a Village in Tambov (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986).

52 Dennison and Ogilvie, “Serfdom and Social Capital.”

53 Bentham, Principles, ch. 2, on slavery, par. 3310; Bowring, Works of Jeremy Bentham, v. 1.

54 Davis David Brion, The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Revolution, 1770–1823 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 353–56.

55 Jean-Baptiste Say, Cours complet d'économie politique pratique (Brussels: Meline, Cans et Compagnie, 1843), 522.

56 Steinfeld Robert, The Invention of Free Labor: The Employment Relation in English and American Law and Culture, 1350–1870 (University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 1991).

57 Ibid., 30; Kussmaul Ann, Servants in Husbandry in Early Modern England (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1981).

58 Steinfeld, Invention of Free Labor, 60.

59 Hay Douglas and Rogers N., English Society in the 18th Century: Shuttles and Swords (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997); Hay Douglas, “Master and Servant in England: Using the Law in the 18th and 19th Centuries,” in Steinmetz Willibald, ed., Private Law and Social Inequality in the Industrial Age: Comparing Legal Cultures in Britain, France, Germany and the United States (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 227–64.

60 Hay, “Master and Servant.” See also Craven Peter and Hay Douglas, “The Criminalization of Free Labour: Master and Servant in Comparative Perspective,” Slavery and Abolition 15, 2 (Aug. 1994): 71101.

61 Deakin Simon and Wilkinson Frank, The Law of the Labour Market: Industrialization, Employment, and Legal Evolution (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), 45.

62 Blackstone William, Commentaries on the Laws of England, 4 vols. (Oxford: Printed at Clarendon Press, 1765–1769), vol. 2, 402. Pothier's intellectual influence on Blackstone has been detailed in: Kahn-Freund Otto, “Blackstone's Neglected Child: The Contract of Employment,” Law Quarterly Review 93 (Oct. 1977): 508–28.

63 Jeremy Bentham, Principles of Morals and Legislation, ch. 43, sec. 1, par. 1433; Bowring, Works of Jeremy Bentham, v. 1.

64 Steinfeld, Invention of Free Labor, 55–58; Deakin and Wilkinson, Law of the Labour Market.

65 Barnsby George J., Social Conditions in the Black Country, 1800–1900 (Wolverhamptom, UK: Integrated Publishing Services, 1980).

66 Huberman Michael, Escaping from the Market: Negotiating Work in Lancashire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).

67 Morrison Kathryn, The Workhouse: A Study of Poor-Law Buildings in England (Exeter: Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England, 1999); Crowther M. A., The Workhouse System, 1834–1929: The History of an English Social Institution (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1981).

68 Deakin and Wilkinson, Law of the Labour Market, 114.

69 Reports from Committees of the House of Commons, 1st. ser., IX, 1774–1802, 297–538. See Crowther, The Workhouse System, 29.

70 See, for example, Wordie J. R., “The Chronology of English Enclosure, 1500–1914,” Economic History Review 36 (1983): 483505. For classical interpretations, see the classic works of Polanyi Karl, The Great Transformation (Boston: Beacon Press, 1957 [1944]); and Hobsbawm Eric, Industry and Empire (Middlesex: Penguin, 1969).

71 Bentham Jeremy, “Essay II. Fundamental Positions in Regard to the Making Provision for Indigent Poor,” in Essays on the Subject of the Poor Law (1796), reproduced in Quinn Michael, ed., The Collected Works of Jeremy Bentham: Writings on the Poor Law (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2001), 39.

72 Bentham, Panopticon Writings, letter 1.

73 On this link, see Brion Davis, Problem of Slavery, 356. On the apprenticeship system for slaves, see Drescher Seymour, Capitalism and Antislavery: British Mobilization in Comparative Perspective (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986); Engerman Stanley, ed., Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom and Free Labor (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999).

74 Robert Steinfeld, Invention of Free Labor; Northrup David, Indentured Labor in the Age of Imperialism, 1834–1922 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995); Galenson David, White Servitude in Colonial America: An Economic Analysis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981).

75 Stanziani, “Serfs, Slaves or Wage Earners”

76 Thousands of certificates were delivered every year: RGADA, f. 615; Bushnell John, “Did Serf Owners Control Serf Marriage? Orlov Serfs and Their Neighbours, 1773–1861,” Slavic Review 52, 3 (1993): 419–45.

77 Moon David, “Peasant Migration and the Settlement of Russian Frontiers, 1550–1897,” The Historical Journal 40, 4 (1997): 859–93; Sunderland Williard, “Peasants on the Move: State Peasant Resettlement in Imperial Russia, 1805–1830,” Russian Review 4 (1993): 472–85.

78 Burbank Jane, “An Imperial Rights Regime: Law and Citizenship in the Russian Empire,” Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 7, 3 (Summer 2006): 397431. See also: Wirtshcafter Elise Kimerling, Russia's Age of Serfdom, 1649–1861 (Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 2008). Kivelson Valerie, Autocracy in the Provinces: The Muscovite Gentry and Political Culture in the Seventeenth Century (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1996).

79 Moon, Abolition of Serfdom; and “Peasant Migration.” Stanziani, “Serfs, Slaves or Wage Earners.”

80 A. Cross, By the Banks of the Neva.

81 Ibid.

82 Bentham, Correspondence, v. 4, 40.

83 The Panopticon Writings (see note 12 for full citation) were systematized and partly abridged in five editions of Bentham's works. The cited edition contains letters from Russia, as well as the final published version of the Panopticon. On this subject, see Schofield Philip, Pease-Watkins Catherine, and Blamires Cyprian, Rights, Representation, and Reform: Nonsense Upon Stilts and other Writings on the French Revolution (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2002); and Catherine Pease-Watkins, “Bentham's Panopticon and Dumont's Panopticon,” University College London, Bentham project,

84 Bentham J., The Rational of Punishment (1830), repr. in Bowring, Works of Jeremy Bentham, v. 1, 439.

85 Semple, “Foucault and Bentham,” 130–31.

86 Ibid., 85–86.

87 Bradley Joseph, “The Moscow Workhouse and Urban Welfare Reform in Russia,” Russian Review 41, 4 (1982): 427–44; Shvittau G., Trudovaia pomoshch v Rossii (Labor assistance in Russia), 2 vv (Petrograd: Tip. A. Kollias, 1915).

88 Bentham M. S., “Description of the Panopticon at Okhta,” Mechanic Magazine (31 Mar. 1849), cited in Werrett, “Potemkin and the Panopticon,” 11.

89 Bentham, Correspondence, v. 8, 224.

90 See Kingston-Mann Esther, In Search of the True West (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999), 69; and, in particular, the 1815 issues of Dukh zhurnalov.

91 Bentham, Correspondence, v. 7, 563, 566–67.

92 Bentham, Correspondence, v. 10, 542.

93 Mordvinov Nikolai S., “Nekotoriia soobrazheniia po predmetu manufaktur v Rossii i o tarife,” (Some observations on Russian manufactures and the tariffs), Zhurnal Departamenta Gosudarstvennoi ekonomiki 14 (30 Dec. 1815): 282303, 345–88. On Mordvinov, see Gnevushev A. M., Politiko-ekonomicheskie vzgliady gr. Mordvinova (Mordvinov's political and economic orientations) (Kiev: M. V. Dovnar-Zapol'skii, 1904).

94 Gent Andrew, Exile to Siberia, 1590–1822 (London: Palgrave, 2008). See also Schrader Abby, Languages of the Lash: Corporal Punishment and Identity in Imperial Russia (DeKalb: University of Illinois Press, 2002).

95 See, for example, Dmytryshyn Basil, “Admiral Nikolai Mordvinov: Neglected Russian Liberal,” Russian Review 30, 1, 1971: 5463; and more recently McCaffray Susan P., “What Should Russia Be? Patriotism and Political Economy in the Thought of N. S. Mordvinov,” Slavic Review 59, 3 (2000): 572–96.

96 Pipes Richard, “The Russian Military Colonies,” Journal of Modern History 22, 3 (1950): 205–19.

97 Aleksandrov Victor A., Sel'skaia Obshchina v Rossii XVII–nachalo XVIII v. (Moscow: Nauka, 1976); Kolchin Peter, Unfree Labor: American Slavery and Russian Serfdom (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1987); Kolchin Peter, “In Defense of Servitude: American Pro-Slavery and Russian Pro-Serfdom Arguments, 1760–1860,” American Historical Review 85, 4 (1980): 809–27; Pintner Walter M., Russian Economic Policy Under Nicholas I (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1967).

98 Confino, Domaines et seigneurs; Hoch, Serfdom and Social Control.

99 Confino, Domaines et seigneurs; Melton, “Enlightened Seigniorialism”; Koval'chenko I. D., Russkoe krepostnoe krest'ianstvo (The serfdom economy in Russia) (Moskva: Izd-vo Moskovskogo Universiteta, 1967).

100 Karpovich U., Khoziaistvennye opyty tridtsatiletnei praktiki i nastavlenie dlia upravleniia imeniami (Practices of the three-fields system and the orientation for the direction of domains) (St. Petersburg: Tip. I. Vorob'eva, 1837).

101 Hoch Steven and Augustine Wilson, “The Tax Census and the Decline of the Serf Population in Imperial Russia, 1833–1858,” Slavic Review 38, 3 (1979): 403–25; and Hoch Steven, “Did Russia's Emancipated Serfs Really Pay Too Much for Too Little Land? Statistical Anomalies and Long-Tailed Distributions,” Slavic Review 63, 2 (2004): 247–74.

102 For a recent synthesis concerning the agricultural economy, see Moon David, The Russian Peasantry, 1600–1900 (London: Longman, 1999). For a discussion of the connection between serfdom and the absence of technological innovation, particularly in the metallurgical industry, see Esper Thomas, “Industrial Serfdom and Metallurgical Technology in Nineteenth-Century Russia,” Technology and Culture 23, 4 (1982): 583608.

103 Hoch and Augustine, The Tax Census; Kabuzan V. M., Narodonaselenie Rossii v XVIII–pervoi polovine XIXe v. (The Russian population, from the eighteenth through the first half of the nineteenth century) (Moskva: Izdatel'stvo Akademii Nauk SSSR, 1963).

104 Huberman A. Michael, Escape from the Market: Negotiating Work in Lancashire (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996); Steinfeld Robert J., Coercion, Contract, and Free Labor in the Nineteenth Century (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001); Deakin and Wilkinson, Law of the Labour Market; Willibald Steinmetz, Private Law. On the evolution of Britain's rules on labor health, see Bartrip Peter W. J. and Burman Stephen, The Wounded Soldiers of Industry: Industrial Compensation Policy, 1833–1897 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983); Bartrip Peter W., Workmen's Compensation in Twentieth-Century Britain: Law, History, and Social Policy (Brookfield, Vt. and Avebury: Aldershot, 1987); Hennock E. P., British Social Reform and German Precedents: The Case of Social Insurance, 1880–1914 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987).

105 Deakin and Wilkinson, Law of the Labour Market, 80.

Acknowledgments: I would like to thank Jane Burbank, Fred Cooper, William Gervase Clarence-Smith, Laura Engelstein, Peter Holquist, Kenneth Pomeranz, Elise Kimerling Wirtschafter, David Moon, André Berelowitch, and Wladimir Berelowitch for their helpful comments on and suggestions for previous versions. I am also indebted to anonymous CSSH referees who provided highly qualified and stimulating suggestions.

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