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Whose Right to Rest? Contesting the Family Vacation in the Postwar Soviet Union

  • Diane P. Koenker (a1)
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The idea of leisure and vacations in the Soviet Union at first glance suggests a paradox. As a system based on the labor theory of value, the USSR emphasized production as the foundation of wealth, personal worth, and the path to a society of abundance for all. Work—physical or mental—was the obligation of all citizens. But work took its toll on the human organism, and along with creating the necessary incentives and conditions for productive labor a socialist system would also include reproductive rest as an integral element of its economy. The eight-hour work day, a weekly day off from work, and an annual vacation constituted the triad of restorative and healthful rest opportunities in the emerging Soviet system of the 1920s and 1930s.

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1 Cross Gary, “Vacations for All: The Leisure Question in the Era of the Popular Front,” Journal of Contemporary History 21, 4 (Oct. 1989): 599621; Mills Charles M., Vacations for Industrial Workers (New York, 1927); Aron Cindy, Working at Play: A History of Vacations in the United States (Oxford, 1999); Berkowitz Michael, “A ‘New Deal’ for Leisure: Making Mass Tourism during the Great Depression,” in, Baranowski Shelley and Furlough Ellen, eds., Being Elsewhere: Tourism, Consumer Culture, and Identity in Modern Europe and North America (Ann Arbor, 2001), 185212.

2 Cross, “Vacations for All,” 611; Furlough Ellen, “Making Mass Vacations: Tourism and Consumer Culture in France, 1930s to 1970s,” Comparative Studies in Society and History 40 (1998): 254–56; Ward Colin and Hardy Dennis, Goodnight Campers! The History of the British Holiday Camp (London, 1986).

3 Berkowitz, “‘New Deal’ for Leisure.”

4 Baranowski Shelley, Strength through Joy: Consumerism and Mass Tourism in the Third Reich (Cambridge, 2004), 159.

5 Furlough, “Making Mass Vacations”; Lofgren Orvar, On Holiday: A History of Vacationing (Berkeley, 1999).

6 Furlough, “Making Mass Vacations,” 276–77; Downs Laura Lee, Childhood in the Promised Land: Working-Class Movements and the Colonies de Vacances in France, 1880–1960 (Durham, 2002); Quote from Van Slyck Abigail A., A Manufactured Wilderness: Summer Camps and the Shaping of American Youth, 1890–1960 (Minneapolis, 2006), xxvi; Furlough Ellen, “Packaging Pleasures: Club Mediterranée and French Consumer Culture, 1950–1968,” French Historical Studies 18, 1 (Spring 1993): 6581.

7 Cross, “Vacations for All,” 609–10, 614–15.

8 Cited in Berkowitz, “‘New Deal’ for Leisure,” 193. For complete lyrics, see http://www.peteseeger.net/talkunion.htm (consulted 24 June 2008).

9 Osokina Elena, Our Daily Bread: Socialist Distribution and the Art of Survival in Stalin's Russia, 1927–1941 (Armonk, N.Y., 2001); Siegelbaum Lewis H., Stakhanovism and the Politics of Productivity in the USSR, 1935–1941 (Cambridge, 1988), ch. 6; Hessler Julie, A Social History of Soviet Trade: Trade Policy, Retail Practices, and Consumption, 1917–1953 (Princeton, 2004), ch. 5; Randall Amy E., “Legitimizing Soviet Trade: Gender and the Feminization of the Retail Workforce in the Soviet 1930s,” Journal of Social History 37, 4 (Summer 2004): 965–90.

10 Gronow Jukka, Caviar with Champagne: Common Luxury and the Ideals of the Good Life in Stalin's Russia (Oxford, 2003).

11 See, for example, the health spa guidebooks, Gol'dfail' L. G. and Iakhnin I. D., Kurorty, sanatorii, i doma otdykha SSSR 1928 (Moscow, 1928); Kurorty SSSR. Spravochnik (Moscow, 1936); and Kurorty SSSR (Moscow, 1951).

12 Na sushe i na more 5 (May 1939), inside back cover. The image is reproduced in Koenker Diane P., “The Proletarian Tourist in the 1930s: Between Mass Excursion and Mass Escape,” in, Gorsuch Anne E. and Koenker D. P., eds., Turizm: The Russian and East European Tourist under Capitalism and Socialism (Ithaca, 2006), 136.

13 Trud, 11 Apr. 1937; and 9 Apr. 1940.

14 The “all-union review” (smotr) of resorts, sanatoria, and rest homes mobilized employees at these institutions to compete with one another to spruce up their facilities and improve their service to patients and vacationers, a new wrinkle on the socialist competitions of the 1920s and 1930s. Gosudarstvennyi arkhiv Rossiiskoi Federatsii (GARF), f. 9493 (Tsentral'noe upravlenie kurortami, sanatoriami i domami otdykha), op. 3, d. 2012 (stenographic reports of meetings of the central review commission, 24 Mar. 1950, 20 Apr. 1950); Tsentral'nyi gosudarstvennyi arkhiv Moskovskoi oblasti (TsGAMO), f. 7223 (Moskovskoe upravlenie kurortami, sanatoriami i domami otdykha), op. 1, d. 576 (on the review in Moscow oblast).

15 Central and local factory newspapers featured regular articles on vacation choices. I surveyed three factory newspapers: Znamia trekhgorki and Martenovka (Moscow), and Skorokhodovskii rabochii (Leningrad), along with several central or Moscow newspapers: Trud, Komsomol'skaia Pravda, and Vecherniaia Moskva). See also Krivosheyev V., “Off for a Holiday,” Soviet Union 9, 258 (1971): 8.

16 Aron, Working at Play, 170–71; Lofgren, On Holiday, 63.

17 Zdravnitsy profsoiuzov SSSR, 3d ed. (Moscow, 1967). Narodnoe khoziaistvo SSSR v 1964 godu: Statisticheskii ezhegodnik (Moscow, 1965), p. 601, reports 2,139 sanatoria in 1963, with a total of 366,000 beds.

18 This description is based on materials from conferences and annual reports of sanatorium head doctors located in GARF, f. 9493, and TsGAMO, f. 7223.

19 This description is based on dozens of annual reports in 1950 and 1959 for Moscow oblast rest homes, which include photographs. TsGAMO, f. 7223, op. 1, d. 679, d. 1567.

20 GARF, f. 9559 (Vsesoiuznyi sovet dobrovol'nykh sportivnykh obshchestv profsoiuzov), op. 1, d. 860 (stenographic report of seminar of heads of health camps, 14 Apr. 1966), l. [page] 113.

21 GARF, f. 9559, op. 1, d., d. 860, 980 (reports on the work of sports-health camps and rest bases for 1967). Fadeev B. G., Turistsko-ozdorovitel'nye lageria (Moscow, 1969), is a handbook for camp administrators, with recommended programs, forms for campers to fill out, layouts for tents and sports grounds, and instructions for how to build everything themselves.

22 By the end of the 1960s, 20 percent of health spa vouchers and 10 percent of rest home vouchers were required to be given out for free. Azar V. I., Otdykh trudiashchikhsia SSSR (Moscow, 1972), 11.

23 Narodnoe khoziaistvo SSSR v 1964, 601.

24 Koenker, “The Proletarian Tourist,” 119–40.

25 The norms for the badge were unveiled in Na sushe i na more 4 (Apr. 1939), 28. They are discussed in 1948 in GARF, f. 9520 (Tsentral'nyi sovet po turizmu i ekskursiiam), op. 1, d. 80 (reports on tourist-excursion and mass cultural work of territorial tourist-excursion administrations, K-E, for 1948), l. 186. GARF, f. 7576 (Tsentral'nyi sovet po fizkul'tury i sportam), op. 14, d. 123 (report on certification itineraries, 16 Oct. 1955), discusses opposition to such rigorous requirements in 1955.

26 Such complaints had arisen already in the 1930s, and were endemic in the 1950s and 1960s. A particularly good discussion can be found in GARF, f. 7576, op. 14, d. 123.

27 Turistskie marshruty po SSSR (Moscow, 1956), 134–50, 160, 282.

28 For example, GARF, f. 9520, op. 1, d. 361 (reports on tourist base service for 1958). On plans for constructing multistory permanent tourist bases, see GARF, f. 9520, op. 1, d. 750 (first plenum of the central council for tourism, second convocation, 25 May 1965), ll. 51–55.

29 Narodnoe khoziaistvo SSSR 1922–1972 gg. Iubileinyi statisticheskii ezhegodnik (Moscow, 1972), 461.

30 Narodnoe khoziaistvo SSSR v 1973 (Moscow, 1974), 7.

31 Turistskie marshruty 1956, 282, 288. Wage data from Central Intelligence Agency, “Average Annual Money Earnings of Wageworkers in Soviet Industry, 1928–61,” July 1963: www.foia.cia.gov/browse_docs.asp (accessed 12 Dec. 2008.)

32 GARF, f. 9520, op. 1, d. 750, l. 40; Tsentral'nyi arkhiv goroda Moskvy (TsAGM), f. 28 (Moskovskii gorodskoi sovet po turizmu i ekskursiiam; before 2006: Tsentral'nyi arkhiv literatury i isskustva Moskvy, f. 11), op. 1, d. 9 (plan and reports on the tourist train along itinerary No. 187 for 1960), ll. 14–14ob.; GARF, f. 9520, op. 1, d. 1061 (stenographic report of the first plenum of the central council for tourism and excursions, third convocation, 7 June 1967), l. 21; Turistskie marshruty na 1967 god (Moscow, 1967), 97–126.

33 GARF, f. 9520, op. 1, d. 525 (minutes of the second plenum of the central council for tourism, 5 Apr. 1963), l. 53.

34 GARF, f. 9520, op. 1, d. 1061, l. 22; Gosudarstvennyi arkhiv goroda Sochi (GAGS), f. R-261 (Sochinskoe biuro puteshestvii i ekskursii krasnodarskogo soveta po turizmu VTsSPS), op. 1, d. 41 (comment books from the tourist ships Abkhaziia and Ukraina for 1967–1969).

35 GAGS, f. R-261, op. 1, d. 154 (reports on tourist cruises on the Black Sea on the vessel Rossiia for 1970), l. 59; d. 29 (annual report of the Sochi excursion base for 1966.), l. 15.

36 Gorsuch Anne E., “Time Travelers: Soviet Tourists to Eastern Europe,” in, Gorsuch A. E. and Koenker D. P., eds., Turizm: The Russian and East European Tourist under Capitalism and Socialism (Ithaca, 2006), 205–26.

37 Azar, Otdykh trudiashchikhsia, 41, citing Faitel'son E. N., Osnovy ekonomiki inostrannogo turizma v SSSR (Moscow, 1971), 14. Bushnell John, using international tourist data, calculated 112,000 foreign travelers in 1960, and 838,000 in 1970; “The ‘New Soviet Man’ Turns Pessimist,” in, Cohen Stephen F., Rabinowitch Alexander, and Sharlet Robert, eds., The Soviet Union since Stalin (Bloomington, 1980), 192.

38 This observation is based on a reading of dozens of reports of group leaders accompanying these foreign trips, located in GARF, f. 9520, op. 1.

39 Turistskie marshruty 1956, 209–15.

40 GARF, f. 9520, op. 1, d. 447 (minutes of the first plenum of the central council for tourism, 28 Sept. 1962), l. 73.

41 For example, GARF, f. 9520, op. 1, d. 352 (stenographic reports and minutes of meetings of executive staff of the tourism-excursion administrations of Georgia, North Caucasus, and North Ossetia, 1957), l. 50 (meeting of 27 Apr. 1957, Tbilisi): independent tourists traveled even without guaranteed food or lodging, they were the most adventurous; TsAGM, f. 28, op. 3, d. 2 (materials on the work of the first plenum of the Moscow council for tourism, 21 Apr. 1962; stenographic report of the first plenum of the council, 21 Sept. 1962), l. 55; GARF, f. 9520, op. 1, d. 750, ll. 22, 190–92.

42 Fizkul'tura i sport 4 (1954): 35.

43 GARF, f. 7576, op. 14, d. 63 (stenographic report of the plenum of the all-union section on tourism, 8–10 May 1953), l. 103.

44 GARF, f. 9520, op. 1, d. 750, l. 194.

45 Narodnoe khoziaistvo SSSR v 1965 (Moscow, 1966), 607; Narodnoe khoziaistvo v 1974 (Moscow, 1975), 616–17.

46 GARF, f. 9520, op. 1, d. 751 (second plenum of central council for tourism, 28 Oct. 1965), l. 12.

47 Narodnoe khoziaistvo SSSR v 1965, 607; Narodnoe khoziaistvo v 1974, 616–17.

48 Azar, Otdykh trudiashchikhsia, 6–8.

49 TsAGM, f. 28, op. 2, d. 150 (comment books from the tourist river cruiser N. Gastello for 1956), l. 21.

50 GAGS, f. R-261, op. 1, d. 1 (comment books from the tourist train Kuban-4, itineraries 189 and 190 for 1964), l. 81.

51 For example, the review of tourists' complaints by the chairman of the central tourism council, Abukov: GARF, f. 9520, op. 1, d. 631 (minutes of the third plenum of the central council for tourism, 7 Apr. 1964), ll. 34–36.

52 Grushin B. A., Chetyre zhizni Rossii v zerkale oprosov obshchestvennogo mneniia. Epokha Brezhneva (chast' 1) (Moscow, 2003), 136. See also the obituary for Grushin, New York Times, 24 Sept. 2007.

53 Azar also cites the results of this and other studies, in Otdykh trudiashchikhsia.

54 Eugene Onegin was the eponymous hero of Alexander Pushkin's classic 1833 verse novel, a nobleman bored with life who could not bear to stay in any one place very long.

55 Grushin, Chetyre zhizni, 154, 165, 158.

56 Azar, Otdykh trudiashchikhsia, 46–47.

57 GARF, f. 5528 (Tsentral'noe upravlenie sotsial'nogo strakhovaniia pri Narkomtrude SSSR), op. 4, d. 132 (stenographic report of a central insurance council of the USSR conference on workers' vacations, 19 May 1932), ll. 11, 81–82.

58 GARF, f. 9228 (Ministerstvo zdravookhraneniia SSSR. Glavnoe upravlenie kurortov i sanatoriev), op. 1, d. 916 (materials of all-union conference of heads of spa offices and directors of spa bureaus, 24–28 Mar. 1955), l. 26.

59 GARF, f. 9493, op. 3, d. 1955 (stenographic report and reports of all-union conference of health facilities staff of the trade union of chemical workers on the results of work in 1954 and tasks for 1955, 24–26 Jan. 1955), l. 75.

60 GARF, f. 9228, op. 1, d. 916, l. 34.

61 GARF, f. 5528, op. 4, d. 132, l. 88; GAGS, f. R-24 (Sochinskoe sanatorno-kurortnoe ob”edinenie “Sochikurort”), op. 1, d. 498 (correspondence with the editors of the newspaper Krasnoe znamia on investigating material published in 1954), l. 120 (letter to newspaper Krasnoe znamia, 16 May 1954).

62 TsGAMO, f. 7223, op. 1, d. 1252 (stenographic report of a meeting of executive staff of sanatoria and rest homes, 6 Mar. 1956), ll. 41–43.

63 Znamia trekhgorki, 20 June 1964, letter from A. Antonenkova: “I was especially glad to rest away from all my domestic troubles.”

64 GARF, f. 9493, op. 8, d. 698, l. 109.

65 Ibid., l. 116.

66 Stories in printers' trade union journals illustrate this. See Koenker Diane P., Republic of Labor: Russian Printers and Soviet Socialism, 1918–1930 (Ithaca, 2005), 275–76.

67 Leder Mary M., My Life in Soviet Russia: An American Woman Looks Back (Bloomington, 2001), 132–33.

68 Devushka speshit na svidaniia (Belgoskino, 1939); Starye steny (dir. Viktor Tregubovich, Lenfilm, 1973). In Liubov' i golubi (dir. Vladimir Menshov, Mosfilm, 1984), a rural man lonely in his marriage is swept away by an affair with a state official he meets while taking a cure. See also the short story by Vasilii Aksenov, “Mestnyi khuligan Abramashvili,” in which the eighteen-year-old hero climbs to a second-story balcony to experience his sexual initiation with a vacationing older married woman. Aksenov , Na polputi k lune (Moscow, 1966), 4361.

69 Popovsky Mark, Tretii lishnii: On, ona i sovetskii rezhim (London, 1985), 138–39.

70 Widmer Eric D., Treas Judith, and Newcomb Robert, “Attitudes toward Nonmarital Sex in 24 Countries,” Journal of Sex Research 35, 4 (Nov. 1998): 351.

71 Raleigh Donald J., trans. and ed., Russia's Sputnik Generation: Soviet Baby Boomers Talk about Their Lives (Bloomington, 2006), 169.

72 On official sexophobia, see Kon Igor S., The Sexual Revolution in Russia from the Age of the Czars to Today, Riordan James, trans. (New York, 1995), ch. 5.

73 See Kon, Sexual Revolution; and Field Deborah A., Private Life and Communist Morality in Khrushchev's Russia (New York, 2007), ch. 4.

74 Bernstein Frances Lee, The Dictatorship of Sex: Lifestyle Advice for the Soviet Masses (DeKalb, Ill., 2007), 191.

75 Martenovka, 11 May 1954; Znamia trekhgorki, 16 Aug. 1960; TsAGM, f. 28, op. 2, d. 151 (comment books from the river cruiser Aleksei Tolstoi tourist base for 1956), l. 62.

76 GAGS, f. R-24, op. 1, d. 1044 (articles and items from newspapers about Sochi spas for 1960), l. 46 (letter to Krasnoe znamia, 21 Aug. 1960).

77 GAGS, f. R-24, op. 1, d. 845 (articles and items from Krasnoe znamia about Sochi spas for 1958), l. 50.

78 GARF, f. 9493, op. 3, d. 1955, l. 56. In informal conversations, almost everyone I have spoken to has a family story about a similar rejection; more rare is the heroic story of successfully finding a room. See also the 1972 film Pechki-Lavochki (dir. Vasilii Shukshin), in which a tractor driver from Siberia sets out by bus and train to the Black Sea, determined to bring along his wife and children, even though they have no vouchers. (Screenplay in Shukshin Vasilii M., Kinopovesti [Moscow, 1988], 226–89.)

79 GARF, f. 9493, op. 8, d. 698, ll. 107–8, 117–18, 128–29, 142.

80 GARF, f. 9493, op. 8, d. 428 (stenographic report of a conference of executive staff of trade union spas, 10 Apr. 1963), l. 111.

81 GARF, f. 9493, op. 8, d. 428, l. 79; f. 9493, op. 8, d. 698, ll. 108–9; GAGS, f. R-24, op. 1, d. 498, ll. 119–20 (16 May 1954 letter to Krasnoe znamia).

82 GARF, f. 9493, op. 8, d. 698, l. 109.

83 Kon, Sexual Revolution, 88–90; Shlapentokh Vladimir, Public and Private Life of the Soviet People: Changing Values in Post-Stalin Russia (New York, 1989), 164–77.

84 Znamia trekhgorki, 20 June 1964.

85 Skorokhodovskii rabochii, 25 June 1970.

86 GARF f. 9520, op. 1, d. 1910 (stenographic report of all-union conference on fulfilling the decree of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, the Council of Ministers of the USSR, and the Central Trade Union Council of 30 May 1969, “On measures for the further development of tourism and excursions in the country,” 2–3 Dec. 1974), ll. 132–33.

87 GARF, f. 9493, op. 8, d. 238 (stenographic report of international conference on exchange of experience of trade unions in socialist countries in the area of developing spa facilities and the organization of therapy and vacations for laboring people, 19–27 July 1961), l. 173.

88 Martenovka, 14 May 1960; 30 June 1960; 26 July 1960. See also Lebina N. B. and Chistikov A. N., Obyvatel' i reformy: Kartiny povsednevnoi zhizni gorozhan (St. Petersburg, 2003), 282–83.

89 Znamia trekhgorki, 28 May 1960.

90 GARF, f. 9520, op. 1, d. 866 (group leader reports from trips to the People's Republic of Bulgaria, pt. 1, 1965), l. 18; GARF, f. 9520, op. 1, d. 592 (group leader reports from trips to the German Democratic Republic, 1963), l. 22.

91 Poster reproduced in a postcard series by “Kontakt-Kul'tura,” 2006. The original is attributed to the artist V. Govorkov, a prominent poster designer of the 1950s.

92 Po turistskim tropam Kryma, 1958 color film, Rossiiskii gosudarstvennyi arkhiv kino-foto-dokumentov, no. 15473.

93 GARF, f. 9493, op. 8, d. 4 (reports in the Central Committee of the Communist Party and correspondence with the Council of Ministers of the USSR and RSFSR and others on the status and plans for developing spas, July-Dec. 1960), l. 14 (20 July 1960 letter to Council of Ministers from trade union chief Grishin).

94 GARF, f. 9493, op. 8, d. 698, l. 108.

95 GARF, f. 9559, op. 1, d. 977 (stenographic report of seminar of heads of health camps, 25 Apr. 1967), ll. 26–28.

96 GARF, f. 9559, op. 1, d. 1193 (notes and reports on the work of sports-health camps of trade union voluntary sports societies for 1969), ll. 76, 88,105.

97 GARF, f. 9520, op. 1, d. 750, ll. 21–22, 38.

98 GARF, f. 9520, op. 1, d. 1272 (stenographic report of third plenum of central council on tourism and excursions, 16 July 1969), ll. 9–52 (keynote report by chairman A. Kh. Abukov), 151 (remarks by S. I. Pisarev, director of Evpatoriia tourist base).

99 GARF, f. 9493, op. 8, d. 1669 (stenographic report of all-union conference of executive staff members of trade union spa institutions on results of work of the 15th congress of trade unions and tasks of spa institutions, Moscow, 24 Apr. 1972), l. 30. Total sanatoria figures from Narodnoe khoziaistvo SSSR v 1973 godu, 642.

100 GARF, f. 9520, op. 1, d. 1910, l. 316.

101 GARF, f. 9520, op. 1, d. 2077 (stenographic report of meeting of central council for tourism and excursions, 16 Apr. 1975), l. 20; Narodnoe khoziaistvo SSSR v 1974, 617.

102 GARF, f. 9520, op. 1, d. 2077, l. 57.

103 GARF, f. 9520, op. 1, d. 1272, ll. 150–55; Turistskie marshruty na 1967, 50, 78, 82. According to this guide, the Evpatoriia base was one of only three open for “parents with children” in 1967. The purposefulness of this family-centered vacation contrasts markedly with the dominant ethos of the contemporaneous Club Méditerranée, founded in 1950 to feature “self-indulgent physical pleasure and a break from habitual social relations” (Furlough, “Packaging Pleasures,” 66).

104 GARF, f. 9493, op. 8, d. 2303 (minutes, stenographic report, and decisions of meeting of central council on administration of trade union spas, 20 Jan. 1976), ll. 106–9.

105 GARF, f. 9493, op. 8, d. 326 (stenographic report of conference of executive staff of trade union spas and rest homes, 30–31 Jan. 1962), ll. 164–65.

106 GARF, f. 9493, op. 8, d. 227 (stenographic report of all-union conference of executive staff of spas and rest homes, 27–28 Feb. 1961), ll. 23, 91–92.

107 GARF, f. 9493, op. 8, d. 326, l. 165.

108 GARF, f. 9493, op. 8, d. 2303, l. 53 (opening report by chairman I. I. Kozlov).

109 GAGS, f. R-24, op. 1, d. 927 (articles and items from newspapers about Sochi spas for 1959), l. 1 (Adlerskaia Pravda, 15 Apr. 1959).

110 Christian Noack, “Coping with the Tourist: Planned and ‘Wild’ Mass Tourism on the Soviet Black Sea Coast,” in, Anne E. Gorsuch and D. P. Koenker, eds., Turizm: The Russian and East European Tourist under Capitalism and Socialism (Ithaca, 2006), 281–304.

111 Grushin, Chetyre zhizni, 144, 148, 154; Azar, Otdykh trudiashchikhsia, 51–52.

112 Azar, Otdykh trudiashchikhsia, 15.

113 GARF, f. 9520, op. 1, d. 1272, l. 33.

114 Abukov A. Kh., Turizm na novom etape: sotsial'nye aspekty razvitiia turizma v SSSR (Moscow, 1983), 86.

115 Soviet planners insisted on allowing for 350–500 square meters per vacationer, compared to 150 at Bulgaria's best resort complex, and 85 in Romanian resorts. Azar V. I., Ekonomika i organizatsiia turizma (Metodologicheskie voprosy) (Moscow, 1972), 162. Liudmila Kuznetsova has written on the preference for a monumental style of Soviet resort architecture in L. A. Kuznetsova, “Provintsial'naia arkhitektura ‘Bol'shogo Stilia’ kak sotsiokul'turnoe iavlenie na primere goroda Permi i kurorta Ust'-Kachka,” diploma thesis, Perm State University, 2006, ch. 3.

116 GARF f. 9493, op. 8, d. 227, l. 129.

117 This was true at least when I last used the airport in October 2006. A fully modern air terminal was promised in time for the Sochi Winter Olympic Games in 2014.

Acknowledgments: An earlier version of this paper was presented at the 2007 meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies. I am grateful to Anne Gorsuch, to members of the University of Illinois History Workshop, and to the CSSH referees for helpful comments. Research support for this project was provided by the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, the International Research and Exchanges Board, the National Council for Eurasian and East European Research, a Mellon Faculty Fellowship at the University of Illinois, and the Russian, East European, and Eurasian Center at the University of Illinois.

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