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Sato–Tate distributions and Galois endomorphism modules in genus 2

  • Francesc Fité (a1), Kiran S. Kedlaya (a2), Víctor Rotger (a3) and Andrew V. Sutherland (a4)
Abstract

For an abelian surface A over a number field k, we study the limiting distribution of the normalized Euler factors of the L-function of A. This distribution is expected to correspond to taking characteristic polynomials of a uniform random matrix in some closed subgroup of USp(4); this Sato–Tate group may be obtained from the Galois action on any Tate module of A. We show that the Sato–Tate group is limited to a particular list of 55 groups up to conjugacy. We then classify A according to the Galois module structure on the ℝ-algebra generated by endomorphisms of (the Galois type), and establish a matching with the classification of Sato–Tate groups; this shows that there are at most 52 groups up to conjugacy which occur as Sato–Tate groups for suitable A and k, of which 34 can occur for k=ℚ. Finally, we present examples of Jacobians of hyperelliptic curves exhibiting each Galois type (over ℚ whenever possible), and observe numerical agreement with the expected Sato–Tate distribution by comparing moment statistics.

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References
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Compositio Mathematica
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  • EISSN: 1570-5846
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