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Schemes over 𝔽1 and zeta functions

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 April 2010

Alain Connes
Collège de France 3, I.H.E.S. and Vanderbilt University, rue d’Ulm, Paris F-75005, France (email:
Caterina Consani
Mathematics Department, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA (email:
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We determine the real counting function N(q) (q∈[1,)) for the hypothetical ‘curve’ over 𝔽1, whose corresponding zeta function is the complete Riemann zeta function. We show that such a counting function exists as a distribution, is positive on (1,) and takes the value − at q=1 as expected from the infinite genus of C. Then, we develop a theory of functorial 𝔽1-schemes which reconciles the previous attempts by Soulé and Deitmar. Our construction fits with the geometry of monoids of Kato, is no longer limited to toric varieties and it covers the case of schemes associated with Chevalley groups. Finally we show, using the monoid of adèle classes over an arbitrary global field, how to apply our functorial theory of -schemes to interpret conceptually the spectral realization of zeros of L-functions.

Research Article
Copyright © Foundation Compositio Mathematica 2010


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