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Displaced persons, returnees and ‘unsuitables’: the Dutch selection of DPs (1945–1951)

  • Marlou Schrover (a1) and Tycho Walaardt (a2)

Abstract

After the Second World War, Dutch authorities allowed 8,000 displaced persons (DPs) to come to the Netherlands, but only 3,904 came, and 25 per cent of them returned to camp life in Germany. This article seeks to explain why debates on the DP issue changed so rapidly within a short period of time. In earlier publications, it has been claimed that ‘selling’ DPs as workers helped to solve the DP issue. This strategy did not work for the Netherlands. This article analyses how the DP issue was framed by organisations, the Dutch government, civil servants, the Dutch Homeland Security Department, newspapers and employers.

Après la Seconde Guerre mondiale, les autorités néerlandaises ont permis à 8 000 personnes déplacées de s'installer aux Pays-Bas, mais seulement 3 904 personnes sont finalement venues dont un bon quart sont reparties en Allemagne, vivre en camp. Cet article tente d'expliquer pourquoi les débats sur le problème des personnes déplacées ont évolué rapidement et en si peu de temps. Dans nombre de publications antérieures, il a été avancé que la mise sur le marché des personnes déplacées comme travailleurs contribuait à résoudre le problème qu'elles posaient. Or cette stratégie n'a pas fonctionné pour les Pays-Bas. Les auteurs analysent la manière dont les organisations, le gouvernement hollandais, les fonctionnaires, le département néerlandais de la sécurité intérieure, les journaux et les employeurs ont traité le problème des personnes déplacées.

Nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg erlaubten die niederländischen Behörden 8.000 Vertriebenen (displaced persons, DPs) die Einreise in die Niederlande, aber es kamen nur 3.904 Personen, von denen 25 Prozent in Lager in Deutschland zurückgingen. Dieser Beitrag versucht zu erklären, warum sich die Debatte über die Frage der Vertriebenen innerhalb einer kurzen Zeit so rasch veränderte. In früheren Veröffentlichungen ist behauptet worden, der ‘Verkauf’ von Vertriebenen als Arbeiter habe die Lösung des Vertriebenenproblems erleichtert. Diese Strategie funktionierte in den Niederlanden jedoch nicht. Der Beitrag analysiert, wie die Rahmenbedingungen der Vertriebenenfrage durch verschiedene Organisationen, die niederländische Regierung, die Beamten, das niederländische Heimatssicherheitsamt, Zeitungen und Arbeitgeber beeinflusst wurden.

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Corresponding author

*Corresponding author. Email: m.l.j.c.schrover@hum.leidenuniv.nl

References

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Notes

1 Zieck, M., UNHCR and voluntary repatriation of refugees: a legal analysis (Amsterdam, 1997); Malin, P. M., ‘The refugee: a problem for international organization’, International Organization 1, 3 (1947), 443–59, here 457.

2 Persian, J., ‘Displaced persons and the politics of international categorisation(s)’, Australian Journal of Politics and History 58, 4 (2012), 481–96, here 481.

3 Schoenberg, H. W., Germans from the East: a study of their migration, resettlement, and subsequent group history since 1945 (The Hague, 1970), 4969.

4 Berghuis, C. K., Geheel ontdaan van onbaatzuchtigheid: Het Nederlandse toelatingsbeleid voor vluchtelingen en displaced persons van 1945 tot 1956 (Amsterdam, 1999); Walaardt, T., ‘Het Paard van Troje: Het verlenen van asiel door Nederland in de periode 1945–1955’, TSEG/Low Countries Journal of Social and Economic History 6, 2 (2009), 6393; Walaardt, T., Geruisloos inwilligen: argumenten in de Nederlandse asielprocedure in de periode 1945–1994 (Hilversum, 2012).

5 Caestecker, F. and Luyckx, L., ‘Inclusion, exclusion and autonomy of displaced persons in the Dutch and Belgian Political Economies, 1944–1952’, in Defrance, C., Denis, J. and Maspero, J. eds., Personnes déplacées et guerre froide en Allemagne occupée (Brussels, 2015), 177–96.

6 See, among others, Zweig, R., ‘Restitution and the problem of Jewish displaced persons in Anglo-American relations, 1944–1948’, American Jewish History 78, 1 (1988), 5478; Grossmann, A., ‘Victims, villains, and survivors: gendered perceptions and self-perceptions of Jewish displaced persons in occupied postwar Germany’, Journal of the History of Sexuality 11, 1 (2002), 291318; Salvatici, S., ‘“Help the people to help themselves”: UNRRA relief workers and European displaced persons’, Journal of Refugee Studies 25, 3 (2012), 428–51; Humbert, L., ‘French politics of relief and international aid: France, UNRRA and the rescue of European displaced persons in postwar Germany, 1945–47’, Journal of Contemporary History 51, 3 (2016), 606–34; A. Ankrava, ‘From displaced persons to exiles: nationalism, anti-communism, and the shaping of Latvian American diaspora’ (unpublished PhD thesis, University of Minnesota, 2016); Carpenter, I. Gale, ‘Folklore as a source for creating exile identity among Latvian displaced persons in post-World War II Germany’, Journal of Baltic Studies 48, 2 (2017), 205–33.

7 Pinson, K., ‘Jewish life in liberated Germany: a study of the Jewish DPs’, Jewish Social Studies 9, 2 (1947), 101–26.

8 Arnold-Forster, W., ‘U.N.R.R.A.'s work for displaced persons in Germany’, International Affairs 22, 1 (1946), 113.

9 Ginsburgs, G., ‘The Soviet Union and the problem of refugees and displaced persons 1917–1956’, The American Journal of International Law 51, 2 (1957), 325–61, esp. 348–9; A. Kochavi, ‘The politics of displaced persons in post-war Europe, 1945–1950’, Post-war Europe: refugees, exile and resettlement, 1945–1950 (Gale Digital Collection), http://www.tlemea.com/postwareurope/essay6.asp; Chamberlain, J. P., ‘The fate of refugees and displaced persons’, Proceedings of the Academy of Political Science 22, 2 (1947), 8494, esp. 84–5; Salomon, K., Refugees in the Cold War: toward a new international refugee regime in the early postwar era (Lund, 1991), 175–6; Cohen, G. D., In war's wake: Europe's displaced persons in the postwar order (Oxford, 2012), 10.

10 Holian, A., ‘Anticommunism in the streets: refugee politics in Cold War Germany’, Journal of Contemporary History 45, 1 (2010), 134–61, here 136, 152.

11 Porter, S. R., Benevolent empire: US power, humanitarianism, and the world's dispossessed (Philadelphia, 2017), 105.

12 Salomon, Refugees in the Cold War.

13 S. R. Porter, ‘Defining public responsibility in a global age: refugees, NGOs, and the American state’ (unpublished PhD thesis, Chicago University, 2009).

14 Karatani, R., ‘How history separated refugee and migrant regimes: in search of their institutional origins’, International Journal of Refugee Law 17, 3 (2005), 517–41, here 528.

15 Persian, ‘Displaced persons’; Ginsburgs, ‘The Soviet Union and the problem of refugees’, 325–61; Salomon, Refugees in the Cold War; Zieck, UNHCR and voluntary repatriation; Kochavi, ‘The politics of displaced persons’; Grossmann, ‘Victims, villains, and survivors’, 291–318; Cohen, G. D., ‘The politics of recognition: Jewish refugees in relief policies and human rights debates, 1945–1950’, Immigrants & Minorities 24, 2 (2006), 125–43.

16 ‘Return from Germany’, in The Lancet 245, 6351 (1945), 636.

17 Arnold-Forster, ‘U.N.R.R.A.'s work’, 8.

18 Ouzan, F., ‘Rebuilding Jewish identities in displaced persons camps in Germany’, Bulletin du Centre de recherche français à Jérusalem (online), 14 (2004), 98111, http://bcrfj.revues.org/269.

19 Cohen, In war's wake, 6.

20 Arnold-Forster, ‘U.N.R.R.A.'s work’, 9; Persian, ‘Displaced persons’, 490; Holian, ‘Anticommunism in the streets’, 136.

21 Harzig, C., ‘MacNamara's DP domestics: immigration policy makers negotiate class, race, and gender in the aftermath of World War II’, Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society 10, 1 (2003), 2348, here 28.

22 K. M. Crago-Schneider, ‘Jewish “Shtetls” in postwar Germany: an analysis of interactions among Jewish displaced persons, Germans, and Americans between 1945 and 1957 in Bavaria’ (unpublished PhD thesis, University of California Los Angeles, 2013).

23 Gemie, S., Reid, F., Humbert, L. and Ingram, L., Outcast Europe: refugees and relief workers in an era of total war, 1936–1948 (London and New York, 2012), 206, 223, 234–5; Harzig, ‘MacNamara's DP domestics’, 28; Grossmann, ‘Victims, villains, and survivors’, 297; Cohen, In war's wake, 15.

24 Harzig, ‘MacNamara's DP domestics’, 23–48.

25 ‘Return from Germany’, 636; Arnold-Forster, ‘U.N.R.R.A.’s work’; Malin, ‘The refugee: a problem for international organization’; Chamberlain, ‘The fate of refugees and displaced persons’, 84–94.

26 Gatrell, P., ‘Population displacement in the Baltic Region in the twentieth century: from “refugee studies” to refugee history’, Journal of Baltic Studies 38, 1 (2007), 4360, 54.

27 G. D. Cohen, ‘The West and the displaced, 1945–1951: the post-war roots of political refugees’ (unpublished PhD thesis, New York University, 2000); Wyman, M., DPs: Europe's displaced persons, 1945–1951 (Ithaca, 1998), 177.

28 McDowell, L., ‘Constructions of whiteness: Latvian women workers in post-war Britain’, Journal of Baltic Studies 38, 1 (2007), 85107, esp. 87, 91, 94; Persian, ‘Displaced persons’, 481–96.

29 Grossmann, ‘Victims, villains, and survivors’, 300, 315.

30 Paul, K., Whitewashing Britain: race and citizenship in the postwar era (Ithaca and London, 1997), 71; Cohen, In war's wake, 67.

31 Porter, ‘Defining public responsibility’, 200.

32 Cohen, In war's wake, 5, 108. See also Porter, Benevolent empire, 106; Stadulius, E., ‘The resettlement of DPs in the UK’, Population Studies 5, 3 (1952), 207–37, esp. 208–09; Sjöberg, T., The powers and the persecuted: the refugee problem and them Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees, 1938–1947 (Lund, 1991); V. Eastes, ‘The illusion of peace: the fate of the Baltic displaced persons, 1945–1952’ (unpublished MA thesis, Texas A&M University, 2007), 4, 50.

33 Karatani, ‘How history separated refugee and migrant regimes’, 530; Berghuis, Geheel ontdaan, 88–91.

34 Gemie et al., Outcast Europe, 205.

35 Cohen, In war's wake, 74, 110–15.

36 Persian, ‘Displaced persons’.

37 Wyman, DPs: Europe's Displaced persons, 192; Berghuis, Geheel ontdaan, 88–9; Eastes, ‘The illusion of peace’.

38 Persian, ‘Displaced persons’, 493, 495; Arnold-Forster, ‘U.N.R.R.A.’s work’, 11.

39 Wyman, DPs: Europe's displaced persons, 188–9.

40 Eastes, The illusion of peace, 4, 57–8; National Archive, The Hague (hereafter NA) 5/023/5026, no. 177, Memo Dutch embassy in Brussels to minister of foreign affairs, 20 December 1946; Limburgsch Dagblad, 17 December 1948; Cohen, In war's wake, 105.

41 Caestecker, F., Vluchtelingenbeleid in de naoorlogse periode (Brussels, 1992), 3749; Cohen, In war's wake, 105.

42 Caestecker, Vluchtelingenbeleid, 37–49; Wyman, DPs: Europe's displaced persons, 189; Cohen, In war's wake, 105.

43 McDowell, ‘Constructions of whiteness’, 85–107, here 90.

44 Paul, Whitewashing Britain, 6, 25; McDowell, ‘Constructions of whiteness’, 90.

45 Paul, Whitewashing Britain, 5, 68.

46 Winders, R., Bloody foreigners: the story of migration to Britain (London, 2005), 323.

47 Kushner, T. and Knox, K., Refugees in an age of genocide (London, 1999), 235.

48 McDowell, ‘Constructions of whiteness’, 87, 94; Paul, Whitewashing Britain, 69, 71, 75.

49 Kay, D. and Miles, R., ‘Refugees or migrant workers? The case of the European volunteer workers in Britain (1946–1951)’, Journal of Refugee Studies 1, 3/4 (1988), 214–36, esp. 220, 232.

50 Ibid., 217.

51 McDowell, ‘Constructions of whiteness’, 91; Cohen, In war's wake, 106.

52 Quoted by Webster, W., ‘Defining boundaries: European volunteer worker women in Britain and narratives of community’, Women's History Review 9, 2 (2000), 257–76.

53 Kay and Miles, ‘Refugees or migrant workers?’, 214; see also Kay, D. and Miles, R., Refugees or migrant workers? European volunteer workers in Britain (1946–1951) (London, 1992).

54 Quoted by Paul, Whitewashing Britain, 72, 79.

55 Kay and Miles, ‘Refugees or migrant workers?’, 218.

56 Paul, Whitewashing Britain, 86.

57 Quoted by Eastes, ‘The illusion of peace’, 33.

58 Harzig, ‘MacNamara's DP domestics’, 23–48.

59 Cohen, In war's wake, 74, 110–15.

60 Ibid., 104–06.

61 J. H. Weessies, ‘Harry S. Truman, postwar immigration policy, and the case of the Netherlands’ (unpublished MA thesis, Central Missouri State University Warrensburg, Missouri, 1998), 60; Cohen, In war's wake, 108.

62 Cohen, In war's wake, 106.

63 Persian, ‘Displaced persons’, 481–96.

64 Dellios, A., ‘Displaced persons, family separation and the work contract in postwar Australia’, Journal of Australian Studies 40, 4 (2016), 418–32; see also Fitzpatrick, S., ‘Soviet repatriation efforts among “displaced persons” resettled in Australia, 1950–53’, Australian Journal of Politics and History 63, 1 (2017), 4561.

65 Quoted by Rutland, S. D. and Encel, S., ‘No room at the inn: American responses to Australian immigration policies, 1946–54’, Patterns of Prejudice 43, 5 (2009), 497518, here 499.

66 Cohen, In war's wake, 110.

67 Weessies, ‘Harry S. Truman’; Porter, Benevolent empire, 106–22; Porter, ‘Defining public responsibility’, 208.

68 Persian, ‘Displaced persons’, 493.

69 Lagrou, P., ‘Victims of genocide and national memory: Belgium, France and the Netherlands, 1945–1965’, Past and Present 154 (1997), 181222, here 209.

70 Wentholt, R., Kenmerken van de Nederlandse emigrant: een analyse van persoonlijke achtergronden, omstandigheden en beweegredenen (The Hague, 1961).

71 Vrije Volk, 4 June 1947; Vrije Volk, 22 December 1945.

72 Weessies, ‘Harry S. Truman’.

73 Moore, B., Victims and survivors: the Nazi persecution of the Jews in the Netherlands, 1940–1945 (London, 1997).

74 Belinfante, A. D., In Plaats van Bijltjesdag (Assen, 1978), 34.

75 Lak, M., Because we need them … German-Dutch relations after the occupation: economic inevitability and political acceptance, 1945–1957 (Rotterdam, 2011), 172–88.

76 Schrover, M., ‘The deportation of Germans from the Netherlands, 1946–1952’, Immigrants & Minorities 33, 3 (2015), 264–71.

77 Schrover, M. and Faassen, M. van, ‘Invisibility and selectivity: introduction to the special issue on Dutch overseas emigration in the nineteenth and twentieth century’, TSEG/Low Countries Journal of Social and Economic History 7, 2 (2010), 331.

78 Beaulieu-Boon, H., So far away from home: engaging the silenced colonial: the Indies diaspora in North America (Leiden, 2009); Laarman, C., Oude onbekenden: Het politieke en publieke debat over postkoloniale migranten in Nederland, 1945–2005 (Hilversum, 2013).

79 Trouw, 15 February 1946; NRC, 15 February 1946; Parool, 18 February 1946; Trouw, 23 October 1946.

80 Postma, F. H., ‘De repatriëring van Sovjetburgers uit Nederland: mythe en waarheid’, Tijdschrift voor Geschiedenis 112 (2001), 3048.

81 Postma, ‘De repatriëring van Sovjetburgers’, 30–48; Postma, F. H., ‘Mennonieten tussen vrijheid en dictatuur: Nederlands-Russische onenigheid in de spiegel van na-oorlogs repatriëringsbeleid’, Doopsgezinde Bijdragen: Nieuwe Reeks 26 (2001), 111–20.

82 Berghuis, Geheel ontdaan, 12.

83 Ibid., 43.

84 NA IRO 2/05/31.

85 Binnenlandse Veiligheidsdienst (hereafter BVD), http://stichtingargus.nl/bvd/index2.htm

86 Parliamentary Papers (hereafter PP), http://www.statengeneraaldigitaal.nl

87 NA, Archive of the Immigration and Naturalization Service and its predecessors (hereafter IND) 5/023/5026.

89 Compare Nicholson, B., ‘The digital turn’, Media History 19, 1 (2013), 5973, who observed the same for other countries.

90 Schrover, ‘The deportation of Germans’, 264–71.

91 Entman, R. M., ‘Framing: toward clarification of a fractured paradigm’, Journal of Communication 43, 4 (1993), 5168; Scheufele, D. A., ‘Framing as a theory of media effects’, Journal of Communication 49, 1 (1999), 103–22; Semetko, H. A. and Valkenburg, P. M., ‘Framing European politics: a content analysis of press and television news’, Journal of Communication 50, 2 (2000), 93109; Gorp, B. van, ‘Where is the frame? Victims and intruders in the Belgian press coverage of the asylum issue’, European Journal of Communication 20, 4 (2005), 485508; Snow, D. A., Vliegenthart, R. and Corrigall-Brown, C., ‘Framing the French riots: a comparative study of frame variation’, Social Forces 86, 2 (2007), 387415.

92 Bauder, H., ‘Media discourse and the new German immigration law’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 34, 1 (2008), 95112.

93 Papacharissi, Z. and de Fatima Oliveira, M., ‘News frames terrorism: a comparative analysis of frames employed in terrorism coverage in US and UK newspapers’, The International Journal of Press/Politics 13, 1 (2008), 5274.

94 Maasbode, 3 July 1945; Trouw, 30 June 1945.

95 Trouw, 28 May 1945.

96 Katinpers, 26 May 1945.

97 Trouw, 27 May 1946.

98 Limburgsch Dagblad, 22 August 1946.

99 NA 5/023/5026, no. 1153, letter from employee of UNRRA to the wife of the Dutch prime minister, (nd) 1946.

100 NA 5/023/5026, no. 1153, letter from secretary-general of ministry of justice to minister of justice, 4 July 1946; letter from minister of justice to employee of UNRRA, 4 September 1946.

101 NA IRO 2/05/31, no. 1, letter from minister of traffic to Council of Ministers, 2 August 1946.

102 NA 5/023/5026, no. 257, memo from acting head of immigration department to minister of justice, 9 August 1946, remarks by head of immigration department in margin, 22 August 1946.

103 NA IRO 2/05/31, no. 1, summary of the discussion with the Committee on Displaced Persons, 13 May 1947.

104 NA 2/05/31, no. 1; Berghuis, Geheel ontdaan, 87–8.

105 NA 2/05/31, no. 1, report on displaced persons, 29 March 1947.

106 Langeweg, S., Mijnbouw en arbeidsmarkt in Nederlands-Limburg: Herkomst, werving, mobiliteit en binding van mijnwerkers tussen 1900 en 1965 (Hilversum, 2011), 159.

107 Volkskrant, 14 March 1947.

108 Volkskrant, 14 February 1947.

109 Leeuwarder Courant, 21 January 1947.

110 Volkskrant, 27 and 28 February 1947.

111 Gooi en Eemlander, 26 April 1947.

112 Waarheid, 8 January 1947.

113 BVD maandrapport, 2 April 1947, 5.

114 Ibid.

115 Zierikzeesche Nieuwsbode, 1 January 1947.

116 Zeeuwsch Dagblad, 29 March 1947.

117 NA 5/023/5026, no. 1531, letter from the head of immigration department, 2 April 1947.

118 NA IRO 2/05/31, no. 1, draft paper for the minister of social affairs, May 1947.

119 NA IRO 2/05/31, no. 1, summary of the discussion with the Committee on Displaced Persons, 13 May 1947.

120 Parool, 15 August 1947.

121 Parool, 25 June 1947.

122 Parool, 17 June 1947.

123 Gooi en Eemlander, 9 June 1947.

124 Tijd, 25 June 1947; Peel en Maas, 28 June 1947.

125 Limburgsch Dagblad, 7 November 1947; Peel en Maas, 28 June 1947.

126 Peel en Maas, 28 June 1947.

127 Gooi en Eemlander, 9 June 1947 and 11 August 1947.

128 Volkskrant, 24 June 1947.

129 Waarheid, 18 June 1947.

130 Limburgsch Dagblad, 28 June 1947.

131 Utrechts Nieuwsblad, 25 June 1947; Leeuwarder Courant, 3 July 1947.

132 Limburgsch Dagblad, 28 June 1947.

133 Volkskrant, 19 November 1947.

134 Waarheid, 8 July 1947 and 18 November 1947.

135 Waarheid, 12 October 1947.

136 Tijd, 17 July 1947.

137 Tijd, 25 June 1947; Vrije Volk, 4 July 1947.

138 Langeweg, Mijnbouw en arbeidsmarkt, 181.

139 Leidsche Courant, 12 August 1947.

140 Nieuwe Leidsche Courant, 2 July 1947.

141 Provinciale Zeeuwse Courant, 16 October 1947.

142 Gooi en Eemlander, 11 August 1947.

143 Nieuwe Leidsche Courant, 28 April 1947; Gooi en Eemlander, 1 August 1947.

144 Leeuwarder Courant, 3 July 1947.

145 Zierikzeesche Nieuwsbode, 15 September 1947; Leidsche Courant, 20 September 1947; Limburgsch Dagblad, 22 September 1947.

146 Nieuwe Leidsche Courant, 16 July 1947.

147 Tijd, 10 July 1947.

148 Gooi en Eemlander, 1 August 1947.

149 Gelderlander, 3 September 1947.

150 Limburgsch Dagblad, 29 September 1947; Limburgsch Dagblad, 22 September 1947.

151 Vrije Volk, 31 December 1947.

152 Parool, 18 August 1947.

153 Waarheid, 10 October 1947.

154 Waarheid, 18 November 1947; 12 October 1947; Waarheid, 12 and 13 October 1947.

155 Gelderlander, 18 September 1947.

156 Ibid.

157 Trouw, 22 September 1947.

158 Nieuwsblad van het Noorden, 6 November 1947.

159 Tijd, 13 November 1947.

160 Locomotief, 18 November 1947.

161 Leeuwarder Courant, 20 September 1947.

162 NA 5/023/5026, no. 174, letter from field officer, Stuttgart, 28 October 1947.

163 NA 5/023/5026, no. 174, letter from field officer, Munich, 3 August 1947; letter from field officer, Munich, 20 September 1947.

164 Leeuwarder Courant, 20 September 1947.

165 NA IRO 2/05/31, no. 1, minutes of the debate, 5 October 1947.

166 Vrije Volk, 19 November 1947.

167 Leeuwarder Courant, 17 July 1947.

168 Tijd, 25 June 1947.

169 NA IRO 2/05/31, no. 49, statement, 23 January 1948.

170 NA IRO 2/05/31, no. 49, letter from Sark to IRO HQ, 2 February 1948.

171 Nieuwsblad van het Noorden, 5 February 1948.

172 NA 5/023/5026, no. 171, memo from minister of justice, 6 February 1948.

173 NA 5/023/5026, no. 402, memo from head of intelligence service, 23 May 1947.

174 PP, 23rd meeting, determination of the budget of the Ministry of Social Affairs (1948), 2 March 1948, 229.

175 Nieuws, 19 April 1947; Leeuwarder Courant, 28 May 1948.

176 Leeuwarder Courant, 28 May 1948.

177 Nieuwsblad van het Noorden, 5 June 1948.

178 Tijd, 18 June 1948.

179 Tijd, 13 November 1948.

180 Waarheid, 23 June 1948; Peel en Maas, 23 July 1949.

181 Steenkool 2, 1948.

182 Steenkool 5, 1948.

183 PP, 22 June 1948, Question J. J. Kramer.

184 Waarheid, 5 May 1948.

185 Peel en Maas, 26 June 1948; ZNI, 22 June 1948, 2; Waarheid, 21 June 1948; Waarheid, 28 October 1948.

186 Zierikzeesche Nieuwsbode, 10 February 1949.

187 Steenkool 7, 1948.

188 NA IRO 2/05/31, no. 43, letter, 15 July 1948.

189 NA IRO 2/05/31, no. 43a, letter from the Regional Labour Exchange (RLE) Enschede to the National Labour Exchange, 10 August 1948.

190 NA IRO 2/05/31, no. 43a, letter from Sark to Ministry of Social Affairs, 26 November 1948, to National Labour Exchange.

191 NA IRO 2/05/31, no. 43a, letter from IRO HQ, 12 November 1948.

192 NA IRO 2/05/31, no. 49a, letter from the RLE to Sark, 4 September 1948; and letter from the RLE to Sark, 11 April 1949.

193 NA IRO 2/05/31, no. 49a, letter from the RLE to Sark, 18 May 1949.

194 Ibid.

195 NA IRO 2/05/31, no. 49, letter to Sark, 29 May 1949; and letter from Sark, 27 June 1949.

196 Tijd, 21 February 1950.

197 Leeuwarder Courant, 17 April 1951.

198 PP Senate 1950, Annex A budget 1950–1951 (1900), iv, 9–16.

199 Kay and Miles, ‘Refugees or migrant workers?, 214; Cohen, In war's wake, 108; Karatani, ‘How history separated refugee and migrant regimes’, 528 .

200 Gallagher, D., ‘The evolution of the international refugee system’, International Migration Review 23, 3 (1989), 579–98.

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