1 Harris, John Raymond, Industrial espionage and technology transfer: Britain and France in the eighteenth century (Aldershot, 1998).
2 Henderson, W. O., Britain and Industrial Europe 1750–1870: studies in British influence on the Industrial Revolution in western Europe (Liverpool, 1954). See also Bret, Patrice, Gouzévitch, Irina and Pérez, Liliane eds., ‘Les techniques et la technologie entre la France et la Grande-Bretagne XVIIe–XIXe siècles’, Documents pour l'histoire des techniques 19 (2010).
3 Pollard, Sidney, Peaceful conquest: the Industrialization of Europe 1760–1970 (Oxford, 1981), 144–6.
4 Evans, Chris and Rydén, Göran eds., The industrial revolution in iron – the impact of British coal technology in nineteenth-century Europe (Aldershot, 2005); Fremdling, Rainer, ‘The puddler: a craftsmen's skill and the spread of a new technology in Belgium, France and Germany’, Journal of European Economic History 20, 3 (1991), 529–67.
5 Harris, Industrial espionage and technology transfer; Hilaire-Pérez, Liliane, ‘Transferts technologiques, droit et territoire: le cas franco-anglais au XVIIIe siècle’, Revue d'histoire moderne et contemporaine 44, 4 (October to December 1997), 547–79; Bret, Gouzévitch and Pérez eds., ‘Les techniques et la technologie entre la France et la Grande-Bretagne XVIIe–XIXe siècles’.
6 Hilaire-Pérez, Liliane and Verna, Catherine, ‘Dissemination of technical knowledge in the Middle Ages and the early modern era: new approaches and methodological issues’, Technology and Culture 47, 3 (2006), 536–65.
7 On domestic migration, see Arthur Redford, Labour migration in England: 1800–1850, 2nd edn rev. by W. H. Chaloner (Manchester, 1964 [orig. pub. 1926]); Baines, Dudley, Migration in a mature economy: emigration and internal migration in England and Wales, 1861–1900 (Cambridge, 1985); Pooley, Colin and Turnbull, Jean, Migration and mobility in Britain since the eighteenth century (London, 1998).
8 Belich, James, Replenishing the earth: the settler revolution and the rise of the Anglo-world, 1783–1939 (Oxford and New York, 2009).
9 Harper, Marjory, ‘Obstacles and opportunities: labour emigration to the “British World” in the nineteenth century’, Continuity and Change 34, 1 (2019), this Special Issue.
10 Erickson, Charlotte, Leaving England: essays on British emigration in the nineteenth century (Ithaca, NY, 1994); Richards, Eric, Britannia's children: emigration from England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland Since 1600 (London, 2004); Harper, Marjory, ‘British migration and the peopling of the Empire’, in Porter, Andrew ed., Oxford history of the British Empire: the 19th century (Oxford, 1999), 75–87; ed., Marjory Harper, Emigrant homecomings: the return movement of emigrants, 1600–2000 (Manchester, 2000); Harper, Marjory and Constantine, Stephen, Migration and empire (Oxford, 2010).
11 Buchanan, R. A., ‘The diaspora of British engineering’, Technology and Culture 27, 3 (July 1986), 501–24; Buchanan, R. A., ‘The British contribution to Australian engineering’, Historical Studies 20, 80 (1983), 401–19; Sinclair, Bruce, ‘Canadian technology: British traditions and American influences’, Technology and Culture 20 (January 1979), 108–23; Stromquist, Shelton, ‘Railroad labor and the global economy: historical patterns’, in Lucassen, Jan ed., Global labour history: a state of the art (Bern, 2006), 623–47; Kerr, Ian, Building the railways of the Raj, 1850–1900 (Delhi, 1995).
12 Headrick, Daniel, The tentacles of progress: technology transfer in the Age of Imperialism, 1850–1940 (Oxford, 1988); Headrick, Daniel, The tools of empire: technology and European imperialism in the 19th century (New York, 1981).
13 Morieux, Renaud, The Channel: England, France and the construction of a maritime border in the eighteenth century (Cambridge, 2016).
14 Carrier, N. H. and Jeffery, J. R., External migration: a study of the available statistics 1815–1950 (London, 1953), 93, 95–6.
15 See Pooley and Turnbull, Migration and mobility in Britain.
16 Brooke, David, The railway navvy: ‘that despicable race of men’ (Newton Abbot, 1983); Brooke, David, William Mackenzie: international railway builder and civil engineer (London, 2004).
17 Kiernan, Michael T., The engineers of Cornwall at the mines of Pontgibaud in France (Redruth, 2016).
18 Lebrun, Pierre, Bruwier, Marinette, Dhondt, Jan and Hansotte, Georges, Essai sur la révolution industrielle en Belgique (Bruxelles, 1979); Gayot, Gérard, ‘La classe ouvrière saisie par la révolution industrielle à Verviers, 1800–1810’, Revue du Nord 84, 347 (octobre 2002), 633–66; Lebrun, Pierre, L'industrie de la laine à Verviers pendant le XVIIIe et le début du XIXe siècle: contribution à l’étude des origines de la révolution industrielle (Liège, 1948).
19 Rainer Fremdling, ‘Foreign craftsmanship and foreign technology for German industrialization’, unpublished paper presented at the UCL conference ‘British Labour and Migration during Industrialisation’, 7 July 2017.
20 Bruland, Kristine, British technology and European industrialization: the Norwegian textile industry in the mid-nineteenth century (Cambridge, 1989).
21 See below: Peltola, Jarmo, ‘The British contribution to the birth of the Finnish cotton industry (1820–1870)’, Continuity and Change 34, 1 (2019), this Special Issue.
22 Janků, Jitka, Historie textilní výroby v Letovicích [The History of textile production in Letovice] (Brno, 2015).
23 Stearns, Peter N., ‘Britain and the spread of the Industrial Revolution’, in Bartlett, C. J. ed., Britain pre-eminent: studies of British world influence in the nineteenth century (London, 1969), 14.
24 Chrimes, Michael, Murphy, Mary K. and Ribeill, Georges eds., Mackenzie – giant of the railways: William Mackenzie (1794–1851) and the construction of the early European railway network (London, 1994).
25 Raveux, Olivier, ‘Les ingénieurs anglais de la Provence maritime sous la monarchie de Juillet’, Provence historique 177 (1994), 301–20.
26 Alcantud, Cristina Roda, ‘The modernization of the naval military industry in Spain in the nineteenth century: the example of Cartagena's arsenal’, Journal of European Economic History 41, 3 (2012), 11–43.
27 Gaskell, Elizabeth, Mary Barton (Oxford, 2008 [orig. pub. 1848]), 28.
28 Allen, Robert, The British Industrial Revolution in global perspective (Cambridge, 2009).
29 Humphries, Jane, ‘The lure of aggregates and the pitfalls of the patriarchal perspective: a critique of the high wage economy interpretation of the British industrial revolution’, Economic History Review 66, 3 (2013), 693–714. See also Humphries, Jane and Schneider, Benjamin, ‘Spinning the Industrial Revolution’, Economic History Review 72, 1 (2019), 126–55.
30 Harris, John Raymond, Industrial espionage and technology transfer: Britain and France in the eighteenth century (Aldershot, 1998).
31 Evidence given by Mr Alexander, 2 March 1824, in First Report from Select Committee on Artizans and Machinery, House of Commons Parliamentary Papers Online, <http://parlipapers.chadwick.co.uk>, 51, 108; [Charles Ross], ‘1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th Reports, from the select Committee on Artizans and Machinery’, Quarterly Review xxxi (March 1825), 392–3.
32 Statistique de la France publiée par le ministère de l'agriculture, du commerce et des travaux publics: Résultats du recensement de 1851 (Paris, 1855).
33 Colin, John [pseud.], The wanderer brought home: the life and adventures of Colin; an autobiography (London, 1864).
34 Claxton, Timothy, ‘Memoirs’, in his Hints to mechanics on self-education and mutual instruction (London, 1839), 1–37.
35 Smith, Charles Manby, The working man's way in the world (London, 1853).
36 Holyoake, G. J., The life and character of Henry Hetherington (London, 1849), 5.
37 Duthie, William, A tramp's wallet: stored by an English goldsmith during his wanderings in Germany and France (London, 1858).
38 See autobiographical evidence of Henry Dove, railway mechanic, in Blount, Edward, Memoirs of Sir Edward Blount (London, 1902).
39 Colin Pooley, ‘Placing British labour migration in context: motives and meanings of population movement in nineteenth-century Europe’, paper presented at the UCL conference ‘British Labour and Migration during Industrialisation’, 7 July 2017.
40 Faucheur, Narcisse, Mon Histoire à mes chers enfants et petits-enfants (Paris, 1886).
41 Bensimon, Fabrice and Whatley, Christopher A., ‘The thread of migration: a Scottish-French linen and jute works and its workers in France, c. 1840–c. 1870’, Journal of Migration History 3 (2016).
42 Varouxakis, Georgios, Victorian political thought on France and the French (Basingstoke, 2002); Jones, Colin, ‘French crossings: I. Tales of two cities’, Transactions of the RHS 20 (2010), 1–26.
43 Bensimon, Fabrice, ‘British workers in France, 1815–1850’, Past & Present 213 (November 2011), 147–89.
44 Bensimon, ‘British workers in France’, 171–8; and ‘The emigration of British lacemakers to continental Europe (1816–1860s)’, Continuity and Change 34, 1 (2019), this Special Issue.
45 R. A. Buchanan, Diaspora of British engineering (1986), 503.