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The late medieval and early modern Hanse as an institution of conflict management

  • JUSTYNA WUBS-MROZEWICZ (a1)
Abstract

Ever since research on the Hanse began in the nineteenth century, there have been repeated efforts to redefine the boundaries and the core of the phenomenon. Views of the Hanse have evolved, and it has been seen by turns as a profoundly German league of towns, and as a network or organisation of towns and traders that was present in commercial centres and harbours from Novgorod to Portugal, and from Norway to Italy. In more general discussions on the institutional development of commerce in Europe, many of them influenced by the New Institutional Economics, the Hanse has even appeared as a mega-guild. The revival of the field of institutional economics and the history of commerce in pre-modern Europe has recently spawned a reappraisal of Hanseatic sources. The present article contributes to this debate by arguing that from the perspective of conflict management, the late medieval and early modern Hanse was an institution. There were several institutional mechanisms, such as a strong preference for mediation and arbitration in conflicts between individuals, as well as a mediation strategy for internal conflicts between towns. All of these mechanisms combined in a multifaceted institution of conflict management, which represented the added value of Hanse membership for traders, and for their towns.

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Endnotes

1 Hammel-Kiesow, Rolf, Die Hanse, 2nd edn (Munich, 2002); Selzer, Stephan, Die mittelalterliche Hanse (Darmstadt, 2010); Jahnke, Carsten, Die Hanse (Stuttgart, 2014); Wubs-Mrozewicz, Justyna, ‘The Hanse in medieval Europe: an introduction’, in Wubs-Mrozewicz, Justyna and Jenks, Stuart eds., The Hanse and late medieval Europe (Leiden, 2013), 135 .

2 Hanserecesse/Hanserezesse (Leipzig, 1870–1970), 4 series and a total of 26 vols. (hereafter HR), 2:7, no. 35, section 77, compare sections 36, 37, 63, 65, 78, 82, 83; HR, 2:7, no. 79, section 73; HR, 2:7, no. 83; HR, 2:7, no. 139, sections 10, 24, 200; and HR, 2:7, 64; Jenks, Stuart, ‘A capital without a state: Lübeck caput tocius hanze (to 1474)’, Historical Research 65, 157 (1992), 134–49.

3 Henn, Volker, ‘Wege und Irrwege der Hanseforschung und Hanserezeption in Deutschland im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert’, in Nikolay-Panter, Marlene et al. eds., Geschichtliche Landeskunde der Rheinlande: Regionale Befunde und raumübergreifende Perspektiven (Cologne, 1994); Hill, Thomas, ‘Vom öffentlichen Gebrauch der Hansegeschichte und Hanseforschung im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert’, in Graßmann, Antjekathrin ed., Ausklang und Nachklang der Hanse im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert (Trier, 2001); Wubs-Mrozewicz, Justyna, close, ‘TheOther”: medieval and modern perspectives on Hollanders and the Hanse’, German History 31, 4 (2013) 453–72.

4 There was no Act founding the Hanse; it did not have a common seal, it had no treasury, and it held no executive power. It was not created for a particular purpose at a specific time. No member could be held responsible for the actions of any other, see Distler, E.-M., Städtebünde im deutschen Spätmittelalter: eine rechtshistorische Untersuchung zu Begriff, Verfassung und Funktion (Frankfurt am Main, 2006); Carl, Horst, Der Schwäbische Bund 1488–1534: Landfrieden und Genossenschaft im Übergang vom Spätmittelalter zur Reformation (Leinfelden-Echterdingen, 2000). On the differences between the Hanse and the Swiss Confederation, see Münger, Tamara, ‘Hanse und Eidgenossenschaft – zwei mittelalterliche Gemeinschaften im Vergleich’, Hansische Geschichtsblätter 119 (2001), 548 .

5 The settlements could take various forms, from closed enclaves to trading posts integrated into the local society, see Burkhardt, Mike, ‘Kontors and outposts’, in Harreld, D. ed., A companion to the Hanseatic League (Leiden, 2015), 127–61; Selzer, Stephan and Ewert, U. C., ‘Verhandeln und verkaufen, vernetzen und vertrauen: Über die Netzwerkstruktur des hansischen Handels’, Hansische Geschichtsblätter 119 (2001), 135–62.

6 North, Douglass C., Institutions, institutional change and economic performance (Cambridge, 1990).

7 Greif, A., Institutions and the path to the modern economy: lessons from medieval trade (Cambridge, 2006); Grafe, R. and Gelderblom, O., ‘The rise and fall of the merchant guilds: re-thinking the comparative study of commercial institutions in premodern Europe’, Journal of Interdisciplinary History 40, 4 (2010), 477511 ; Ogilvie, Sheilagh, Institutions and European trade: merchant guilds, 1000–1800 (Cambridge, 2011).

8 Scott, W. R., Institutions and organizations: ideas, interests, and identities, 4th edn (London, 2014).

9 Hodgson, G. M., ‘What are institutions?’, Journal of Economic Issues 40 (2006), 125 .

10 North, Institutions; for a discussion of this framework in a historical context, see on the one hand, Greif, Avner, Milgrom, Paul and Weingast, Barry R., ‘Coordination, commitment and enforcement: the case of the merchant guild’, Journal of Political Economy 102, 4 (1994), 745–76, and on the other, Ogilvie, Sheilagh, ‘“Whatever is, is right?” Economic institutions in pre-industrial Europe’, Economic History Review 60, 4 (2007), 649–84; Gelderblom, Oscar, Cities of commerce: the institutional foundations of international trade in the Low Countries, 1250–1650 (Princeton, 2013) and the debate on this book in a special issue of Tijdschrift voor Sociale en Economische Geschiedenis 11, 4 (2014), in English.

11 Selzer and Ewert, ‘Verhandeln’.

12 Jahnke, C., ‘Die Hanse: Überlegungen zur Entwicklung des Hansebegriffes und der Hanse als Institution resp. Organisation’, Hansische Geschichtsblätter 131 (2013), 132 .

13 Henn, V., ‘Was war die Hanse?’, in Bracker, J. et al. eds., Die Hanse: Lebenswirklichkeit und Mythos, 3rd edn (Lübeck, 1999), 1423 ; Selzer, Die Hanse.

14 A NWO (Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research) VENI project. An overview of the historiography can be found in Wubs-Mrozewicz, Justyna, ‘Danzig’, in Blockmans, Wim, Krom, Mikhail and Wubs-Mrozewicz, Justyna eds., The Routledge Handbook of maritime trade around Europe (London, 2017), 248–72.

15 State Archives in Gdańsk (hereafter APG): 300 D Correspondence and documents until 1525; 300.1 Burgomaster; 300.3 Burggraf; 300.5 Vice-Burgomaster; 300.6 Judge; 300.10 Recesses of the Orders; 300.12 Kämmerei; 300.17 Fiscal matters; 300.27 Missiva; 300.28 Hanse; 300.41 Altstadt; 300.43 Schöffengericht (Aldermen's Bench); 300.44 Ordinances; 300.53 Correspondence after 1525; 300.58 Wette; 300.59 Libri Memorandorum; 300.60 Burgerhship books; 300.93 Edicts; 300 R Bibliotheca Archivi; 359 Brotherhoods.

16 HR; Hansisches Urkundenbuch, 2 vols. (Halle, 1876–1939) (hereafter HUB); Häpke, R. ed., Niederländische Akten und Urkunden Niederländische Akten und Urkunden zur Geschichte der Hanse und zur deutschen Seegeschichte, 2 vols. (München, 1913–1923) (hereafter NAU); H. A. Poelman ed., Bronnen tot de geschiedenis van den Oostzeehandel 1122–1499 (hereafter BGO).

17 Irsigler, F., ‘Erscheinungsbild und Erfahrungswelt des hansischen Kaufmanns’, in Jörn, N. and Wernicke, H. eds., Beiträge zur hansischen Kultur-, Verfassungs- und Schiffahrtsgeschichte (Weimar, 1998), 1122 . An emblematic source to study the medieval mobility of Hanseatic merchants are the letters in Stieda, Wilhelm ed., Hildebrand Veckinchusen: Briefwechsel eines deutschen Kaufmanns im 15. Jahrhundert (Leipzig, 1921); Böcker, H., ‘Gruppenbindungen und –brüche: Symbolwerte in der privaten ‘Gegenrechnung’ des Fernhandels-Kaufmanns Hildebrand Veckinchusen um die Wende vom 14. zum 15. Jahrhundert’, in Jörn, N., Kattinger, D. and Wernicke, H. eds., “Kopet uns werk by tiden”: Beiträge zur hansischen und preußischen Geschichte: Walter Stark zum 75. Geburtstag (Schwerin, 1999), 143–52.

18 Stuart Jenks, ‘Capturing opportunity, financing trade’, in Blockmans, Krom and Wubs-Mrozewicz eds., The Routledge Handbook of maritime trade around Europe, 36–56.

19 Pelus-Kaplan, Marie-Louise, ‘Mobility and business enterprise in the Hanseatic world: trade networks and entrepreneurial techniques (sixteenth and seventeenth centuries)’, in Wubs-Mrozewicz, J. and Jenks, S., The Hanse in late medieval and early modern Europe (Leiden, 2013), 239–54; Pelus-Kaplan, Marie-Louise, ‘Merchants and immigrants in Hanseatic cities, c. 1500–1700’, in Calabi, D. and Christensen, S.T. eds., Cultural exchange in early modern Europe: II Cities and cultural exchange in Europe (Cambridge, 2007), 132–53; Burkhardt, Mike, Der hansische Bergenhandel im Spätmittelalter: Handel - Kaufleute – Netzwerke (Cologne, 2009); Wubs-Mrozewicz, Justyna, ‘Interplay of identities: German settlers in late medieval Stockholm’, Scandinavian Journal of History 29, 1 (2004), 5367 .

20 HR, 2:7, no. 35, section 77; HR, 3:6, no. 177; HUB, 9, no. 570.

21 HR, 2:6, 69–76; HR, 2:6, no. 95; HR, 3:2, no. 137.

22 HR, 2:6, no. 107; HR, 3:2, no. 223.

23 HR, 2:7, no. 173; HR, 2:7, 438; HR, 3:1, no. 92; HR, 3:1, no. 104; HR, 3:1, no. 126. See also Wubs-Mrozewicz, Justyna, ‘Mercantile conflict resolution in practice: connecting diplomatic and legal sources from Danzig c. 1460–1580’, in Pihlajamäki, Heikki ed., Historiography and sources of commercial law (forthcoming).

24 HR, 3:1, no. 104; HR, 3:4, no. 79, sections 27–9, 130; HR, 3:4, no. 81, sections 5–6.

25 Wubs-Mrozewicz, ‘Danzig’; Maćkowski, T., ‘Gdańsk caught between Lübeck and the Polish kingdom’, in Brand, H. ed., The German Hanse in past and present Europe: a medieval league as a model for modern interregional cooperation? (Groningen, 2007), 117–45; Bogucka, Maria, Baltic commerce and urban society, 1500–1700: Gdańsk/Danzig and its Polish context (Aldershot, 2003).

26 HR, 1:2, no. 232, section 24; HR, 3:3, no. 274.

27 See endnote 4.

28 Wijaczka, Jacek, ‘Prusy królewskie: dzieje polityczne do 1660’, in Kizik, E. ed., Prusy Królewskie: społeczeństwo, kultura, gospodarka 1454–1772 (Gdańsk, 2012), 131202 ; on the later period, see Friedrich, Karin, The other Prussia: Royal Prussia, Poland and liberty, 1569–1772 (Cambridge, 2006).

29 HR, 3:9, no. 2, section 49.

30 HR, 3:6, nos. 315, 340, 348.

31 Cordes, Albrecht, ‘“Mit Freundschaft oder mit Recht”: Quellentermini und wissenschaftliche Ordnungsbegriffe’, in Cordes, Albrecht ed., Mit Freundschaft oder mit Recht? Inner- und außergerichtliche Alternativen zur kontroversen Streitentscheidung im 15–19. Jahrhundert (Cologne, 2015), 919 .

32 Wubs-Mrozewicz, Justyna, ‘Mercantile conflict resolution and the role of the language of trust: a Danzig case in the middle of the sixteenth century’, Historical Research 88, 241 (2015), 417–40.

33 APG 300.53/1162; APG 300.27/7, fos. 76–7.

34 These statements constitute a substantial part of the Schöffengericht books, next to the sentences of the court itself, see APG 300.43; see also APG 300.1/8, fos. 138–9; APG 300.43/13, fos. 63–63v; APG 300.58/8, fo. 123; APG 300.59/9, fos. 80–2, cf. note 17.

35 APG 300.43/8, fos. 11–12.

36 Town Archives Deventer, 495–1, fos. 2–37v; Wubs-Mrozewicz, ‘Mercantile conflict resolution and the role of the language of trust’.

37 APG 300.43. The author is currently working on a comparative analysis.

38 Ersland, Geir Atle, ‘Das Handelsgericht des Hansekontors in Bergen’, in Hundt, Michael and Lokers, Jan eds., Hanse und Stadt: Akteure, Strukturen und Entwicklungen im regionalen und europäischen Raum: Festschrift für Rolf Hammel-Kiesow zum 65. Geburtstag (Lübeck, 2014), 89102 .

39 APG 300.43/4b, fos. 129v–130 (in reference to the London Kontor); Henn, V., ‘Die Hansekontore und ihre Ordnungen’, in Cordes, A. ed., Hansisches und hansestädtisches Recht (Trier, 2008), 1539 ; Burkhardt, ‘Kontors and outposts’.

40 HR, 3:3, no. 26; HR, 3:3, no. 45.

41 HR, 1:2, no. 232, section 24; HR, 2:2, no. 614 (1442).

42 APG 300 D 27/47, fo. 8–10.

43 HR, 3:6, no. 9; HR, 3:6, no. 69; HR, 3:6, no. 193; HR, 3:7, no. 108. sections 275–6, 293–321; HR, 3:7, no. 126.

44 APG 300.27/21, fo. 18.

45 HR, 3:2, no. 49 (1486).

46 HR, 3:1, nos. 326, 338, 381, 382, 390, 436, 520; HR, 3:2, 166.

47 HR, 3:2, no. 160, section 230.

48 HR, 3:1, no. 436; HR, 3:2, no. 160, section 230.

49 Jörn, Nils, ‘With money and bloode’: Der Londoner Stalhof im Spannungsfeld der englisch-hansischen Beziehungen im 15. und 16. Jahrhundert (Cologne, 2000); Jenks, Stuart, England, die Hanse und Preußen: Handel und Diplomatie, 1377–1474 (Cologne, 1992).

50 Greif, Institutions, 105–9.

51 HR, 3:6, no. 723, section 39; HR, 3:8, no. 852; HR, 3:9, no. 291; HR, 3:9, no. 323; HR, 3:9, no. 369; HR, 3:9, no. 376; HR, 3:9, no. 394.

52 See, for example, the contributions in these recent volumes: Häberlein, Mark and Jeggle, Christof eds., Materielle Grundlagen der Diplomatie: Schenken, Sammeln und Verhandeln in Spätmittelalter und Früher Neuzeit (Constance, 2013); Auge, Oliver et al. eds., Bereit zum Konflikt: Strategien und Medien der Konflikterzeugeung und Konfliktbewältigung im europäischen Mittelalter (Ostfildern, 2008); Naegle, G. ed., Faire la paix et se défendre à la fin du Moyen Âge (Munich, 2012); Althoff, Gerd, Spielregeln der Politik im Mittelalter: kommunikation in Frieden und Fehden (Darmstadt, 1997).

53 HR, 2:3, no. 649, section 13; APG 300.43/2b, fo. 329v.

54 ‘Urfehde’, in Lexikon des Mittelalters, 9 vols. (Munich, 1977–1999), viii, 1294; on the interplay in general, see Moraw, P., ‘Hansestädte, König und Reich im späteren Mittelalter’, in Hammel-Kiesow, R. ed., Vergleichende Ansätze in der hansischen Geschichtsforschung, Hansische Studien, 13 (Trier, 2002), 5376 ; Jörn, ‘Die Hanse vor den obersten Reichsgerichten’; Oestmann, Peter, Rechtsvielfalt vor Gericht: Rechtsanwendung und Partikularrecht im Alten Reich (Frankfurt am Main, 2002).

55 APG 300.59/7, fo. 41 (1461) in a case involving traders from various Hanseatic towns; 300.58/8, fo. 246v (1529) in the case of a riotous skipper from Rostock.

56 HR, 2:6, no. 184, section 2; HR, 2:6, 309; HR, 2:6, no. 356; HR, 3:7, no. 108, sections 275–6; HR, 3:7, no. 115.

57 HR, 3:7, no. 27; HR, 3:7, no. 39, section 136; HR, 3:7, no. 46; HR, 3:7, no. 195; HR, 3:7, no. 197, section 5; HR, 3:7, no. 198; HR, 3:7, 213–15; HR, 3:9, no. 131.

58 HR, 3:9, no. 131, sections 11 e–11 q and 19, 22, 23.

59 HR, 3:1, nos. 326, 390, 520; HR, 4:2, no. 130; APG 300 D 27/47, fos. 10–11.

60 APG 300 D 20/401; APG 300 D 20/409.

61 HR, 3:6, no. 179.

62 Gelderblom, Cities, 149, 177, 183. The dukes of Mecklenburg also used such reprisals towards merchants, see Wubs-Mrozewicz, ‘Mercantile conflict resolution and the role of the language of trust’.

63 HR, 3:6, no. 69; HR, 3:6, no. 92, sections 7–9; HR, 3:6, no. 102; HR, 3:6, no. 191 and 192; APG 300.27/6 fos. 168–168v.

64 HR, 3:3, nos. 47, 48.

65 HR, 4:2, no. 86, section 524; HR, 4:2, no. 141.

66 HR, 2:6, no. 90.

67 APG 300.27/9, fos. 88v–89.

68 HR, 3:6, no. 188, section 94; HR, 3:6, no. 348; HR, 3:8, 593; HR, 3:8, no. 708; APG 300.27/11, fo. 147.

69 APG 300 D 31/876 (1544).

70 HR, 2:5, no. 227; HR, 2:5, 272–400; HR, 2:5, no. 549; HR, 2:5, no. 590.

71 APG 300.27/14, fo. 50v; APG 300.53/936; APG 300.59/9, fo. 214; APG 300 D 31/865; APG 300.27/13, fo. 375.

72 This is the main thesis of the study by Seifert, Dieter, Kompagnons und Konkurrenten: Holland und die Hanse im späten Mittelalter (Cologne, 1997). See the extensive literature and source discussion here.

73 HR, 3:4, nos. 483–8 (1504); HR, 3:9, no. 555 (1529); HR, 4:2, no. 120 (1535); NAU, 1, 378, n. 2 (1542).

74 NAU, 1, no. 479; Rudolf Häpke, Die Regierung Karls V. und der europäische Norden (Lübeck, 1914), 211–33; Christensen, Aksel, Dutch trade to the Baltic about 1600: studies in the Sound toll register and Dutch shipping records (Copenhagen, 1941), 43; Blockmans, W., ‘Der holländische Durchbruch in der Ostsee’, in Jenks, S. and North, M. eds., Der hansische Sonderweg? Beiträge zur Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte der Hanse (Köln: 1993), 4958 ; Tielhof, Milja van, De Hollandse graanhandel, 1470–1570: Koren op de Amsterdamse molen (The Hague, 1995), 118–20; Sicking, Louis, Neptune and the Netherlands: state, economy and war at sea in the Renaissance (Leiden, 2004), 239.

75 HR, 3:6, no. 239; APG 300.27/6, fo. 171; APG 300.27/20, fos. 327–8; APG 300 D 31/ 878 (1545); APG 300 D 31/882 (1545); APG 300 D 31/930.

76 APG 300 D 31/940.

77 For instance in the case of an arrested Antwerp burgher, see APG 300.53/794, fo. 193 (1542).

78 Wubs-Mrozewicz, Justyna, ‘Kopieergedrag: de vormen en functies van afschriften in het laatmiddeleeuwse politieke briefverkeer van de Hanzesteden’, Tijdschrift voor Geschiedenis 127, 4 (2014), 603–24.

79 Wernicke, H., ‘Hansetag, Recht und städtischer Alltag’, in Urbanski, S., Lamschus, C. and Ellermeyer, J. eds., Recht und Alltag im Hanseraum: Festschrift für Gerhard Teuerkauf (Lüneburg, 1993), 429–38; Albrecht Cordes, ‘Hansisches Recht: Begriff und Probleme’, in Cordes ed., Hansisches, 205–13; Friedrich Ebel, Magdeburger Recht, in Fijal, A. and Leuchte, H.-J. eds., Unseren fruntlichen grus zuvor: Deutsches Recht im Mittelalter im mittel- und osteuropäischen Raum (Cologne, 2004), 217–36; Ziekow, Jan, Recht und Rechtsgang: Studien zu den Problemen mittelalterlichen Rechts anhand von Magdeburger Schöppensprüchen des 15. Jahrhunderts (Pfaffenweiler, 1986); Ebel, Wilhelm, Lübisches Recht (Göttingen, 1971); Pitz, Ernst, Bürgereinung und Städteeinung: Studie zur Verfassungsgeschichte der Hansestädte und der deutschen Hanse (Weimar, 2001); Rudorff, H., Zur Rechtsstellung der Gäste im mittelalterlichen städtischen Prozess vorzugsweise nach norddeutschen Quellen (Breslau, 1907).

80 HR, 3:4, no. 151, in respect to the Parlement de Paris; APG 300.53/794, fo. 116; Jörn, Nils, ‘Die Herausbildung der Kontorordnungen in Novgorod, Bergen, London und Brügge im Vergleich – 12.-17. Jahrhundert’, in Ruhe, Doris and Spiess, Karl-Heinz eds., Prozesse der Normbildung und Normveränderung im mittelalterlichen Europa (Stuttgart, 2000), 217–35.

81 HR, 4:2, no. 86, section 250; APG 300 D/444; Wubs-Mrozewicz, ‘Mercantile conflict resolution and the role of the language of trust’.

82 APG 300 D 21/168 and 171.

83 APG 300 D 27/47, fos. 8–10.

84 See, for example, APG 300 D 20/258; APG 300 D 20/259; APG 300 D 20/280; APG 300 D 20/284; APG 300 D 20/314; APG 300 D 20/342a; APG 300 D 20/343; APG 300 D 24F/135–136, APG 300 D 82/44; APG 300.1/5, fos. 216–17; APG 300.43/2b, fo. 107v.

85 Wubs-Mrozewicz, ‘Mercantile conflict resolution and the role of the language of trust’.

86 Poeck, Dietrich W., Die Herren der Hanse: Delegierte und Netzwerke (Frankfurt am Main, 2010); Schipmann, Johannes Ludwig, Politische Kommunikation in der Hanse (1550–1621): Hansetage und westfälische Städte (Cologne, 2004), 233–97; Nils Jörn, ‘Die Hanse vor den obersten Reichsgerichten in Spätmittelalter und Früher Neuzeit’, in Cordes ed., Hansisches, 69–90.

87 APG 300 D 27/47, fo. 16; APG 300 D 31/876.

88 The lists of participants in Hanse meetings was included in all the minutes of the Hanse diets; see HR.

89 Wubs-Mrozewicz, ‘Mercantile conflict resolution and the role of the language of trust’.

90 Jenks, ‘Capturing’.

91 Wubs-Mrozewicz, ‘Kopieergedrag’.

92 APG 300.27/17, fos. 39v, 168–9v.

93 I have systematically analysed the Danzig cases; their range was clearly broad.

94 Cordes, Albrecht, Spätmittelalterlicher Gesellschaftshandel im Hanseraum (Cologne, 2008), 249ff; Hammel-Kiesow, R., ‘Schriftlichkeit und Handelsgesellschaften niederdeutsch-hansischer und oberdeutscher Kaufleute im späten 13. und im 14. Jahrhundert’, in Heckmann, M.-L. and Röhrkasten, J. eds., Von Nowgorod bis London: Studien zu Handel, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft im mittelalterlichen Europa (Göttingen, 2008), 213–41.

95 APG 300.59/10, fos. 142–3, 429–31; APG 300.59/11, fo. 71v.

96 For instance in the Schöffenbücher, there are several entries starting with ‘Bekant dat…’ and ‘Thoweten…’, that is, indicating an announcement that an authorisation was agreed upon or a debt was settled, see 300.43; See also APG 300.27/19; APG 300.43/13, fo. 121v; APG 300 D 31/892; APG 300 D 31/932; APG 300 1/8, fos. 138–9.

97 Cordes, Gesellschaftshandel, 321–6.

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