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Extraction and evaluation of transportation network grammars for efficient planning applications

  • B. J. Vitins (a1) and K. W. Axhausen (a1)

Grammars, with their generic approach and broad application potential in many planning fields, are accepted as adaptable and efficient tools for design and planning applications, bridging design rules and technical planning requirements. This paper provides a formal introduction of grammars for effective consolidation and application, including a rule-based notation and required specification information. Two proposed grammar evaluation methods – based on technical planning knowledge and using recent computational development – foster understanding of a grammar’s effects, often missing in other definitions. Knowledge gained enables efficient grammar rule application, e.g. in burgeoning planning software. This research focuses particularly on urban network design and road intersection grammars to validate proposed grammar evaluation methods. Results are specified in the proposed grammar notation with corresponding application specifications. Results generally show that network topology and intersection type choice both depend on transport mode characteristics and flow. Specifically, medium-dense gridiron networks are car-efficient in terms of travel costs and reliability at urban densities, when combined with high road and intersection capacities. Pedestrian networks ideally have higher intersection and road densities with lower capacities than car networks. Highly meshed networks improve overall travel cost efficiencies for all transport modes at various flow levels.

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