Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Improving design grammar development and application through network-based analysis of transition graphs

  • Corinna Königseder (a1), Tino Stanković (a1) and Kristina Shea (a1)
Abstract

Design grammars enable the formal representation of a vocabulary and rules that describe how designs can be synthesized just as the grammar rules of a spoken language define how to formulate valid, i.e., grammatically correct, sentences. Design grammars have been successfully applied in numerous engineering disciplines and enable the automated synthesis of designs within a defined design language. Design grammar development, however, is challenging and lacks methodological support. In this paper, a novel method is presented that supports the development and application of design grammars using transition graphs. In these, nodes represent generated designs and edges represent grammar rules that transform one design into another. Rather than using a tree structure to represent the possible application of rules, transition graphs are automatically generated and used to help designers better understand the developed grammar. The grammar designer is given feedback on (a) the rules, and (b) rule application sequences. This feedback can be used to (a) improve the grammar, and (b) apply it more efficiently. Two case studies, a gearbox synthesis task and a sliding tile puzzle, demonstrate the method. The results show the feasibility of the method to support design grammar development and application.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Improving design grammar development and application through network-based analysis of transition graphs
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Improving design grammar development and application through network-based analysis of transition graphs
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Improving design grammar development and application through network-based analysis of transition graphs
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Distributed as Open Access under a CC-BY-NC-SA 4.0 license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)
Corresponding author
Email address for correspondence: ck@ethz.ch
Footnotes
Hide All

A shorter version of this manuscript has been published as ‘Königseder, C., Stanković, T., and Shea, K., 2015. ‘Improving Generative Grammar Development and Application Through Network Analysis Techniques’, International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED), Milano, Italy.’

Footnotes
References
Hide All
Aho, A. V., Lam, M. S., Sethi, R. & Ullman, J. D. 2006 Compilers: Principles, Techniques, and Tools. Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing Co., Inc.
Barbati, M., Bruno, G. & Genovese, A. 2012 Applications of agent-based models for optimization problems: a literature review. Expert Systems with Applications 39, 60206028.
Brown, K. N. 1997 Grammatical design. IEEE Expert/Intelligent Systems and Their Applications 12 (2), 2733.
Cagan, J. 2001 Engineering shape grammars. In Formal Engineering Design Synthesis (ed. Antonsson, E. K. & Cagan, J.). Cambridge University Press.
Cagan, J., Campbell, M. I., Finger, S. & Tomiyama, T. 2005 A framework for computational design synthesis: model and applications. Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering 5, 171181.
Cash, P., Stanković, T. & Štorga, M. 2014 Using visual information analysis to explore complex patterns in the activity of designers. Design Studies 35, 128.
Chakrabarti, A., Shea, K., Stone, R., Cagan, J., Campbell, M., Hernandez, N. V. & Wood, K. L. 2011 Computer-based design synthesis research: an overview. Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering 11, 021003,1–10.
Chomsky, N. 1957 Syntactic Structures. Mouton de Gruyter.
Fu, Z., Depennington, A. & Saia, A. 1993 A graph grammar approach to feature representation and transformation. International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing 6, 137151.
Geiß, R., Batz, G., Grund, D., Hack, S. & Szalkowski, A. 2006 GrGen: a fast spo-based graph rewriting tool. In Graph Transformations (ed. Corradini, A., Ehrig, H., Montanari, U., Ribeiro, L. & Rozenberg, G.). Springer.
Gips, J.1999. Computer implementation of shape grammars, NFS/MIT Workshop on Shape Computation.
Gmeiner, T. & Shea, K. 2013 A spatial grammar for the computational design synthesis of vise jaws. In International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference (ASME IDETC), Portland, OR, USA.
Helms, B., Eben, K., Shea, K. & Lindemann, U. 2009 Graph grammars – a formal method for dynamic structure transformation. In 11th International DSM Conference, Greenville, SC, USA.
Hoisl, F. & Shea, K. 2013 Three-dimensional labels: a unified approach to labels for a general spatial grammar interpreter. Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing 27, 359375.
Hoisl, F. R.2012. Visual, interactive 3D spatial grammars in CAD for computational design synthesis. Dissertation, Technische Universität München.
Johnson, W. W. & Story, W. E. 1879 Notes on the ‘15’ puzzle. American Journal of Mathematics 2, 397404.
Kim, H. M., Michelena, N. F., Papalambros, P. Y. & Jiang, T. 2003 Target cascading in optimal system design. Journal of Mechanical Design 125, 474480.
Königseder, C. & Shea, K. 2015 Comparing strategies for topologic and parametric rule application in automated computational design synthesis. Journal of Mechanical Design 138 (1), 011102-011101–011102-011112; doi:10.1115/1.4031714.
Kroll, M., Beck, M., Geiß, R., Hack, S. & Leiß, P.yComp [Online]. Available: http://www.info.uni-karlsruhe.de/software.php/id=6 (Accessed July 17, 2015).
Kumar, M., Campbell, M. I., Königseder, C. & Shea, K. 2012 Rule based stochastic tree search. In Design Computing and Cognition ’12 (ed. Gero, J. S.). Springer.
Li, X. & Schmidt, L. 2004 Grammar-based designer assistance tool for epicyclic gear trains. Journal of Mechanical Design 126, 895902.
Lin, Y. S., Shea, K., Johnson, A., Coultate, J. & Pears, J. 2010 A method and software tool for automated gearbox synthesis. In International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference (ASME IDETC), San Diego, CA, USA.
McKay, A., Chase, S., Shea, K. & Chau, H. H. 2012a Spatial grammar implementation: from theory to useable software. Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing 26, 143159.
McKay, A., Chase, S., Shea, K. & Chau, H. H. 2012b Spatial grammar implementation: from theory to useable software. Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing 26, 143159.
Mullins, S. & Rinderle, J. 1991 Grammatical approaches to engineering design, part I: an introduction and commentary. Research in Engineering Design 2, 121135.
Pahl, G. & Beitz, W. 1984 Engineering Design. Springer.
Pólya, G. 1957 How to Solve it a New Aspect of Mathematical Method. Doubleday.
Pomrehn, L. P. & Papalambros, P. Y. 1995 Discrete optimal design formulations with-application to gear train design. Journal of Mechanical Design 117, 419424.
Rinderle, J. 1991 Grammatical approaches to engineering design, part II: melding configuration and parametric design using attribute grammars. Research in Engineering Design 2, 137146.
Schmidt, L. C. & Cagan, J. 1997 GGREADA: a graph grammar-based machine design algorithm. Research in Engineering Design 9, 195213.
Schmidt, L. C., Shetty, H. & Chase, S. C. 2000 A graph grammar approach for structure synthesis of mechanisms. Journal of Mechanical Design 122, 371376.
Slocum, J. & Sonneveld, D. 2006 The 15 Puzzle: How It Drove the World Crazy. The Puzzle that Started the Craze of 1880. How America’s Greatest Puzzle Designer, Sam Loyd, Fooled Everyone for 115 Years. Slocum Puzzle Foundation.
Starling, A. C.2004. Performance-based computational synthesis of parametric mechanical systems. Dissertation, University of Cambridge.
Starling, A. C. & Shea, K. 2005 A parallel grammar for simulation-driven mechanical design synthesis. In International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference (ASME IDETC), Long Beach, CA, USA.
Stiny, G. 1977 Ice-ray: a note on the generation of Chinese lattice designs. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 4, 8998.
Stiny, G. & Gips, J. 1972 Shape grammars and the generative specification of painting and sculpture. In Proceedings of IFIP Congress 1971, 1972. North Holland Publishing Co.
Stiny, G. & Mitchell, W. J. 1978 The Palladian grammar. Environment and Planning B 5, 518.
Swantner, A. & Campbell, M. I. 2012 Topological and parametric optimization of gear trains. Engineering Optimization 44, 13511368.
Vale, C. A. W. & Shea, K. 2003 A machine learning-based approach to accelerating computational design synthesis. In International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED), Stockholm, Sweden.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Design Science
  • ISSN: -
  • EISSN: 2053-4701
  • URL: /core/journals/design-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed